John Hicks (jazz pianist)

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John Hicks
John Hicks.jpg
Hicks in 2006
Background information
Birth name John Josephus Hicks, Jr.
Born (1941-12-21)December 21, 1941
Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
Died May 10, 2006(2006-05-10) (aged 64)
New York City, New York
Genres Jazz, hard bop, bebop, free jazz, modal jazz
Occupation(s) Musician, composer, arranger, educator
Instruments Piano
Years active 1958–2006
Associated acts Jazz Messengers, Woody Herman, Betty Carter, Mingus Dynasty Band, Elise Wood

John Josephus Hicks, Jr. (December 21, 1941 – May 10, 2006) was an American jazz pianist, composer, and arranger. He was leader for more than 30 recordings and played as a sideman on more than 300.[1]

After early experiences backing blues musicians, Hicks moved to New York in 1963. He was part of Art Blakey's band for two years, then backed vocalist Betty Carter from 1965 to 1967, before joining Woody Herman's big band, where he stayed until 1970. Following these largely mainstream jazz experiences, Hicks expanded into freer bands, including those of trumpeters Charles Tolliver and Lester Bowie. He rejoined Carter in 1975; the five-year stay brought him more attention and helped to launch his recording career as a leader. He continued to play and record extensively in the United States and internationally. Under his own leadership, his recordings were mostly bebop-influenced, while those for other leaders continued to be in a diversity of styles, including multi-year associations with saxophonists Arthur Blythe, David Murray, David "Fathead" Newman, and Pharoah Sanders.

Early life[edit]

Hicks was born in Atlanta, Georgia, on December 21, 1941,[2] the oldest of five children.[3] As a child, he moved with his family around the United States, as his father, Rev John Hicks Sr, took up jobs with the Methodist church.[2] His family was middle class; "I was brought up as a decent human being, where you had aspirations and there were expectations", he commented.[2] He began playing the piano aged six or seven in Los Angeles.[2][4] His mother, Pollie,[1] was his first piano teacher.[5] He also took organ lessons, sang in choirs and tried the violin and trombone.[2] He began playing the piano in church once he could read music, around the age of 11.[6] His development accelerated once his family moved to St. Louis, when Hicks was 14 and he settled on the piano.[2] In St. Louis, he attended Sumner High School.[7] While there, he played in schoolmate Lester Bowie's band, the Continentals.[8] Hicks cited influences "from Fats Waller to Thelonious Monk to Methodist church hymns",[5] as well as local pianists.[2] He was initially interested in the blues-based compositions of Horace Silver and popular songs such as "I Got Rhythm" and "There Will Never Be Another You", for their easily recognised harmonies.[9]

Hicks had summer gigs in the southern United States with blues musicians Little Milton and Albert King.[2] His stint with Little Milton provided his first professional work, in 1958; Hicks stated that his playing in a variety of keys improved because the venue's piano was so out of tune that he had to transpose each piece that they played.[4] Hicks studied music in 1958 at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania,[2][7] where he shared a room with drummer Ronald Shannon Jackson.[10] He also studied for a short time at the Berklee School of Music in Boston before moving to New York in 1963.[2]

Later life and career[edit]


In New York, Hicks first accompanied singer Della Reese.[11] He then played with Joe Farrell and toured with trombonist Al Grey and tenor saxophonist Billy Mitchell.[2] In 1963 he was also part of saxophonist Pharoah Sanders' first band,[12] and appeared on CBC Television backing vocalist Jimmy Witherspoon.[13] After periods with Kenny Dorham and Joe Henderson, Hicks joined Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers in 1964.[5] His recording debut was with Blakey in November that year, for the album 'S Make It.[14][15] Early in 1965, Hicks toured with Blakey to Japan, France, Switzerland, and England.[4][15] Blakey encouraged his band members, including Hicks, to compose for the band,[16] although they also played compositions by previous members of the band.[17] He stayed with Blakey for two years,[2] during which time his playing was compared with that of McCoy Tyner, for the level of energy displayed and for some of the intervals that they used.[18]

