|John Liu Fugh|
Major General John Liu Fugh
33rd Judge Advocate General of the United States Army
September 12, 1934|
Beijing, Republic of China
|Died||May 11, 2010
Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.
|Resting Place||Arlington National Cemetery
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1961–1993|
|Commands held||U.S. Army J.A.G. Corps|
|Awards|| Distinguished Service Medal
Def. Superior Service Medal
Legion of Merit
Major General John Liu Fugh[needs IPA] (Chinese: 傅履仁; pinyin: Fù Lǚrén; September 12, 1934 – May 11, 2010) was the first Chinese American to attain general officer status in the U.S. Army. He was the Judge Advocate General of the U.S. Army.
Fugh was born in Beijing. He was the son of Philip Fugh (Chinese: 傅涇波; pinyin: Fu Jīngbō), who was a Manchu noble from the Fuca clan, long time senior staff to John Leighton Stuart, the President of Yenching University and Ambassador of U.S. to China. John Fugh moved to the United States with his family in 1950, when he was 15 years old.
Fugh attended the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, graduating with a Bachelor of Science degree in international relations. In 1957, Fugh became a United States citizen and entered George Washington University Law School, from which he later graduated with a Juris Doctor degree.
Fugh became a member of the District of Columbia Bar on November 21, 1960. Fugh also attended the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and was a graduate of the Command and General Staff College and the U.S. Army War College.
In 1961, Fugh was commissioned into the US Army Judge Advocate General's Corps. He was stationed in San Francisco, Vietnam, and Europe, and was part of the Military Assistance Advisory Group for China in Taipei, Republic of China (Taiwan) from 1969 to 1972. From 1973 to 1976, Fugh served as the legal advisor to the Ballistic Missile Defense Office. From 1976 to 1978, Fugh held the position of Staff Judge Advocate for the Third Armored Division in Frankfurt, Germany. From 1979 to 1982, Fugh was the legal advisor to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Manpower and Reserve Affairs). From 1982 to 1984, Fugh served as the Chief of Army Litigation.
In 1984, Fugh was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General, and became the Assistant Judge Advocate General for Civil Law. In this position, he created the Army's first environmental law division and the procurement fraud division.
Fugh was then promoted to The Judge Advocate General (TJAG), a position he held from July 26, 1991 to September 30, 1993. As TJAG, Fugh was legal advisor to the Army Chief of Staff for the Persian Gulf War.
During his time as The Judge Advocate General, Fugh established a human rights training program for developing countries and published the War Crimes Report, the first American effort since World War II to systematically document enemy war crimes. Fugh formed the Desert Storm Assessment Team to study Judge Advocate General Corps doctrine and combat roles.
After retiring from the Army, Fugh joined the Richmond, Virginia-headquartered law firm of McGuire, Woods, Battle and Boothe as a partner in its Washington, D. C. office. In 1995, Fugh joined McDonnell Douglas-China as President, responsible for strategic direction of business in China. Following the merger of McDonnell Douglas with Boeing, Fugh served as Executive Vice President of Boeing China, Inc. In 1997, Fugh joined Enron International China as Chairman, developing relations with the Chinese government.
Retirement and death
Fugh retired from Enron in 2001 and was then active in Sino-American relations, co-chairing and later chairing the Committee of 100, a non-partisan membership organization of over 150 prominent Chinese Americans, including I.M. Pei and Yo Yo Ma. Its dual mission is to encourage a constructive relationship between the U.S. and Greater China, as well as to strengthen Chinese American participation in American life. Fugh was also a member of the Executive Committee of the Atlantic Council of the United States, as well as a board member of the National Chinese American Memorial Foundation, and a member of the Asia Society's Washington Center Advisory Committee, until his death on May 11, 2010, at the age of 75 due to heart attack.
Fugh was married and is survived by his wife June Chung (Chinese: 宗毓珍; pinyin: Zōng Yùzhēn), Connie Chung's elder sister. They and their two children, Justina and Jarrett, lived together in Virginia until Fugh's death.
Awards and decorations
In 2004, Fugh was awarded the Chinese American Pioneer Award by the Organization of Chinese Americans for: "Illustrious accomplishments in his field, and contribution to the Chinese-American community." In 2008, Fugh was recognized as an Outstanding American by Choice at a White House ceremony by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. In 2008 Fugh received the Trailblazer Award from the National Asian Pacific American Bar Association (NAPABA).
- Army Distinguished Service Medal
- Defense Superior Service Medal
- Legion of Merit with oak leaf cluster
- Bronze Star Medal
- Air Medal
- Meritorious Service Medal with oak leaf cluster
- Joint Service Commendation Medal
- Army Commendation Ribbon with oak leaf cluster
- Zheng, Yunzhang (March 29, 2006). "美陆军首位华裔将军傅履仁将接掌美国百人会 (US Army's First Chinese General John Fu To Lead Committee of 100)" (in Chinese). Zhongguo Xinwenwang. Retrieved October 29, 2007.
- Washington Post
- China Central Television (2005). "General John Fugh: Overcoming racial boundaries". China Central Television. Retrieved October 28, 2007.
- Neil A. Lewis, Thom Shanker (January 4, 2004). "As Chaplain's Spy Case Nears, Some Ask Why It Went So Far". The New York Times. Retrieved October 28, 2007.
- Partners in Healthcare. "John L. Fugh". Partners in Healthcare. Archived from the original on August 22, 2006. Retrieved October 28, 2007.
- Japanese American Veterans Association. "Asian Pacific American Generals and Admirals". Japanese American Veterans Association. Retrieved October 28, 2007.
- Philip West, Yenching University and Sino-Western Relations, 1916–1952 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976), pp. 111–12.
- Human Rights First (2004). "Biographical Information of Retired Generals and Admirals". Human Rights First. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved October 29, 2007.
- St. Louis Chinese American News. "Accomplished Chinese American: John Liu Fugh". Archive. St. Louis Chinese American News. Retrieved October 28, 2007.
- The District of Columbia Bar (2007). "Find a Member". The District of Columbia Bar. Retrieved October 28, 2007.
- Meghan Wons (2006). "Dean Woo dines with Bush, Chinese president". The Observer. UK. Retrieved October 29, 2007.
- Committee of 100 (2005). "Committee of 100 – Background". Committee of 100. Retrieved October 29, 2007.
- St. Louis Chinese American News (2004). "Committee of 100 Salutes General John L. Fugh". St. Louis Chinese American News. Retrieved October 29, 2007.
- Organization of Chinese Americans, Inc. (2004). "Organization of Chinese Americans, Message from the President" (PDF). Organization of Chinese Americans, Inc. Retrieved October 28, 2007.
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