John Hicks (pianist)
|Birth name||John Josephus Hicks Jr.|
|Born||December 21, 1941|
Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
|Died||May 10, 2006 (aged 64)|
New York City, New York
|Genres||Jazz, hard bop, bebop, free jazz, modal jazz|
|Occupation(s)||Musician, composer, arranger, educator|
John Josephus Hicks Jr. (December 21, 1941 – May 10, 2006) was an American jazz pianist, composer, and arranger. He was leader of more than 30 recordings and played as a sideman on more than 300.
After early experiences backing blues musicians, Hicks moved to New York in 1963. He was part of Art Blakey's band for two years, accompanied vocalist Betty Carter from 1965 to 1967, before joining Woody Herman's big band, where he stayed until 1970. Following these associations, Hicks expanded into freer bands, including those of trumpeters Charles Tolliver and Lester Bowie. He rejoined Carter in 1975; the five-year stay brought him more attention and helped to launch his recording career as a leader. He continued to play and record extensively in the United States and internationally. Under his own leadership, his recordings were mostly bebop-influenced, while those for other leaders continued to be in a diversity of styles, including multi-year associations with saxophonists Arthur Blythe, David Murray, David "Fathead" Newman, and Pharoah Sanders.
Hicks was born in Atlanta, Georgia, on December 21, 1941, the eldest of five children. As a child, he moved with his family around the United States, as his father, Rev. John Hicks Sr, took up jobs with the Methodist church. His family was middle class: "I was brought up as a decent human being, where you had aspirations and there were expectations", he commented. His mother, Pollie, was his first piano teacher, after he began playing aged six or seven in Los Angeles. He took organ lessons, sang in choirs and tried the violin and trombone. Around the age of 11, once he could read music, Hicks started playing the piano in church.
His development accelerated once his family moved to St. Louis, when Hicks was 14 and he settled on the piano. There, he attended Sumner High School and played in schoolmate Lester Bowie's band, the Continentals, which performed in a variety of musical styles. Hicks cited influences "from Fats Waller to Thelonious Monk to Methodist church hymns", as well as local pianists. He was initially interested in the blues-based compositions of Horace Silver and popular songs such as "I Got Rhythm" and "There Will Never Be Another You", for their easily recognised harmonies.
Hicks worked summer gigs in the southern United States with blues musicians Little Milton and Albert King. His stint with Little Milton provided his first professional work, in 1958; Hicks stated that his playing in a variety of keys improved because the venue's piano was so out of tune that he had to transpose each piece that they played. He studied music in 1958 at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania, where he shared a room with drummer Ronald Shannon Jackson. He also studied for a short time at the Berklee School of Music in Boston before moving to New York in 1963.
Later life and career
In New York, Hicks first accompanied singer Della Reese. He then played with Joe Farrell and toured with trombonist Al Grey and tenor saxophonist Billy Mitchell. In 1963 he was also part of saxophonist Pharoah Sanders' first band, and appeared on CBC Television backing vocalist Jimmy Witherspoon. After periods with Kenny Dorham and Joe Henderson, Hicks joined Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers in 1964. His recording debut was with Blakey in November that year on the album 'S Make It. Early in 1965, Hicks toured with Blakey to Japan, France, Switzerland, and England. Blakey encouraged his band members, including Hicks, to compose for the band, although they also played compositions by previous members of the band. He stayed with Blakey for two years, during which time his playing was compared with that of McCoy Tyner, for the level of energy displayed and for some of the intervals that they used.