Vocalist Betty Carter in 1979

In the period 1965 to 1967 Hicks worked on and off with vocalist Betty Carter;[19] her liking for slow ballads helped him develop his sense of time.[16] He then joined Woody Herman's big band, where he stayed until 1970,[5][20] playing as well as writing arrangements for the band.[2] Hicks "also recorded with Booker Ervin and Sonny Simmons (both 1966), Hank Mobley (1967), and Lee Morgan (1968)".[4] From 1972 to 1973 Hicks taught jazz history and improvisation at Southern Illinois University.[21] From the 1970s he also played in more avant garde bands.[22] "He recorded with Oliver Lake (1970) and performed and recorded in the Netherlands with Charles Tolliver (1972)."[4] He played with Blakey again in 1973.[2] Hicks' debut recording as leader was on May 21, 1975, in England.[23] The session resulted in two albums – the trio Hells Bells, with bassist Clint Houston and drummer Cliff Barbaro, and the piano solo Steadfast.[23] They were released by Strata-East Records, but not for several years: Hells Bells emerged in 1978[24] or 1980.[25]

Hicks reunited with Carter in 1975, including accompanying her in a musical play, Don't Call Me Man, that year.[26] After recording with Carter on her Now It's My Turn in 1976, Hicks returned to her band full-time; this raised his profile and led to his own recording – After the Morning.[5] His recording continued, including with "Lester Bowie (1974), Carter Jefferson (1978), and Chico Freeman (1978–79)."[4] Hicks was dismissed in 1980 by Carter, a forceful bandleader, for drinking.[27]


Some Other Time in 1981, with bassist Walter Booker and drummer Idris Muhammad, revealed more of Hicks as a composer, and included his best-known song, "Naima's Love Song".[5]

"Hicks led bands from the mid-1970s. His small groups included a quartet of Sonny Fortune, Walter Booker, and Jimmy Cobb (1975–82, from 1990); a trio, without Fortune (from 1981); a quartet or trio, with the flutist Elise Wood added or replacing the drummer; another quartet, with the addition of Gary Bartz; a different trio with Curtis Lundy or Ray Drummond on double bass and Idris Muhammad on drums; quartets involving various of these musicians, as well as Watson, Blythe, Murray, Herring, or Craig Handy, and with Victor Lewis added to the pool of drummers; quintets and sextets whose members have also involved Robin Eubanks and Tolliver (both from 1982), Branford Marsalis (1982–4), Hannibal Peterson (from 1983), Wynton Marsalis (1983–4), Craig Harris (1985–6), Eddie Henderson (1985–6, 1988–90), and Freeman (1985–8); and a big band (formed in autumn 1982 and revived on occasion into the late 1990s)".[4] He played in the UK with Freeman's band in 1989.[28]

From 1983, the flautist Elise Wood was frequently a member of his groups.[5] As a duo, they played mostly jazz, but also some classical music.[29] They formed a business partnership – John Hicks-Elise Wood, Inc. – and toured the US, Europe and Japan in the 1980s.[30]

From the early 1980s until his death he performed solo and led his own groups, including the Keystone Trio, with Idris Muhammad and George Mraz. He also freelanced, including with more contemporary players such as Arthur Blythe, David Murray, and Pharoah Sanders.[2] "During the 1980s Hicks played as a sideman in numerous groups, including those led by Richie Cole (1980), Arthur Blythe (In the Tradition), David Murray, Hamiet Bluiett, Art Davis, and Pharoah Sanders; he recorded with these musicians, as well as with Ricky Ford (1980, 1982), Alvin Queen (1981), Peter Leitch (1984), Vincent Herring (1986), and Bobby Watson (1986, 1988)".[4] In 1984 he had a big band that rehearsed; a sextet from it played concerts.[31] From around 1989 into the 1990s he played with the Mingus Dynasty band, including for performances of the symphony Epitaph.[4] He recorded two albums in Japan in 1988 – the trio East Side Blues and the quartet Naima's Love Song, with altoist Bobby Watson added.[32][33] He became "a fixture at international music festivals"[20] as well as continuing to play in New York.[34]


Hicks divorced his wife, Olympia, in the early 1990s.[2] The couple had a son and daughter (Jamil Malik and Naima).[3]

