John Henninger Reagan
John H. Reagan
|United States Senator|
March 4, 1887 – June 10, 1891
|Preceded by||Samuel Maxey|
|Succeeded by||Horace Chilton|
|Confederate States Secretary of the Treasury|
April 27, 1865 – May 10, 1865
|Preceded by||George Trenholm|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|Confederate States Postmaster General|
March 6, 1861 – May 10, 1865
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|Member of the|
U.S. House of Representatives
March 4, 1883 – March 3, 1887
|Preceded by||David Culberson|
|Succeeded by||William Martin|
March 4, 1875 – March 3, 1883
|Preceded by||William Herndon|
|Succeeded by||Charles Stewart|
March 4, 1857 – March 3, 1861
|Preceded by||Lemuel Evans|
|Succeeded by||George Whitmore|
|Member of the Texas House of Representatives|
|Born||October 8, 1818|
Sevier County, Tennessee, U.S.
|Died||March 6, 1905 (aged 86)|
Palestine, Texas, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Edwina Moss Nelms|
John Henninger Reagan (October 8, 1818 – March 6, 1905) was an American politician from Texas. A Democrat, Reagan resigned from the U.S. House of Representatives when Texas seceded from the Union and joined the Confederate States of America. He served in the cabinet of Jefferson Davis as Postmaster General.
After the Confederate defeat and his release from prison after the war, Reagan called for cooperation by the South with the federal government, an unpopular position among most conservative whites. He was elected to Congress in 1874, after his predictions of harsh treatment for resistance to the Reconstruction era were proved correct. He was elected in 1886 by the state legislature as a Democrat from Texas to the US Senate, where he served one term from 1887 to 1891. He resigned from the seat when appointed by the governor as chairman of the Texas Railroad Commission. He was among the founders of the Texas State Historical Association.
John Henninger Reagan was born in 1818 in Gatlinburg, Tennessee, to Timothy Richard and Elizabeth (Lusk) Reagan. His parents were primarily of Irish and English/Scots border descent; his middle name was for German ancestors.
He left Tennessee at age nineteen and traveled to Texas, which had become independent from Mexico the year before in 1836. Reagan worked as a surveyor from 1839 to 1843. He bought property and farmed in Kaufman County until 1851. During the time he worked as a surveyor, he also served as a private tutor to the children of John Marie Durst.
Reagan read the law, serving as an apprentice in an established firm, and was given a license to practice in 1846. He opened an office in Buffalo and the same year was elected a probate judge in Henderson County. In 1847 he was elected to the Texas House of Representatives, but was defeated for a second term in 1849. He was admitted to the bar in 1848 and practiced in both Buffalo and Palestine, Texas.
Reagan was elected as a district judge in Palestine, serving from 1852 to 1857. His efforts to defeat the American Party (Know-Nothings) resulted in his election to Congress as a Democrat in 1857 from Texas's 1st congressional district.
Reagan was a staunch supporter of slavery. He believed abolition would cause such social problems as to require Southern whites "exterminate the greater portion of the [black] race." He also believed in the federal protections of slavery under the U.S. Constitution as extensions of private property rights, therefore he supported the Union. But when it became clear that Texas would secede, Reagan resigned from Congress on January 15, 1861 and returned home to the state to defend it.
He participated in the secession convention that met at Austin on January 31, 1861. Chosen as a member of the Provisional Confederate Congress, within a month Reagan was appointed by President Jefferson Davis to his cabinet as Postmaster General.
Reagan was an able administrator, presiding over the only cabinet department that was described as functioning well during the war. Despite the hostilities, the United States Post Office Department continued operations in the Confederacy until June 1, 1861, when the Confederate service took over its functions.
Reagan sent an agent to Washington, D.C., with letters asking the heads of the United States Post Office Department's various bureaus to come work for him. Nearly all did so, and brought copies of their records, contracts, account books, etc. "Reagan in effect had stolen the U.S. Post Office," historian William C. Davis later wrote. When President Davis asked his cabinet for the status of their departments, Reagan reported he had his up and running in six weeks. Davis was amazed.
Reagan cut expenses by eliminating costly and little-used routes and forcing railroads that carried the mail to reduce their rates. Despite the problems the war caused, his department managed to turn a profit, "the only post office department in American history to pay its own way," wrote William C. Davis. Reagan was the only member of the cabinet to oppose Robert E. Lee's offensive into Pennsylvania in June–July 1863. He instead supported a proposal to detach the First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia to reinforce Joseph E. Johnston in Mississippi, in order to break the Siege of Vicksburg. Historian Shelby Foote noted that, as the only Cabinet member from west of the Mississippi, Reagan was acutely aware of the critical consequences of Vicksburg's capture and control of the river by Union forces.
When Davis abandoned Richmond on April 2, 1865, shortly before the entry of Army of the Potomac under George G. Meade, Reagan accompanied the president on his flight to the Carolinas. On April 27, Davis made him Secretary of the Treasury after George A. Trenholm's resignation. Reagan served in that capacity until he, Davis, and Texas Governor Francis R. Lubbock were captured near Irwinville, Georgia on May 10.