In the period 1965 to 1967, Hicks worked on and off with vocalist Betty Carter; her liking for slow ballads helped him develop his sense of time. He then joined Woody Herman's big band, where he stayed until 1970, playing as well as writing arrangements for the band. Hicks also began recording as a sideman with a wide range of leaders – in the 1960s these included Booker Ervin, Hank Mobley, and Lee Morgan – a trend that continued for the remainder of his career. From 1972 to 1973, Hicks taught jazz history and improvisation at Southern Illinois University. From the 1970s, he also played in more avant garde bands, beginning with recordings led by Oliver Lake and performances and recordings in the Netherlands with Charles Tolliver. He played with Blakey again in 1973. Hicks' debut recording as leader was on May 21, 1975, in England. The session resulted in two albums – the trio Hells Bells, with bassist Clint Houston and drummer Cliff Barbaro, and the solo piano Steadfast – that were released by Strata-East Records several years later.
Hicks reunited with Carter in 1975, including accompanying her in a musical play, Don't Call Me Man, that year. After recording with Carter on her Now It's My Turn in 1976, Hicks returned to her band full-time; this raised his profile and led to his own recording – After the Morning. His sideman recording also continued, including with Carter Jefferson (1978) and Chico Freeman (1978–79). Hicks was dismissed in 1980 by Carter, a forceful bandleader, for drinking.
Some Other Time in 1981, with bassist Walter Booker and drummer Idris Muhammad, revealed more of Hicks as a composer, and included his best-known song, "Naima's Love Song".
Hicks was the leader of groups from the mid-1970s onwards. His small groups included a quartet featuring Sonny Fortune, Walter Booker, and Jimmy Cobb (1975–82, from 1990); a group featuring the flutist Elise Wood (with or without a drummer); and other groups featuring Gary Bartz, Vincent Herring, saxophonist Craig Handy, bassists Curtis Lundy or Ray Drummond and drummers Idris Muhammad or Victor Lewis. His quintets and sextets included Robin Eubanks and Tolliver (both from 1982), Branford Marsalis (1982–4), Hannibal Peterson (from 1983), Wynton Marsalis (1983–4), Craig Harris (1985–6), Eddie Henderson (1985–6, 1988–90), and Freeman (1985–8). A big band was created in autumn 1982 and revived on occasion subsequently. He played in the UK with Freeman's band in 1989.
From 1983, the flautist Elise Wood was frequently a member of his groups. As a duo, they played mostly jazz, but also some classical music. They formed a business partnership – John Hicks-Elise Wood, Inc. – and toured the US, Europe and Japan in the 1980s.
He also freelanced, including with players such as Arthur Blythe, David Murray, and Pharoah Sanders. During the 1980s, was a sideman for Richie Cole (1980), Arthur Blythe (In the Tradition), David Murray, Hamiet Bluiett, Art Davis, and Pharoah Sanders; recording with as Ricky Ford (1980, 1982), Alvin Queen (1981), Peter Leitch (1984), Herring (1986), and Bobby Watson (1986, 1988). In 1984, he had a big band that rehearsed; a sextet from it played concerts. From around 1989 into the 1990s, he played with the Mingus Dynasty band, including for performances of the symphony Epitaph. He recorded two albums in Japan in 1988 – the trio East Side Blues and the quartet Naima's Love Song, with altoist Bobby Watson added. By now making regular appearances at jazz festivals internationally, Hicks continued to perform in New York City.
Hicks divorced his wife, Olympia, in the early 1990s. The couple had a son and daughter (Jamil Malik and Naima).
Like many jazz musicians in the 1990s, Hicks recorded for multiple labels proposing different recording ideas. The resultant recordings included duo sessions with Jay McShann (1992) and Leitch (1994) for the American Reservoir Records, and several trio-based sessions for Japanese labels – the New York Unit with bassist Richard Davis and drummer Tatsuya Nakamura for Paddle Wheel Records, and the New York Rhythm Machine with bassist Marcus McLaurine and drummer Victor Lewis for Venus Records. These were followed by more trio recordings for other labels – the Keystone Trio of George Mraz and Muhammad for the Milestone label from 1995, and a longer-lasting band with Dwayne Dolphin on bass and Cecil Brooks III on drums for HighNote Records from 1997. The last of these included his most commercially successful recordings, which were tributes to other pianists, including Something to Live For: A Billy Strayhorn Songbook, Impressions of Mary Lou, and Fatha's Day: An Earl Hines Songbook. There were five such albums, all linked to Pittsburgh-associated pianist-composers; the other two were Nightwind: An Erroll Garner Songbook, and Music in the Key of Clark for Sonny Clark. Hicks played on five of David "Fathead" Newman's albums for HighNote, and was described in 2000 as the "HighNote house pianist".