"Like so many straight-ahead jazz artists, John Hicks did his share of label-hopping in the '90s. Instead of recording for one company consistently, he would offer different projects to different labels."[35] He continued to record in the 1990s, including "in duos with Drummond (1989), Jay McShann (1992), and Leitch (1994); as a leader; in cooperative sessions with Kenny Barron (1989), Cecil McBee and Elvin Jones (as the Power Trio, 1990), with George Mraz and Muhammad (as the Keystone Trio, from 1995), and with Eric Alexander, Mraz, and Muhammad (1998); and further as a sideman with Murray, Leitch, Blythe, and Freeman, as well as with Roy Hargrove (1989–90, 1995), Bartz (1990), Lake (1991), Steve Marcus and Valery Ponomarev (both 1993), Nick Brignola, Russell Gunn, and Kevin Mahogany (all 1994), the Mingus Big Band (c1995), Fortune (1996), and Jimmy Ponder (1997)."[4] As leader, his choice of material in the 1990s was often of commonly played standards.[36] He played in the UK with the Mingus Big Band in 1999,[37] and played on their album Blues and Politics from the same year.[38]

His most commercially successful recordings were tributes to other musicians, including Something to Live For (1998), Impressions of Mary Lou (2000), and Fatha's Day (2003).[5] There were five such albums, all linked to Pittsburgh-associated pianist-composers; the other two were Nightwind: An Erroll Garner Songbook, and Music in the Key of Clark.[39][40]

Hicks played and recorded with jazz artists such as Joe Lovano and David "Fathead" Newman. He played on five of Newman's albums for HighNote Records.[41] He was described in 2000 as the "HighNote house pianist".[42] The pianist recorded the seventh instalment of the "Live at Maybeck Recital Hall" series of solo concerts, which were recorded for Concord Records. He was part of Lovano's quartet in 1998,[43] which led to Hicks being part of the saxophonist's nonet from its formation the following year.[44]

Hicks and Wood married in 2001.[5] He made a rare recording on organ (Hammond B3) on saxophonist Arthur Blythe's Exhale.[45][46] "over the last 12 years [of his life, he] released several collaborations with his wife Elise Wood to mixed reviews (Single Petal of a Rose, Trio & Strings, Beautiful Friendship)".[39]

Towards the end of his life, Hicks taught at New York University and The New School in New York.[20] Asked about his teaching, Hicks replied that "I don't care how advanced my students are, I always start them off with the blues. It all comes from there."[6] Early in 2006 Hicks again played in a big band, this time led by Charles Tolliver.[47] In January and February, he toured Israel, chiefly playing Thelonious Monk compositions.[6] Hicks' final studio recording was On the Wings of an Eagle in March 2006.[48] His last performance was at St Mark's United Methodist Church in New York City a few days before he died.[2] He died on May 10, 2006, from internal bleeding.[3] Wood survived him, and has led groups dedicated to his music.[49] In the view of AllMusic reviewer Michael G. Nastos, "Hicks died before reaping the ultimate rewards and high praise he deserved".[50] A collection of his papers and compositions, as well as video and audio recordings, is held by Duke University.[51]

Playing style[edit]

Hicks had a style of his own, containing a "combination of irresistible creativity and responsiveness [...] encompassing swing, hard bop and the avant garde, and made him a first-call choice for many of the most important American modern jazz groups".[2] "Hicks had his critics, some of whom condemn him for insubstantiality."[52] The Penguin Guide to Jazz commented that "This [...] is missing the point. Almost always, he is more concerned to work within the dimensions of a song than to go off into the stratosphere."[52]

A reviewer of a 1993 release, Lover Man: A Tribute to Billie Holiday, commented that Hicks "mastered the technique of shaping a piano chord so it sounds like the rising and falling of a breath".[53] Fellow pianist George Cables stated that Hicks "was a very strong and energetic player, and a very warm player, very much part of the tradition".[18] His "left hand carries subtle dynamic shadings [... He has] a reverence for melody and a sense of musical destination that gives form to his improvisations."[54]

As an accompanist, Hicks played delicately, with carefully voiced chords.[55]

Compositions and arrangements[edit]

His compositions "are wandering and melodic, suggestive and malleable yet memorable".[56] He "enjoyed writing arrangements for a quintet or sextet, often, like the finest jazz composers, tailoring parts to specific musicians. In the past, these have included artists of the caliber of Bobby Watson and Vincent Herring; more recently he has been working with Javon Jackson and Elise [Wood]".[57]


An asterisk (*) after the year indicates that it is the year of release.

