John H. Church

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
John Huston Church
Walker Church Collins.jpg
Church (center in leather jacket) with General Walton Walker and General J. Lawton Collins in Korea.
Born June 28, 1892
Glen Iron, Pennsylvania, United States
Died November 3, 1952 (aged 60)
Washington, D.C., United States
Buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia, United States
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch  United States Army
Years of service 1917–1952
Rank US-O8 insignia.svg Major General
Unit USA - Army Infantry Insignia.png Infantry Branch
Commands held 157th Infantry Regiment
5th Infantry Division
24th Infantry Division
United States Army Infantry School
Battles/wars World War I
World War II
Korean War
Awards Distinguished Service Cross
Army Distinguished Service Medal
Silver Star

Major General John Huston Church (June 28, 1892 – November 3, 1953) was a senior officer in the United States Army. He fought in World War I, World War II and in the Korean War. During the latter conflict, he provided assistance to the South Korean Army in the opening days of the war. He later commanded the 24th Infantry Division while it was engaged in the Battle of the Pusan Perimeter.

Early life[edit]

John Huston Church was born in the town of Glen Iron, Pennsylvania, on June 28, 1892. From 1915 until 1917, he was a student at New York University. Due to the American entry into World War I, Church joined the United States Army and was commissioned rank as a second lieutenant.

Military career[edit]

Church served on the Western Front with the 28th Infantry Regiment, part of the 1st Division of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF). He was wounded twice, earning a Distinguished Service Cross for heroism in action at the Battle of Cantigny.[1] At the end of the war, Church decided to continue with his service in the army. He instructed National Guard members in both Maryland and Arizona, and also served in the Philippines from 1933 to 1936.[2]

World War II[edit]

When the United States entered World War II in December 1941, Church became the assistant chief of staff for operations, and then chief of staff, of the 45th Infantry Division. He served with the division from 1943 to 1944 during which time it was involved in the Allied invasion of Sicily, numerous battles in the Italian Campaign, and Operation Dragoon, the Allied invasion of southern France.[3] He commanded the 157th Infantry Regiment, and in September 1944, was promoted to the one-star general officer rank of brigadier general as assistant division commander (ADC) of the 84th Infantry Division.[2] Church was wounded again as his division took part in the advance from the Netherlands to the Elbe River towards the end of the war.[3]

Postwar[edit]

A year after the war ended, Church became the commander of the Infantry Replacement Training Center at Fort McClellan, Alabama. He was given the same post at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, where he later took command of the 5th Infantry Division. From 1948 until 1949 Church served as the deputy chief of Army Field Forces at Fort Monroe, Virginia. In 1950, he was serving in General Douglas MacArthur's headquarters in Tokyo, Japan.[citation needed]

Korean War[edit]

When the communist North Korean Army invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950, MacArthur sent Church to lead a survey team of staff officers to work with Ambassador Muccio and the Korean Military Advisory Group (KMAG) and assess what assistance could be provided to the South Korean Army. This task resulted in the establishment of GHQ Advance Command and Liaison Group (ADCOM) at Suwon.[4] Arriving in Korea on June 27, in his role as commander of ADCOM, Church worked with the Chief of Staff of the South Korean Army, General Chae Byung-dok, to improve the South Korean defensive arrangements. Despite his efforts, Seoul was captured by the North Koreans on 28 June and Church recommended the deployment of at least two combat teams of U.S. personnel to help stabilise the situation. This prompted MacArthur to undertake his own survey in Korea the following day and after a further report from Church, he committed U.S. forces to Korea, having received permission from President Harry Truman to do so.[5]

Accordingly, the 24th Infantry Division, which was stationed in Japan as part of the U.S. Eighth Army, was the first army unit sent over from Japan under the command of Major General William F. Dean. A reinforced company of the division, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Brad Smith, was sent north from Pusan to try to halt the North Koreans. Meeting with Smith at Taejon, Church informed him "All we need is some men up there who won't run when they see tanks",[6] and instructed Smith to make his stand at Osan.[7] Task Force Smith was without tank support and had faulty communications, and was promptly overrun in its first engagement with the North Koreans. Dean gathered his troops in the city of Taejon and formed a strong defense. After a stubborn fight, the American troops retreated. Dean got separated from his troops and was captured. On July 22, Church, without a command following the dissolution of ADCOM, was given command of the division.[8]

His new command was given a two-day period to rest, but then Lieutenant General Walton Walker, the commander of the U.S. Eighth Army, decided that he needed the 24th to guard the Southwest line (the Naktong Bulge) of the Pusan Perimeter. During the subsequent battle, the North Korean 6th Division inflicted more losses on Church's men and gradually pushed the 24th back. Finally, Church by now promoted to major general, was able to regroup his men, and they held the perimeter, especially with the help of a brigade of marines.[citation needed]

Frail and suffering from arthritis,[3] Church remained in command of the 24th until early 1951. Lieutenant General Matthew Ridgway, commander of the U.S. Eighth Army following the death of Walker in December 1950, replaced Church with Brigadier General Blackshear M. Bryan.[9] Church was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal for his services.[10]

Church subsequently was appointed commandant of the U.S. Army Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia[11] and served in that capacity until his retirement from the military in June 1952. He died on 3 November 1953 in Washington, D.C. and he is buried in Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia.[12]

Medals and decorations[edit]

Combat Infantry Badge.svg Combat Infantryman Badge
Distinguished Service Cross
Army Distinguished Service Medal
Silver Star
Legion of Merit
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oak leaf cluster
Purple Heart with two Oak Leaf Clusters
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
World War I Victory Medal with 3 battle clasps
Army of Occupation of Germany Medal
American Defense Service Medal
American Campaign Medal
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with 4 service stars
World War II Victory Medal
Army of Occupation Medal
National Defense Service Medal
Bronze star
Bronze star
Korean Service Medal with 2 service stars
United Nations Korea Medal

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "John H. Church – Awards and citations". Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "US Army Officers 1939–1945". Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c Blair 1987, p. 73
  4. ^ Weintraub 2001, pp. 45–51
  5. ^ Matray 1991, pp. 103–104
  6. ^ Weintraub 2001, p. 63
  7. ^ Halberstam 2007, p. 145
  8. ^ Blair 1987, pp. 141–142
  9. ^ Gay, Larry. "24th Infantry Division Commanding Generals" (PDF). The Taro Leaf: Official Publication of the 24th Infantry Division Association. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  10. ^ "John H. Church – Awards and citations". Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  11. ^ "New Command Team in Korea". Time. 5 March 1951. Retrieved 15 August 2011. 
  12. ^ Jacobs, Russ. "www.findagrave.com". Retrieved 14 August 2011. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]


Military offices
Preceded by
Newly activated post
Commander, 5th Infantry Division
July 1947 – October 1947
Succeeded by
William B. Kean
Preceded by
William F. Dean
Commander, 24th Infantry Division
1950–1951
Succeeded by
Blackshear M. Bryan
Preceded by
Withers A. Burress
Commandant of the United States Army Infantry School
1951–1952
Succeeded by
Robert Nicholas Young