Reagan was imprisoned with Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens at Fort Warren in Boston. He was held in solitary confinement for twenty-two weeks. On August 11, he wrote an open letter to his fellow Texans urging cooperation with the Union, renunciation of the secession convention, the abolition of slavery, and letting freed slaves vote. He warned that if Texans did not voluntarily adopt these measures, the federal government would likely impose military rule to enforce these policies. Abolition was underway and he knew that there was support for granting the vote to freedmen. He was denounced by Texans. After being released from prison later that year, he returned to his home in Palestine in December.
Return to public life
To those who felt that the Reconstruction was unduly harsh, Reagan's prescience was hailed—he became known as the "Old Roman," a Texas Cincinnatus. He was part of the successful effort to remove Republican Edmund J. Davis from the governorship in 1874, after Davis attempted to remain in office illegally after losing the election.
That year Reagan was elected to the Congressional seat he held before the war, and he served from March 4, 1875, to March 3, 1887. In 1875, he was a delegate to the convention that wrote a new state constitution for Texas. In Congress, he advocated federal regulation of railroads and helped create the Interstate Commerce Commission. He also served as the first chairman of the Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads.
Elected by the Texas State Legislature to the US Senate in 1887 (serving March 4, 1887 to June 10, 1891), Reagan resigned to become chairman of the Railroad Commission of Texas at the behest of his friend, Governor James Stephen "Jim" Hogg. He chaired it until 1903, continuing to serve under governors Charles A. Culberson and Joseph D. Sayers. Hogg had run on a platform of state regulation of railroads.
Conscious of the importance of recounting and interpreting history, Reagan was a founder of the Texas State Historical Association. He also attended reunions of Confederate veterans in his state. He wrote his Memoirs, With Special Reference to Secession and the Civil War, published in 1905. Later that year, Reagan died of pneumonia at his home in Palestine, the last surviving member of Jefferson's cabinet in the government of the Confederacy. Reagan was buried in East Hill Cemetery in Palestine, Texas.
Legacy and honors
- Historian Ben H. Procter included Reagan in his list of the "four greatest Texans of the 19th century," along with Stephen F. Austin, Sam Houston, and James Stephen Hogg.
- Reagan County, Texas is named in his honor.
- Several schools were named for him, including John H. Reagan Elementary School in Dallas, and Reagan high schools in Houston and Austin.
In the 21st century, given demands of social justice, some public school systems have renamed schools that memorialized men associated with the Confederacy and the effort to continue slavery. Reagan High School in Houston was renamed in 2016 to Heights High School by the Houston Independent School District, one of seven schools in the district that were renamed for this reason. In 2019 Reagan Early College High School in Austin was renamed as Northeast Early College High School.
- The John H. Reagan State Office Building on the Texas State Capitol grounds was named in his honor.
- Reagan is commemorated by a statue on the University of Texas at Austin campus. On August 21, 2017, in recognition that such Confederate monuments are controversial in today's society, which is still seeking racial justice, Reagan's statue in Austin was taken down. Plans were announced to add it to the Briscoe Center for American History on the east side of the university campus.
- A park in his hometown of Palestine, Texas was named for him. A statue of Reagan was installed on the grounds.
- "REAGAN, John Henninger, (1818 - 1905)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "REAGAN, JOHN HENNINGER". Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- "John Henninger Reagan (2)". Kaufman County TXGenWeb Project. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
- Raines, Cadwell Walton (1902). Year book for Texas. Gammel Book Company.
- "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774 - 1875". memory.loc.gov. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Boyd B. Stutler (1962). "The Confederate Postal Service in West Virginia". West Virginia Archives and History. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
- "HISD approves name changes for seven schools". ABC 13. May 12, 2016. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- AUSTIN'S JOHN REAGAN HIGH SCHOOL DECIDES ON NEW NAME
- Confederate Statues on Campus
- Anderson, John Nathan. "Money or Nothing: Confederate Postal System Collapse during the Civil War," American Journalism, 30 (Winter 2013), 65–86.
- Branner, Peter A. The Organization of the Confederate Postoffice Department at Montgomery. Montgomery, Alabama: The Author, 1960.
- Dietz, August. Confederate States Post-office Department. Richmond, Virginia: Dietz Press, 1962.
- Dietz, August. The Postal Service of the Confederate States of America. Richmond, Virginia: Dietz Printing, 1929.
- Garrison, L. R. “Administrative Problems of the Confederate Post Office Department, I.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 18#2 (1915), pp. 111–141 online
- Garrison, L. R. “Administrative Problems of the Confederate Post Office Department, II.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 19#3 (1916), pp. 232–250. online
- McCaleb, Walter Flavius. "The Organization of the Post-Office Department of the Confederacy." American Historical Review 12#1 (1906), pp. 66–74. online
- Ben H. Procter. Not Without Honor. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1962.
- Reagan, John Henninger. Memoirs, With Special Reference to Secession and the Civil War. New York: Neale, 1905.
- Wirenga, Theron, editor. Official Documents of the Post-office Department of the Confederate States of America. Holland, Michigan: The Editor, 1979. Two volumes.
- United States Congress. "John Henninger Reagan (id: R000098)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2009-03-19