There were also more dates as a sideman for Murray, Leitch, Blythe, Freeman, and Roy Hargrove (1989–90, 1995), Bartz (1990), Lake (1991), Steve Marcus and Valery Ponomarev (both 1993), Nick Brignola, Russell Gunn, and Kevin Mahogany (all 1994), the Mingus Big Band (c1995), Fortune (1996), and Jimmy Ponder (1997). As leader, his repertoire in the 1990s was often of familiar standards. He performed in the UK with the Mingus Big Band in 1999, and played on their album Blues and Politics in the same year. The pianist recorded the seventh instalment of the "Live at Maybeck Recital Hall" series of solo piano concerts which were recorded for Concord Records. He was part of Joe Lovano's quartet in 1998, which led to Hicks being part of the saxophonist's nonet from its formation the following year.
Hicks and Wood married in June 2001. He made a rare recording on organ (Hammond B3) on saxophonist Arthur Blythe's Exhale. Over the last decade or so of Hicks life, he recorded several collaborations with Elise Wood to mixed reviews (Single Petal of a Rose, Trio & Strings, Beautiful Friendship).
Towards the end of his life, Hicks taught at New York University and The New School in New York. Asked about his teaching in January 2006, Hicks replied that "I don't care how advanced my students are, I always start them off with the blues. It all comes from there." Early in 2006, Hicks again played in a big band, this time led by Charles Tolliver. In January and February, he toured Israel, chiefly playing Thelonious Monk compositions. Hicks' final studio recording was On the Wings of an Eagle in March 2006. His last performance was at St Mark's United Methodist Church in New York City a few days before he died. He died on May 10, 2006, from internal bleeding. Hicks is buried at South-View Cemetery in his hometown of Atlanta.
Wood survived him, and has led a band dedicated to his music. In the view of AllMusic reviewer Michael G. Nastos, "Hicks died before reaping the ultimate rewards and high praise he deserved". A collection of his papers and compositions, as well as video and audio recordings, is held by Duke University.
Fellow pianist George Cables stated that Hicks "was a very strong and energetic player, and a very warm player, very much part of the tradition". Hicks's playing was sometimes criticized as being insubstantial; The Penguin Guide to Jazz commented that "This [...] is missing the point. Almost always, he is more concerned to work within the dimensions of a song than to go off into the stratosphere."
Hicks had a style of his own, containing a "combination of irresistible creativity and responsiveness [...] encompassing swing, hard bop and the avant garde, and made him a first-call choice for many of the most important American modern jazz groups". A reviewer of a 1993 release, Lover Man: A Tribute to Billie Holiday, commented that Hicks "mastered the technique of shaping a piano chord so it sounds like the rising and falling of a breath". A few years later, another reviewer highlighted the "subtle dynamic shadings" of Hicks's left hand, and his "reverence for melody and a sense of musical destination that gives form to his improvisations." As an accompanist, Hicks played delicately, with carefully voiced chords.
Compositions and arrangements
His compositions "are wandering and melodic, suggestive and malleable yet memorable". He "enjoyed writing arrangements for a quintet or sextet, often, like the finest jazz composers, tailoring parts to specific musicians. In the past, these have included artists of the caliber of Bobby Watson and Vincent Herring; more recently he has been working with Javon Jackson and Elise [Wood]".