As leader/co-leader[edit]

Year recorded Title Label Notes
1975 Hells Bells Strata-East Trio, with Clint Houston (bass), Cliff Barbaro (drums); released 1980
1975 Steadfast Strata-East Solo piano; released 1980
1979 After the Morning West 54 Some tracks solo piano; some tracks duo, with Walter Booker (bass); one track trio, with Cliff Barbaro (drums) added
1981 Some Other Time Theresa Most tracks trio, with Walter Booker (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums); two tracks solo piano
1982 John Hicks Theresa Some tracks solo piano; some tracks trio, with Bobby Hutcherson (vibes), Walter Booker (bass); one track duo, with Olympia Hicks (piano); reissue by Evidence added one track trio, with Olympia Hicks, Idris Muhammad (drums)
1984 In Concert Theresa Most tracks trio, with Walter Booker (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums); some tracks quartet, with Elise Wood (flute) or Bobby Hutcherson (vibes) added; in concert
1985 Inc. 1 DIW Most tracks trio, with Walter Booker (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums); some tracks solo piano
1985 Sketches of Tokyo DIW Duo, with David Murray (tenor sax)
1986–87 Two of a Kind Theresa Duo, with Ray Drummond (bass)
1987 I'll Give You Something to Remember Me By Limetree Trio, with Curtis Lundy (bass) Idris Muhammad (drums)
1985–88 Luminous Nilva Some tracks duo, with Elise Wood (flute); some tracks quartet, with Walter Booker (bass), Jimmy Cobb, Alvin Queen (drums, separately) added; some tracks quintet, with Clifford Jordan (tenor sax) added
1988 East Side Blues DIW Trio, with Curtis Lundy (bass), Victor Lewis (drums)
1988 Naima's Love Song DIW Quartet, with Bobby Watson (alto sax), Curtis Lundy (bass), Victor Lewis (drums)
1989 Oleo CBS/Sony As New York Unit; quartet, with George Adams (tenor sax), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)
1989 Rhythm-a-Ning Candid As Kenny Barron-John Hicks Quartet; quartet, with Kenny Barron (piano), Walter Booker (bass), Jimmy Cobb (drums)
1990 Power Trio Novus Trio, with Cecil McBee (bass), Elvin Jones (drums)
1990 Is That So? Timeless Trio, with Ray Drummond (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums)
1990 Live at Maybeck Recital Hall, Volume Seven Concord Jazz Solo piano; in concert
1990 Blue Bossa Paddle Wheel As New York Unit; quartet, with George Adams (tenor sax), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)
1991 St. Thomas: Tribute to Great Tenors Paddle Wheel As New York Unit; trio, with Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)
1991–92 Tribute to George Adams Paddle Wheel As New York Unit; quartet; some tracks with George Adams, Dan Faulk (tenor sax; separately), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums); some tracks with Javon Jackson (tenor sax), Santi Debriano (bass), Nakamura (drums)
1992 Friends Old and New Novus Most tracks sextet, with Joshua Redman (tenor sax), Clark Terry and Greg Gisbert (trumpet), Ron Carter (bass), Grady Tate (drums); one track septet, with Al Grey (trombone) added
1992 Now's the Time Paddle Wheel As New York Unit; quartet, with Marvin "Hannibal" Peterson (trumpet), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)
1992 Crazy for You Red Baron Trio, with Wilbur Bascomb (bass), Kenny Washington (drums)
1992 Over the Rainbow Paddle Wheel As New York Unit; mostly quartet, with Pharoah Sanders (tenor sax), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums); also released by Evidence as Naima
