John Horgan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

John Horgan
Horgan in 2017
Canadian Ambassador to Germany
Assumed office
December 8, 2023
Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau
Preceded byIsabelle Poupart (acting)
36th Premier of British Columbia
In office
July 18, 2017 – November 18, 2022
Lieutenant Governor
Preceded byChristy Clark
Succeeded byDavid Eby
Leader of the Opposition of British Columbia
In office
May 4, 2014 – July 18, 2017
PremierChristy Clark
Preceded byAdrian Dix
Succeeded byChristy Clark
Leader of the British Columbia New Democratic Party
In office
May 4, 2014 – October 21, 2022
Preceded byAdrian Dix
Succeeded byDavid Eby
Member of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia
In office
May 17, 2005 – March 31, 2023
Preceded byBrian Kerr
Succeeded byRavi Parmar
Personal details
John Joseph Horgan

(1959-08-07) August 7, 1959 (age 64)
Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  • Canada
  • Ireland[1]
Political partyNew Democratic
SpouseEllie Horgan
Alma mater
  • Diplomat
  • politician
  • consultant

John Joseph Horgan (born August 7, 1959) is a Canadian diplomat and former politician who has been the Canadian ambassador to Germany since 2023. Horgan served as the 36th premier of British Columbia from 2017 to 2022, and also as the leader of the British Columbia New Democratic Party from 2014 to 2022. Horgan was the member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) for the constituency of Langford-Juan de Fuca and its predecessors from 2005 to 2023.

Horgan was born and raised in Victoria, British Columbia.[2] In June 2006, he was appointed the Official Opposition critic for the Ministry of Energy and Mines in New Democrat leader Carole James' shadow cabinet, having previously served as the Official Opposition critic for the Ministry of Education. In January 2011, he announced his candidacy for leadership of the BC NDP in the 2011 leadership election, finishing third.

Following the leadership election, he was appointed the Official Opposition critic for Energy, and Opposition house leader.[3] He was replaced by Bruce Ralston as Opposition house leader following his entry into the 2014 leadership election.

On March 17, 2014, he announced his candidacy in the 2014 leadership election,[4] with the slogan "Real Leadership. For All BC".[5] During the campaign he talked at length about the necessity of balancing the need for jobs and resource development, while protecting BC's natural environment.[6] Horgan was acclaimed to the position on May 1, 2014, and was officially inaugurated as party leader on May 5, 2014.[7]

In the 2017 provincial election held on May 9, 2017, Premier Christy Clark's BC Liberal government was reduced to 43 seats, one seat short of a majority. On May 29, 2017, it was announced that the NDP and Green Party of British Columbia had reached a confidence and supply agreement in which the Greens would support an NDP minority government for four years.[8] After the legislature was recalled, Clark sought its confidence in the Liberal government. Following a non-confidence motion on June 29, 2017, which was won (44–42) by the combined votes of the NDP and Green members, Lieutenant Governor Judith Guichon turned down Clark's request for a snap election[9] and invited the NDP to form a minority government. Subsequently, Horgan succeeded Clark as the premier of British Columbia. Horgan was the first NDP premier of the province since Ujjal Dosanjh in 2001.

On September 21, 2020, Horgan called a snap election that was held on October 24. On November 8, with the final vote count completed, the NDP won a record 57 seats with the highest share of the popular vote in the party's history and formed a majority government for the first time since the 1996 general election.[10] The election result made Horgan British Columbia's first two-term NDP premier.[11] During his second term, Horgan became the longest serving BC NDP premier in the province's history.[12]

On June 28, 2022, Horgan announced that he would be stepping down as premier and NDP party leader once a new leader had been chosen.[13] Horgan was succeeded by David Eby on November 18, 2022. On November 1, 2023, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announced that Horgan would be appointed as Canada's ambassador to Germany.[14] Horgan presented his credentials to the German president on December 8.[15]

Early life and career[edit]

Horgan was born on August 7, 1959, in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, the son of Alice May (Clutterbuck) and Pat Horgan.[16][17][18] His father's passing when he was just 18 months old left his mother to raise him and his three siblings.[19] He worked multiple jobs to save money for university, including at a pulp mill in Ocean Falls. Horgan met his wife Ellie Horgan in 1979 while studying at Trent University in Peterborough, Ontario. They have two sons together.[20] In 1983, Horgan earned a Bachelor of Arts from Trent. In 2008, Horgan was diagnosed with bladder cancer; he was eventually declared cancer free after surgery and treatment.[21]