An asterisk (*) after the year indicates that it is the year of release.
|1975||Hells Bells||Strata-East||Trio, with Clint Houston (bass), Cliff Barbaro (drums); released 1980|
|1975||Steadfast||Strata-East||Solo piano; released 1980|
|1979||After the Morning||West 54||Some tracks solo piano; some tracks duo, with Walter Booker (bass); one track trio, with Cliff Barbaro (drums) added|
|1981||Some Other Time||Theresa||Most tracks trio, with Walter Booker (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums); two tracks solo piano|
|1982||John Hicks||Theresa||Some tracks solo piano; some tracks trio, with Bobby Hutcherson (vibes), Walter Booker (bass); one track duo, with Olympia Hicks (piano); reissue by Evidence added one track trio, with Olympia Hicks, Idris Muhammad (drums)|
|1984||In Concert||Theresa||Most tracks trio, with Walter Booker (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums); some tracks quartet, with Elise Wood (flute) or Bobby Hutcherson (vibes) added; in concert|
|1985||Inc. 1||DIW||Most tracks trio, with Walter Booker (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums); some tracks solo piano|
|1985||Sketches of Tokyo||DIW||Duo, with David Murray (tenor sax)|
|1986–87||Two of a Kind||Theresa||Duo, with Ray Drummond (bass)|
|1987||I'll Give You Something to Remember Me By||Limetree||Trio, with Curtis Lundy (bass) Idris Muhammad (drums)|
|1985–88||Luminous||Nilva||Some tracks duo, with Elise Wood (flute); some tracks quartet, with Walter Booker (bass), Jimmy Cobb, Alvin Queen (drums, separately) added; some tracks quintet, with Clifford Jordan (tenor sax) added|
|1988||East Side Blues||DIW||Trio, with Curtis Lundy (bass), Victor Lewis (drums)|
|1988||Naima's Love Song||DIW||Quartet, with Bobby Watson (alto sax), Curtis Lundy (bass), Victor Lewis (drums)|
|1989||Oleo||CBS/Sony||As New York Unit; quartet, with George Adams (tenor sax), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)|
|1989||Rhythm-a-Ning||Candid||As Kenny Barron-John Hicks Quartet; quartet, with Kenny Barron (piano), Walter Booker (bass), Jimmy Cobb (drums)|
|1990||Power Trio||Novus||Trio, with Cecil McBee (bass), Elvin Jones (drums)|
|1990||Is That So?||Timeless||Trio, with Ray Drummond (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums)|
|1990||Live at Maybeck Recital Hall, Volume Seven||Concord Jazz||Solo piano; in concert|
|1990||Blue Bossa||Paddle Wheel||As New York Unit; quartet, with George Adams (tenor sax), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)|
|1991||St. Thomas: Tribute to Great Tenors||Paddle Wheel||As New York Unit; trio, with Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)|
|1991–92||Tribute to George Adams||Paddle Wheel||As New York Unit; quartet; some tracks with George Adams, Dan Faulk (tenor sax; separately), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums); some tracks with Javon Jackson (tenor sax), Santi Debriano (bass), Nakamura (drums)|
|1992||Friends Old and New||Novus||Most tracks sextet, with Joshua Redman (tenor sax), Clark Terry and Greg Gisbert (trumpet), Ron Carter (bass), Grady Tate (drums); one track septet, with Al Grey (trombone) added|
|1992||Now's the Time||Paddle Wheel||As New York Unit; quartet, with Marvin "Hannibal" Peterson (trumpet), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)|
|1992||Crazy for You||Red Baron||Trio, with Wilbur Bascomb (bass), Kenny Washington (drums)|
|1992||Over the Rainbow||Paddle Wheel||As New York Unit; mostly quartet, with Pharoah Sanders (tenor sax), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums); also released by Evidence as Naima|
|1992||Single Petal of a Rose||Mapleshade||Some tracks duo, with Elise Wood (flute); some tracks trio or quartet, with Jack Walrath (trumpet), Walter Booker (bass) added|