1992 Single Petal of a Rose Mapleshade Some tracks duo, with Elise Wood (flute); some tracks trio or quartet, with Jack Walrath (trumpet), Walter Booker (bass) added
1992 After the Morning DSM Solo piano; in concert
1992 The Missouri Connection Reservoir Duo, with Jay McShann (piano, vocals); one track solo piano
1992 Blues March: Portrait of Art Blakey Venus As New York Rhythm Machine; trio, with Marcus McLaurine (bass), Victor Lewis (drums)
1992 Moanin': Portrait of Art Blakey Venus As New York Rhythm Machine; trio, with Marcus McLaurine (bass), Victor Lewis (drums)
1993 Beyond Expectations Reservoir Trio, with Ray Drummond (bass), Marvin "Smitty" Smith (drums)
1993 Lover Man: A Tribute to Billie Holiday Red Baron Trio, with Ray Drummond (bass), Victor Lewis (drums)
1994 Gentle Rain Sound Hills Trio, with Walter Booker, (bass) Louis Hayes (drums)
1994 Duality Reservoir With Peter Leitch (guitar)
1994 Akari Apollon As New York Unit; quartet, with Marvin "Hannibal" Peterson (trumpet), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)
1994 In the Mix Landmark Quintet, with Vincent Herring (alto sax, soprano sax), Elise Wood (flute), Curtis Lundy (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums)
1995 Piece for My Peace Landmark Some tracks solo piano; one track trio, with Curtis Lundy (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums); one track quintet, with Bobby Watson and Vincent Herring (alto sax) added; most tracks sextet, with Elise Wood (flute) added; one track duo, with Wood (flute)
1995 Heart Beats Milestone As Keystone Trio; with George Mraz (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums)[58]
1997 Newklear Music Milestone As Keystone Trio; with George Mraz (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums)[59]
1997 Something to Live For: A Billy Strayhorn Songbook HighNote Trio, with Dwayne Dolphin (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums)
1997 Nightwind: An Erroll Garner Songbook HighNote Trio, with Dwayne Dolphin (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums)
1997 Cry Me a River Venus Trio, with Dwayne Burno (bass), Victor Lewis (drums)
1997 Trio + Strings Mapleshade With Elise Wood (alto flute), Steve Novosel (bass), Ronnie Burrage (drums), Steve Williams (drums), Rick Schmidt (cello), Debbie Baker (viola), Charles Olive and Tom Ginsberg (violin)
1998 Impressions of Mary Lou HighNote Trio, with Dwayne Dolphin (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums)
1998 Ow! Paddle Wheel As New York Unit; quartet, with Javon Jackson (tenor sax), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)
1998* Hicks Time Passin' Thru Solo piano
2000 Beautiful Friendship HiWood Duo with Elise Wood (flute)
2001 Music in the Key of Clark HighNote Trio, with Dwayne Dolphin (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums)
2003 Fatha's Day: An Earl Hines Songbook HighNote Trio, with Dwayne Dolphin (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums)
2003* Besame Mucho IJE As New York Unit; trio, with Santi Debriano (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)
2005–06 Twogether HighNote Most tracks duo, with Frank Morgan (alto sax); some tracks solo piano
2006 On the Wings of an Eagle Chesky Trio, with Buster Williams (bass), Louis Hayes (drums)
2006 I Remember You HighNote Solo piano; in concert
2006 Sweet Love of Mine HighNote Some tracks quartet, with Javon Jackson (tenor sax), Curtis Lundy (bass), Victor Jones (drums); some tracks quintet, with Elise Wood (flute) added; some tracks sextet, with Ray Mantilla (percussion) added

As sideman[edit]