He waited tables at the Keg in Victoria before earning his master's degree in history from the University of Sydney in 1986. Returning to Canada he went to Ottawa and worked as a legislative assistant to James Manly and later to Lynn Hunter. Horgan returned to Victoria in 1991 and became ministerial assistant to Dave Zirnhelt. In 1993, he was named analyst in the Policy Coordination Branch of the Ministry of Government Services, and in 1996, director at the Cabinet Policy and Communications Secretariat, Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations. His positions from 1991 through 1998 saw him assume increasing responsibilities within government, including lead negotiator on the Columbia Basin Trust and as a participant on teams for the Columbia River Treaty and Land Use Plans. In 1998, he worked as a director in the Crown Corporations Secretariat before going on to work at Columbia Power as director of Corporate Affairs, focusing on getting Keenleyside and Brilliant dams repowered. In 1999, he was appointed chief of staff in the office of Premier Dan Miller. His last job in government was at the level of associate deputy minister working in the Ministry of Finance on energy projects. Following the change of government in 2001, Horgan created a small business that focused on policy, management, research and government liaison work.[22] He formed a consulting company called IdeaWorks, along with former deputy minister Nancy Thompson, former NDP caucus research director Mary O'Donoghue, and two former NDP bureaucrats—Ian Reid and John Heaney—with whom he worked in the Ministry of Management Services in the 1990s, overseeing the expansion of gambling across the province. IdeaWorks was credited with developing a sophisticated campaign in 2003 by which they were successful in convincing Vancouver City Council to lift a moratorium on slot machines.[23]

Early years as MLA (2005–2014)[edit]

38th Parliament[edit]

As the 2005 provincial election was approaching, the 45-year-old Horgan won the NDP nomination against Julie Thomas of Shawnigan Lake in the riding of Malahat-Juan de Fuca.[24] The incumbent MLA Brian Kerr was not seeking re-election, so in the general election Horgan faced BC Liberal Cathy Basskin of Cowichan Bay, Democratic Reform BC party leader Tom Morino, Green Party candidate Steven Hurdle, and Western Canada Concept candidate Pattie O'Brien. Though Horgan won his riding, the NDP under Carole James's leadership formed the Official Opposition to the BC Liberals who formed a majority government.

Horgan was named to the NDP front bench as its education critic. He criticized the government's 2005 Teachers' Collective Agreement Act which legislated teachers into a new contract (which was later overturned after 11 years of litigation by the Supreme Court of Canada on the basis of violating the Canadian Constitution),[25] after several months of unsuccessful collective bargaining, as "[inflaming] an already volatile situation".[26] In June 2006, Horgan was named energy and mines critic. Horgan called for the BC Oil and Gas Commission to provide more transparent reporting after it was reported that its annual 97 percent compliance rating was near-perfect, despite 2,500 known infractions, the majority of which were rated major or serious.[27] Following a sudden sharp increase in gasoline prices in early 2007, Horgan introduced the Retail Petroleum Consumer Protection Act as a private member bill which, if passed, would have put gasoline prices under the jurisdiction of the BC Utilities Commission, the same as electricity and natural gas.[28] The bill was supported by an 18,000-signature petition[29] and elicited editorial responses from Minister Neufeld and Christy Clark.[30][31]

In January 2007, Horgan accused Premier Gordon Campbell of conflict-of-interest due to his owning of shares of Alcan while signing an order-in-council approving an agreement between Alcan and BC Hydro (part of the BC Liberals attempt to privatize electricity generation in BC) which was subsequently overturned by the Utilities Commission as being not in the public interest.[32] The Ethics Commissioner cleared Campbell of wrongdoing but made a recommendation that cabinet ministers and other senior officials place their assets in blind trusts.[33] Horgan subsequently introduced this recommendation as the private member bill Members' Conflict of Interest Amendment Act in the third and fourth sessions and a similar but more comprehensive bill, in line with the Federal Accountability Act, but they were not advanced beyond first reading.[34]

In 2007, following a legislative amendment that immediately increased MLA salaries by 29%, Horgan, along with all other NDP MLAs, donated the increase to charities in his riding, such as hospices and food banks, for the remainder of the 38th Parliament.[35][36][37]