|1992||After the Morning||DSM||Solo piano; in concert|
|1992||The Missouri Connection||Reservoir||Duo, with Jay McShann (piano, vocals); one track solo piano|
|1992||Blues March: Portrait of Art Blakey||Venus||As New York Rhythm Machine; trio, with Marcus McLaurine (bass), Victor Lewis (drums)|
|1992||Moanin': Portrait of Art Blakey||Venus||As New York Rhythm Machine; trio, with Marcus McLaurine (bass), Victor Lewis (drums)|
|1993||Beyond Expectations||Reservoir||Trio, with Ray Drummond (bass), Marvin "Smitty" Smith (drums)|
|1993||Lover Man: A Tribute to Billie Holiday||Red Baron||Trio, with Ray Drummond (bass), Victor Lewis (drums)|
|1994||Gentle Rain||Sound Hills||Trio, with Walter Booker, (bass) Louis Hayes (drums)|
|1994||Duality||Reservoir||With Peter Leitch (guitar)|
|1994||Akari||Apollon||As New York Unit; quartet, with Marvin "Hannibal" Peterson (trumpet), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)|
|1994||In the Mix||Landmark||Quintet, with Vincent Herring (alto sax, soprano sax), Elise Wood (flute), Curtis Lundy (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums)|
|1995||Piece for My Peace||Landmark||Some tracks solo piano; one track trio, with Curtis Lundy (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums); one track quintet, with Bobby Watson and Vincent Herring (alto sax) added; most tracks sextet, with Elise Wood (flute) added; one track duo, with Wood (flute)|
|1995||Heart Beats||Milestone||As Keystone Trio; with George Mraz (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums)|
|1997||Newklear Music||Milestone||As Keystone Trio; with George Mraz (bass), Idris Muhammad (drums)|
|1997||Something to Live For: A Billy Strayhorn Songbook||HighNote||Trio, with Dwayne Dolphin (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums)|
|1997||Nightwind: An Erroll Garner Songbook||HighNote||Trio, with Dwayne Dolphin (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums)|
|1997||Cry Me a River||Venus||Trio, with Dwayne Burno (bass), Victor Lewis (drums)|
|1997||Trio + Strings||Mapleshade||With Elise Wood (alto flute), Steve Novosel (bass), Ronnie Burrage (drums), Steve Williams (drums), Rick Schmidt (cello), Debbie Baker (viola), Charles Olive and Tom Ginsberg (violin)|
|1998||Impressions of Mary Lou||HighNote||Trio, with Dwayne Dolphin (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums)|
|1998||Ow!||Paddle Wheel||As New York Unit; quartet, with Javon Jackson (tenor sax), Richard Davis (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)|
|1998*||Hicks Time||Passin' Thru||Solo piano|
|2000||Beautiful Friendship||HiWood||Duo with Elise Wood (flute)|
|2001||Music in the Key of Clark||HighNote||Trio, with Dwayne Dolphin (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums)|
|2003||Fatha's Day: An Earl Hines Songbook||HighNote||Trio, with Dwayne Dolphin (bass), Cecil Brooks III (drums)|
|2003*||Besame Mucho||IJE||As New York Unit; trio, with Santi Debriano (bass), Tatsuya Nakamura (drums)|
|2005–06||Twogether||HighNote||Most tracks duo, with Frank Morgan (alto sax); some tracks solo piano|
|2006||On the Wings of an Eagle||Chesky||Trio, with Buster Williams (bass), Louis Hayes (drums)|
|2006||I Remember You||HighNote||Solo piano; in concert|
|2006||Sweet Love of Mine||HighNote||Some tracks quartet, with Javon Jackson (tenor sax), Curtis Lundy (bass), Victor Jones (drums); some tracks quintet, with Elise Wood (flute) added; some tracks sextet, with Ray Mantilla (percussion) added|
- ^ a b "Artist of the Month: John Hicks" Archived 2016-11-21 at the Wayback Machine. wicn.org. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Vacher, Peter (May 12, 2006) "John Hicks". The Guardian. Accessed November 30, 2022.