Year recorded Leader Title Label
1998 Alexander, EricEric Alexander Solid! Milestone
2005 Alexander, EricEric Alexander Sunday in New York Venus
1989 Anderson, RayRay Anderson What Because Gramavision
1996 Appleton, RayRay Appleton Killer Ray Rides Again Sharp Nine
1998 Ashby, HaroldHarold Ashby Just for You Mapleshade
2001 Bang, BillyBilly Bang Vietnam: The Aftermath Justin Time
2004 Bang, BillyBilly Bang Vietnam: Reflections Justin Time
1990 Bartz, GaryGary Bartz West 42nd Street Candid
2001 Bass, MickeyMickey Bass Live at the Jazz Corner of the World Early Bird
1986 Batin, Abdul ZahirAbdul Zahir Batin Live At The Jazz Cultural Theater Cadence Jazz
2004 Ben-Hur, RoniRoni Ben-Hur Signature Reservoir
1993 Berk, DickDick Berk East Coast Stroll Reservoir
1999 Blake, AlexAlex Blake Now Is the Time: Live at the Knitting Factory Bubble Core
1964 Blakey, ArtArt Blakey 'S Make It Limelight
1965 Blakey, ArtArt Blakey Are You Real Moon
1965 Blakey, ArtArt Blakey Soul Finger Limelight
1965 Blakey, ArtArt Blakey Hold On, I'm Coming Limelight
1972 Blakey, ArtArt Blakey Child's Dance Prestige
2001* Blouin, JohanneJohanne Blouin Everything Must Change Justin Time
1983 Bluiett, HamietHamiet Bluiett Bearer of the Holy Flame Black Fire
1984 Bluiett, HamietHamiet Bluiett Ebu Soul Note
1980 Blythe, ArthurArthur Blythe Illusions Columbia
1981 Blythe, ArthurArthur Blythe Blythe Spirit Columbia
1988* Blythe, ArthurArthur Blythe Basic Blythe Columbia
1993 Blythe, ArthurArthur Blythe Retroflection Enja
1993 Blythe, ArthurArthur Blythe Calling Card Enja
2001 Blythe, ArthurArthur Blythe Blythe Byte Savant
2002 Blythe, ArthurArthur Blythe Exhale Savant
1990 Bob Thiele Collective, Bob Thiele Collective Sunrise Sunset Red Baron
2005–06 Boulger, RichardRichard Boulger Blues Twilight B-1 Music
1974 Bowie, LesterLester Bowie Fast Last! Muse
1991 Brewer, TeresaTeresa Brewer Memories of Louis Red Baron
1994* Brignola, NickNick Brignola Like Old Times Reservoir
2000 Brooks III, CecilCecil Brooks III Live at Sweet Basil Savant
2000 Brooks III, CecilCecil Brooks III Live at Sweet Basil, Volume Two Savant
1998 Brown, JeriJeri Brown Zaius Justin Time
1998 Brown, JeriJeri Brown I've Got Your Number Justin Time
1976 Carter, BettyBetty Carter Now It's My Turn Roulette
1979 Carter, BettyBetty Carter The Audience with Betty Carter Bet-Car
1992 Carter, BettyBetty Carter It's Not About the Melody Verve
2003 Carter, JamesJames Carter Gardenias for Lady Day Columbia
1989 Carvin, MichaelMichael Carvin Revelation Muse
1980 Cole, RichieRichie Cole Side by Side Muse
1998 Coryell, LarryLarry Coryell Monk, Trane, Miles & Me HighNote
2000 Coryell, LarryLarry Coryell Inner Urge HighNote
1985 Davis, ArtArt Davis Life Soul Note
2001* Davis, RichardRichard Davis The Bassist: Homage to Diversity Palmetto
1987* D'Rivera, PaquitoPaquito D'Rivera Manhattan Burn Columbia
1966 Ervin, BookerBooker Ervin Structurally Sound Pacific Jazz
1980 Ford, RickyRicky Ford Flying Colors Muse Records
1982* Ford, RickyRicky Ford Interpretations Muse Records
1975 Fortune, SonnySonny Fortune Awakening Horizon
1996 Fortune, SonnySonny Fortune From Now On Blue Note
1999 Fortune, SonnySonny Fortune In the Spirit of John Coltrane Shanachie
1978 Freeman, ChicoChico Freeman The Outside Within India Navigation
1978–79 Freeman, ChicoChico Freeman Spirit Sensitive India Navigation
