John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter
|The Duke of Exeter|
Arms of arms of John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter: Plantagenet within a bordure argent semy of fleurs-de-lys or
|Died||16 January 1400(aged 47–48)|
|Title||Earl of Huntingdon (1388)
Duke of Exeter (1397)
|Spouse(s)||Elizabeth of Lancaster|
John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter
Sir Edward Holland
|Parent(s)||Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent
Joan of Kent, "The Fair Maid of Kent"
John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter KG (c. 1352 – 16 January 1400) also 1st Earl of Huntingdon, was an English nobleman, a half-brother of King Richard II (1377–1399), to whom he remained strongly loyal. He is primarily remembered for being suspected of assisting in the downfall of King Richard's uncle Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester (1355–1397) (youngest son of King Edward III) and then for conspiring against King Richard's first cousin and eventual deposer, Henry Bolingbroke, later King Henry IV (1399–1413).
He was the third son of Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent by his wife Joan of Kent, "The Fair Maid of Kent", daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, a son of King Edward I (1272–1307). The Earl of Kent was a title that was created multiple times, including once for Edmund of Woodstock and once for John Holland. Joan later married her cousin Edward, the Black Prince, the eldest son and heir apparent of her first cousin King Edward III, by whom she had a son King Richard II, who was thus a half-brother of John Holland.
Holland had a violent temper, which got him in trouble several times. The most famous incident occurred during Richard II's 1385 expedition to the Kingdom of Scotland. An archer in the service of Ralph Stafford, eldest son of Hugh Stafford, 2nd Earl of Stafford, killed one of Holland's esquires. Stafford went to find Holland to apologize, but Holland killed him as soon as he identified himself. King Richard thereupon ordered the forfeiture of Holland's lands. Their mother, Joan of Kent, died shortly afterwards, it was said of grief at the quarrel between two of her sons.
Early in 1386 Holland reconciled with the Staffords, and had his property restored. Later in 1386 he married Elizabeth of Lancaster, a daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (younger brother of the Black Prince) by his wife Blanche of Lancaster. He and Elizabeth then went on Gaunt's expedition to Spain, where Holland was appointed constable of the English army. After his return to the Kingdom of England, on 2 June 1388 Holland was created Earl of Huntingdon, by Act of Parliament. In 1389 he was appointed Lord Great Chamberlain for life, Admiral of the Fleet in the Western Seas, and constable of Tintagel Castle in Cornwall. During this time he also received large grants of land from King Richard.
Over the next few years he held a number of additional offices: Constable of Conway Castle (1394); Governor of Carlisle (1395); Warden (1398) later Constable-General, of the West Marches towards Scotland. His military service was interrupted by a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1394.
In 1397 Holland had marched with King Richard to arrest the latter's uncle Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester and Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel, and later seized and held Arundel Castle at the king's request. As a reward, on 29 September 1397 he was created Duke of Exeter.
In 1399 he accompanied King Richard on his expedition to Ireland. Following their return the king sent him to try to negotiate with his own first cousin and Holland's brother-in-law Henry Bolingbroke, son of John of Gaunt. After Bolingbroke deposed Richard in 1399 and took the throne as King Henry IV (1399–1413), he called to account those who had been involved in the arrest and downfall of his uncle Thomas of Woodstock, and confiscated all rewards and titles received by them from King Richard. Thus Holland was stripped of his dukedom, becoming again merely Earl of Huntingdon.
Early in 1400 Holland entered into a conspiracy, known as the Epiphany Rising, with his nephew Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent and with Thomas le Despencer, 1st Earl of Gloucester and others. Their aim was to assassinate King Henry and his sons, and to return Richard, then in prison, to the throne. The plot failed and Holland fled, but was caught, near Pleshy Castle in Essex, and executed on 16 January 1400. Among those who witnessed the execution was Arundel's son, Thomas Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel.
Marriage and children
In 1386 he married Elizabeth of Lancaster, a daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster (younger brother of the Black Prince) by his wife Blanche of Lancaster, by whom he had children including:
- Richard Holland, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon (died 3 September 1400), eldest son and heir, who survived his father only 7 months
- John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter (1395–1447), second son, to whom in 1416 (after the death of his elder brother) was restored his father's dukedom.
- Sir Edward Holland (c. 1399 – after 1413)
- Constance Holland (1387–1437), married first Thomas Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk, married second Sir John Grey, KG
- Elizabeth Holland (c. 1389 – 1449), married Sir Roger Fiennes
- Alice Holland (c. 1392 – c. 1406), married Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford
He was executed on 16 January 1400, following the failure of the Epiphany Rising conspiracy against King Henry IV.
|Ancestors of John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter|
- Anthony Goodman, The Loyal Conspiracy:The Lords Appellant under Richard II, (University of Miami Press, 1971), 48.
- Philip J. Potter, Monarchs of the Renaissance: The Lives and Reigns of 42 European Kings and Queens, (McFarland Publishing, 2012), 11.
- Goodman, p.47.
- Goodman, p.53.
- Goodman, p.66.
- Goodman, p.71.
- Christopher Allmand, Henry V, (University of California Press, 1992), 372.
- "Sir John Holland kills Lord Ralph Stafford". Froissart's Chronicles.
- Goodman, Anthony (1971). The Loyal Conspiracy:The Lords Appellant under Richard II. University of Miami Press.
- Hardy, W. H. (1891). "John Holand, duke of Exeter and earl of Huntingdon (1352?-1400)". Dictionary of National Biography. 27: 147–148.
The Duke of Ireland
|Lord Great Chamberlain
1389 – 1399?
The Earl of Oxford
|Justice of Chester
1381 – 1385
The Duke of York
The Duke of Gloucester
|Justice of Chester
1391 – 1394
The Earl of Nottingham
|Peerage of England|
|New creation||Duke of Exeter
1397 – 1399 (forfeit)
Restored 1416 (Earl)
and 1439 (Duke)
|Earl of Huntingdon
1387 – 1400 (forfeit)