- ^ a b c Scott, Ron (May 18, 2006) "Pianist John Hicks Dies at 64". New York Amsterdam News p. 27.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Ankeny, Jason "Artist Biography". AllMusic.com Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Yanow, Scott; Kernfeld, Barry "Hicks, John". The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 2nd ed. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved November 20, 2016.(subscription required)
- ^ a b c Davis, Barry (January 26, 2006) "In the Mood for Monk". The Jerusalem Post. Accessed November 30, 2022.
- ^ a b Owsley 2006, p. 145.
- ^ Lewis, George E. (2008) A Power Stronger Than Itself: The AACM and American Experimental Music. University of Chicago Press, p. 136.
- ^ Steinbeck, Paul (2017). Message to Our Folks: The Art Ensemble of Chicago. The University of Chicago Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-226-37596-0.
- ^ Berliner 2009, p. 78.
- ^ Berliner 2009, p. 56.
- ^ Ratliff, Ben (May 13., 2006) "John Hicks, 64, Jazz Pianist Active on New York Scene, Is Dead". The New York Times.
- ^ "NEA Jazz Masters". National Endowment for the Arts. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
- ^ Carner, Gary (2013) Pepper Adams' Joy Road: An Annotated Discography. Scarecrow Press. Chapter 3.
- ^ a b Musto, Russ "Hicks, John". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved November 20, 2016. (Subscription required.)
- ^ a b c Schwartz, Steve; Fitzgerald, Michael "Chronology of Art Blakey (and the Jazz Messengers)". jazzdiscography.com. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- ^ a b Owsley 2006, p. 146.
- ^ Berliner 2009, p. 65.
- ^ a b Iverson, Ethan "Interview with George Cables (Part 1)". ethaniverson.com. Retrieved November 25, 2016.
- ^ Bauer 2003, p. 103.
- ^ a b c Schudel, Matt (May 19, 2006) "John Hicks, 64; Pianist Played Jazz with Blakey". The Washington Post.
- ^ Feather, Leonard & Gitler, Ira (2007) The Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz. p. 317. Oxford University Press.
- ^ Corroto, Mark (April 26, 2007) "John Hicks/Buster Williams/Louis Hayes: On the Wings of an Eagle". AllAboutJazz.
- ^ a b "John Hicks Catalog". jazzdisco.org. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
- ^ Minderman, Dean (January 29, 2012) "StLJN Audio Archive: John Hicks - Hells Bells". St. Louis Jazz Notes.
- ^ "Strata East LP Discography". jazzlists.com. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
- ^ Bauer 2003, p. 131.
- ^ Bauer 2003, p. 153.
- ^ Fordham, John (February 17, 1989) "Chico Freeman". The Guardian. p. 28.
- ^ Stokes, W. Royal (February 12, 1984) "Hicks' Licks". The Washington Post. p. L3.
- ^ Gourse, Leslie (1996) Madame Jazz: Contemporary Women Instrumentalists. Oxford University Press. p. 114. ISBN 9780195106473.
- ^ Wilson, John S. (July 7, 1984) "Jazz: John Hicks and Sextet". The New York Times. p. 11.
- ^ Joyce, Mike (September 13, 1991) "Power Trio Key to Hicks's Piano". The Washington Post. p. 14.
- ^ Cook, Stephen "John Hicks: Naima's Love Song". AllMusic. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- ^ Flanagan, Graham L. (May 9, 2009) "John Hicks: Live at the Jazz Corner of the World, Jammin' Uptown & Mind Wine: The Music of John Hicks". AllAboutJazz.
- ^ Henderson, Alex "John Hicks: Is That So?". AllMusic. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- ^ "RSR CD 124". Reservoir Music. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
- ^ "RSR CD 134". Reservoir Music. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
- ^ "New York Unit Discography". jazzdisco.org. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
- ^ "New York Rhythm Machine Catalog". jazzdisco.org. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
- ^ "Keystone Trio Discography". jazzdisco.org. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
- ^ a b Haga, Evan (May 11, 2006) "Pianist John Hicks Dies at 64". JazzTimes.