1978–79 Freeman, ChicoChico Freeman Still Sensitive India Navigation
1989 Freeman, ChicoChico Freeman and Arthur Blythe Luminous Jazz House
1998 Gollehon, MacMac Gollehon Live at the Blue Note Half Note
1994 Green, ThurmanThurman Green Dance of the Night Creatures Mapleshade
1971 Grubbs, EarlEarl Grubbs and Carl Grubbs The Visitors - Earl Grubbs - Carl Grubbs Cobblestone
1994 Gunn, RussellRussell Gunn Young Gunn Muse
1989 Hargrove, RoyRoy Hargrove Diamond in the Rough Novus
1995 Hargrove, RoyRoy Hargrove Family Verve
1997 Hargrove, RoyRoy Hargrove Habana Verve
1986* Hazilla, JohnJohn Hazilla Chicplacity Cadence Jazz
1994* Hedman, NormanNorman Hedman Flight of the Spirit Monad
1968 Herman, WoodyWoody Herman Light My Fire Cadet
1969 Herman, WoodyWoody Herman Heavy Exposure Cadet
1986–89 Herring, VincentVincent Herring American Experience Nimbus
1978 Jefferson, CarterCarter Jefferson The Rise of Atlantis Timeless Muse
1993* Laiti, SofiaSofia Laiti Inspira Midnight Sun
1971 Lake, OliverOliver Lake Ntu: Point from Which Creation Begins Arista
1991 Lake, OliverOliver Lake Again and Again Gramavision
1984–88 Leitch, PeterPeter Leitch Exhilaration Reservoir
1990* Leitch, PeterPeter Leitch Mean What You Say Concord Jazz
1992* Leitch, PeterPeter Leitch From Another Perspective Concord Jazz
1993 Leitch, PeterPeter Leitch A Special Rapport Reservoir
1995 Leitch, PeterPeter Leitch Colours and Dimensions Reservoir
1999 Leitch, PeterPeter Leitch California Concert Jazz House
2005 London, AmyAmy London When I Look in Your Eyes Motéma Music
1999 Lovano, JoeJoe Lovano 52nd Street Themes Blue Note
2002 Lovano, JoeJoe Lovano On This Day ... Live at The Vanguard Blue Note
2005 Lovano, JoeJoe Lovano Streams of Expression Blue Note
1999* Lundy, CurtisCurtis Lundy Against All Odds Justin Time
2001 Lundy, CurtisCurtis Lundy Purpose Justin Time
1994 Mahogany, KevinKevin Mahogany Songs and Moments Enja
1993 Marcus, SteveSteve Marcus Smile Red Baron
1993 McNulty, ChrisChris McNulty Time for Love Amosaya
1989 Mingus, CharlesCharles Mingus Epitaph Columbia
1997* Mingus Big Band, Mingus Big Band Live in Time Dreyfus
1999* Mingus Big Band, Mingus Big Band Blues and Politics Dreyfus
2004 Mingus Big Band, Mingus Big Band I Am Three Sunnyside
1991* Mingus Dynasty, Mingus Dynasty Next Generation Performs Charles Mingus' Brand New Compositions Columbia
1966 Mitchell, BlueBlue Mitchell and Sonny Red Baltimore 1966 Uptown
1967 Mobley, HankHank Mobley Hi Voltage Blue Note
1968 Morgan, LeeLee Morgan Taru Blue Note
1968 Morgan, LeeLee Morgan Live In Baltimore: 1968 Fresh Sound
1997 Mover, BobBob Mover Television Unidisc
1980s Munoz, TiszijiTisziji Munoz Visiting This Planet Anami
1980s Munoz, TiszijiTisziji Munoz Hearing Voices Anami
1983 Murray, DavidDavid Murray Morning Song Black Saint
1986 Murray, DavidDavid Murray I Want to Talk About You Black Saint
1988 Murray, DavidDavid Murray Ming's Samba Portrait
1991 Murray, DavidDavid Murray Fast Life DIW/Columbia
1991 Murray, DavidDavid Murray Ballads for Bass Clarinet DIW
1991 Murray, DavidDavid Murray David Murray/James Newton Quintet DIW
1992 Murray, DavidDavid Murray MX Red Baron
1993 Murray, DavidDavid Murray Jazzosaurus Rex Red Baron
1993 Murray, DavidDavid Murray Saxmen Red Baron
1993 Murray, DavidDavid Murray For Aunt Louise DIW