39th Parliament[edit]

Horgan was acclaimed as the NDP candidate for the 2009 election in the Juan de Fuca riding. He defeated Colwood mayor Jody Twa of the BC Liberals and Metchosin farmer James Powell of the Green Party. In the 39th Parliament, the NDP again formed the Official Opposition to the BC Liberals, who formed their third consecutive majority government. Party leader Carole James kept Horgan as Energy and Mines critic. Horgan was critical of the government overturning the BC Utilities Commission's decision on obtaining electricity from independent power producers[38] and exempting the Site C dam and the northwest transmission line projects from Utilities Commission review, arguing that the projects were not in the public interest.[39] Horgan linked the government's imposition of private IPP electricity purchasing agreements on BC Hydro and the exemption of BC Utilities Commission review of major public projects (including the smart meter implementation program)[40] to increases in BC Hydro rates.[41][42] Horgan responded to the government's energy plan with an editorial[43][44] to which Minister Blair Lekstrom responded.[45][46] Horgan presented to the legislature a declaration of opposition to the Site C project, as signed by Peace River area residents and First Nations.[47]

During criticism of party leader Carole James, Horgan remained loyal by refusing to join in the criticism.[48] Following her resignation, the 51-year-old Horgan put himself forward as a leadership candidate for the NDP. He campaigned on policy platforms including a comprehensive review of taxation under a Fair Tax Commission,[49] expanding the carbon tax to include the exempted large industrial emitters,[50] getting the Evergreen Line and light rail to the Western Communities built, implementing the recommendations of the Select Standing Committee on Aquaculture, continuing the ban on North Coast tanker traffic and offshore oil exploration, and introducing an Endangered Species Act.[51] He was endorsed by Robin Austin, Gary Coons, Kathy Corrigan, Scott Fraser, Maurine Karagianis, Bill Routley, Shane Simpson, and Claire Trevena, as well as Harry Lali[52] and Nicholas Simons[53] after they dropped out of the race. Opinion polling placed Horgan third behind Adrian Dix and Mike Farnworth, but being seen as a suitable compromise candidate between the party's preferred stronger candidate of Dix and the more likable Farnworth.[54][55][56] Dix went on to win and assigned Horgan back to the role of critic for the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources which Doug Donaldson had overseen during the leadership election, as well as adding house leader to his duties.[57]

Leader of the Opposition (2014–2017)[edit]

40th Parliament[edit]

In the 2013 election Horgan again won the Juan de Fuca riding, this time against BC Liberal candidate and Sooke councillor Kerrie Reay and Green Party candidate Carlos Serra. On the local level, his campaign focused on transportation issues[58] and regional growth[59] while on the provincial campaign he promised a comprehensive review of BC Hydro, in particular its debt load, commitments to independent power producers, and future infrastructure requirements,[60] and advocated a market-driven approach to creating a liquefied natural gas industry, in contrast to the BC Liberal approach, at the time, of presenting expressions of interest as committed future revenue.[61] The NDP were favoured to win the general election but, while Horgan won his riding, the party again formed the Official Opposition with Horgan returning to his role as critic for the energy portfolio in the 40th Parliament. Shortly after the election, Horgan and Minister of Energy and Mines Bill Bennett exchanged op-eds regarding new BC Hydro rate increases and cost overruns in the Northwest Transmission line project.[62][63]

In September 2013, Dix announced his resignation as NDP leader and both Horgan and Farnsworth were immediately considered front-runners to replace him. A month later Horgan stated his intention not to run and encouraged the younger NDP MLAs, such as David Eby, Spencer Chandra Herbert and Rob Fleming, to enter the leadership race.[64] However, by January 2014 only Mike Farnworth announced an intention to run.[65] With Farnworth formally declaring his candidacy in early March 2014,[66] Horgan was urged to re-considered. The 54-year old Horgan announced his candidacy on March 17 backed by Carole James, Maurine Karagianis and Bill Routley.[67] David Eby and Michelle Mungall endorsed him and co-chaired his campaign[68] and within a week 15 MLAs endorsed him.[69] In early April, with Horgan receiving further endorsements from Dawn Black, Joe Trasolini and Fin Donnelly – all figures from Farnworth's Tri-Cities-area,[70] Farnworth withdrew from the leadership race, leaving Horgan the sole candidate.[71] After the deadline for nominations passed on May 1, Horgan was acclaimed leader of the BC NDP and became the leader of the Opposition. He appointed Farnsworth as opposition house leader, with Mungall as his deputy and critic of social development,[72] and split his old position of critic position into three parts divided between Norm Macdonald as critic of energy and mines, Bruce Ralston on natural gas, Dix on BC Hydro, as well as charging the younger MLAs with significant portfolios, like Rob Fleming with education, Spencer Chandra Herbert with environment, and David Eby with eight specific critic responsibilities.[73]