- ^ Siders, Harvey (January 1, 2004) "John Hicks: Fatha's Day: An Earl Hines Songbook". JazzTimes.
- ^ Cordle, Owen (May 1, 2007) "David 'Fathead' Newman: Life". JazzTimes.
- ^ Jenkins, Willard (July 1, 2000) "David 'Fathead' Newman: Chillin'". JazzTimes.
- ^ Henderson, Alex "John Hicks: Beyond Expectations". AllMusic. Retrieved November 26, 2016.
- ^ Ashley, Tim (August 19, 1999) "Rollicking but Tender". The Guardian p. 14.
- ^ Bogle, Dick (November 17, 1999) "Dick's Picks: Blues and Politics". The Skanner. p. 10.
- ^ Booth, Philip (July 11, 1998) "Saxist Joe Lovano's Got a 'Trio Fascination'". Billboard 110.28. p. 38.
- ^ Rupp, Carla (January 29, 2011) "Joe Lovano". Jazz Review.
- ^ "Weddings; Elise Wood, John Hicks Jr.". The New York Times. June 24, 2001
- ^ Niland, Tim (December 7, 2003) "Exhale by Arthur Blythe". Jazz Review.
- ^ Butters, Rex (August 25, 2003) "Arthur Blythe: Exhale". All About Jazz.
- ^ "Jazz" (January 20, 2006). The New York Times. p. E28.
- ^ Cook & Morton 2008, p. 700.
- ^ Powell, Kay (May 19, 2006). "John J. Hicks Jr., 64, jazz pianist from Atlanta". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. p. D5. Archived from the original on June 11, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2020 – via newspapers.com.
- ^ a b Payne, Douglas (January 25, 2009) "The John Hicks Legacy Band: Mind Wine – The Music of John Hicks". AllAboutJazz.
- ^ Nastos, Michael G. "John Hicks: I Remember You". AllMusic. Retrieved November 26, 2016
- ^ "Guide to the John Hicks Papers, 1950–2006". Duke University Libraries. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
- ^ Cook & Morton 2008, p. 822.
- ^ Himes, Geoffrey (June 4, 1993) "John Hicks's Vocal Piano Jazz". The Washington Post. p. H16.
- ^ Bennett, Bill (March 1, 2000) "John Hicks: Nightwind: An Erroll Garner Songbook". JazzTimes.
- ^ Palmer, Robert (July 25, 1977) "Jazz: John Hicks: Extrovert Pianist Performs Standards and Originals". The New York Times. p. 21.
- ^ Westbrook, Peter (April 27, 2006) "Sweet Love of Mine by John Hicks". Jazz Review.
- ^ Allmusic Heart Beats review
- ^ Allmusic Newklear Music review
- Bauer, William R. (2003). Open the Door: The Life and Music of Betty Carter. University of Michigan Press.
- Berliner, Paul F. (2009). Thinking in Jazz: The Infinite Art of Improvisation. University of Chicago Press.
- Cook, Richard; Morton, Brian (2008). The Penguin Guide to Jazz Recordings (9th ed.). Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-103401-0.
- Owsley, Dennis (2006). City of Gabriels: The History of Jazz in St. Louis, 1895–1973. Reedy.
- 1941 births
- 2006 deaths
- African-American jazz composers
- African-American jazz pianists
- American male pianists
- Chesky Records artists
- DIW Records artists
- The Jazz Messengers members
- American male jazz composers
- American jazz composers
- Milestone Records artists
- Mingus Big Band members
- Musicians from Atlanta
- Palmetto Records artists
- Red Baron Records artists
- Reservoir Records artists
- Strata-East Records artists
- Sumner High School (St. Louis) alumni
- Timeless Records artists
- Mapleshade Records artists
- 20th-century jazz composers
- HighNote Records artists
- Burials at South-View Cemetery
- 20th-century American male musicians