1993 Murray, DavidDavid Murray Love and Sorrow DIW
2000 Murray, DavidDavid Murray Like a Kiss that Never Ends Justin Time
1999 Newman, David "Fathead"David "Fathead" Newman Chillin' HighNote
2001 Newman, David "Fathead"David "Fathead" Newman Keep the Spirits Singing HighNote
2003 Newman, David "Fathead"David "Fathead" Newman The Gift HighNote
2004 Newman, David "Fathead"David "Fathead" Newman Song for the New Man HighNote
2005* Newman, David "Fathead"David "Fathead" Newman I Remember Brother Ray HighNote
1997 Ponder, JimmyJimmy Ponder James Street HighNote
1998 Ponder, JimmyJimmy Ponder Ain't Misbehavin' HighNote
1998 Ponder, JimmyJimmy Ponder A Guitar Christmas HighNote
1993 Ponomarev, ValeryValery Ponomarev Live at Sweet Basil Reservoir
1981 Queen, AlvinAlvin Queen Ashanti Nilva
1985 Queen, AlvinAlvin Queen Jammin' Uptown Nilva
1995 Rabinowitz, MichaelMichael Rabinowitz Gabrielle's Balloon Jazz Focus
1990 Reunion Legacy Band, TheThe Reunion Legacy Band The Legacy Early Bird
1979 Sanders, PharoahPharoah Sanders Journey to the One Theresa
1981 Sanders, PharoahPharoah Sanders Rejoice Theresa
1981 Sanders, PharoahPharoah Sanders Pharoah Sanders Live... Theresa
1987 Sanders, PharoahPharoah Sanders Africa Timeless
1987 Sanders, PharoahPharoah Sanders A Prayer Before Dawn Theresa
1984 Saxton, BillBill Saxton Beneath the Surface Nilva
1995 Shepp, ArchieArchie Shepp Blue Ballads Venus
1996 Shepp, ArchieArchie Shepp True Ballads Venus
1998 Shepp, ArchieArchie Shepp True Blue Venus
1996 Shepp, ArchieArchie Shepp Something to Live For Timeless
1966 Simmons, SonnySonny Simmons Staying on the Watch ESP
1999 Spaulding, JamesJames Spaulding Escapade HighNote
1972 Tolliver, CharlesCharles Tolliver Live at the Loosdrecht Jazz Festival Strata-East
2001* Wallenstein, BarryBarry Wallenstein Tony's Blues Cadence Jazz
1997* Washington, Jr., FrederickFrederick Washington, Jr. Lilac: Volume 1 Passin' Thru
1986 Watson, BobbyBobby Watson Love Remains Red
1988* Watson, BobbyBobby Watson No Question About It Blue Note
2006* Wiley, Jr., EdEd Wiley, Jr. About the Soul Swing
2005 Williams, SteveSteve Williams New Incentive Elabeth
1995 Young, DaveDave Young Two by Two: Volume One Justin Time
1996* Young, DaveDave Young Side by Side, Volume Three Justin Time


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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Vacher, Peter (May 12, 2006) "John Hicks". The Guardian.
  3. ^ a b c Scott, Ron (May 18, 2006) "Pianist John Hicks Dies at 64". New York Amsterdam News p. 27.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Yanow, Scott; Kernfeld, Barry "Hicks, John". The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 2nd ed.. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved November 20, 2016. (Subscription required.)
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  • Bauer, William R. (2003). Open the Door: The Life and Music of Betty Carter. University of Michigan Press. 
  • Berliner, Paul F. (2009). Thinking in Jazz: The Infinite Art of Improvisation. University of Chicago Press. 
  • Cook, Richard; Morton, Brian (2008). The Penguin Guide to Jazz Recordings (9th ed.). Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-103401-0. 
  • Owsley, Dennis (2006). City of Gabriels: The History of Jazz in St. Louis, 1895–1973. Reedy.