Just prior to becoming leader, the parliament's second session, Horgan introduced two private member bills, the Standing Committee Reform Act, 2014 (Bill M-203) that would have expanded the scope of their terms of reference and required they be appointed at the beginning of each parliament with membership in proportion to party standings, and the Parliamentary Calendar Act, 2014 (Bill M-204) that would have legislated that the parliament must convene in the Spring and Fall of each year. After he became leader, these two bills were re-introduced by NDP critic on democratic reform Gary Holman in the fourth session (2015). As leader, Horgan introduced three bills, all in the fifth session: the Hydro Affordability Act, 2016 (Bill M-206) that would allow the Utilities Commission to require a utility to offer a 'lifeline rate' to low-income households, the Speculator Tracking and Housing Affordability Fund Act, 2016 (Bill M-209) that would have allowed participating jurisdictions that levy a 2% property tax on residential properties held vacant for use in affordable housing initiatives, and Campaign Finance Reform Act, 2016 (Bill M-213) that would ban corporations and unions from making financial political contributions and require the chief electoral officer review and provide recommendations regarding the financing of the political process. In the sixth session, Horgan introduced the Get Big Money Out of Politics Act, 2017 which would ban union and corporate donations to political campaigns, prohibit political contributions from foreigners, and prohibit the premier and ministers from receiving second salaries.[74]

Premier of British Columbia (2017–2022)[edit]

41st Parliament[edit]

In the 2017 general election, Horgan sought re-election in the Langford-Juan de Fuca riding. His opponents included BC Liberal candidate Cathy Noel, BC Green candidate Brendan Ralfs, as well as Scott Burton of the BC Libertarian Party and Willie Nelson of the newly formed Vancouver Island Party.[75] In his capacity as party leader, Horgan spent much of the campaign travelling the province endorsing local candidates. He engaged in debates with the BC Liberal and BC Green leaders, namely Christy Clark and Andrew Weaver.[76] Despite initially leading in the polls, his party ultimately secured only 41 seats, relegating them to the role of the Official Opposition, while the BC Liberals and BC Green Party won 43 and 3 seats respectively. Horgan and Weaver, however, struck a confidence-and-supply agreement (which both parties' caucuses endorsed), giving the NDP-Green coalition one more seat than the Liberals.[77]

Clark however did not resign, arguing she had a constitutional duty to test Parliament's confidence as the incumbent premier. Clark initiated the first session of the 41st Parliament of British Columbia on June 22.[78][79] On June 28, Horgan introduced a no-confidence motion as an amendment to the Speech from the Throne. With both the NDP and the BC Greens, who held 41 seats and 3 seats respectively, voting for the amendment, it was passed on a 44–42 vote. The passage of the no-confidence motion marked the first time that a BC government has been defeated in the legislature.[80]Clark then asked Lieutenant Governor Judith Guichon to dissolve parliament and call a new election, despite having previously stated that she would not make such a request and would resign as premier if her party lost a no-confidence vote.[81] She argued that the NDP could not provide stable government because it needed to appoint one of its members as Speaker, and that person would have to frequently use their casting vote to break 43–43 ties. Guichon rejected this argument and instead invited Horgan to form government.[82] The Horgan ministry was duly sworn in on July 18, 2017.[83]

With Clark resigning her seat in August and Liberal MLA Darryl Plecas agreeing to take the Speaker's post in September (for which he was subsequently expelled from his party), along with the BC Green votes in confidence motions, Horgan was able to continue in office by one seat without requiring the speaker to cast a tie-breaking vote.[84] The 41st Parliament would convene for five sessions of variable lengths between June 22, 2017, and September 21, 2020, before Horgan called a snap election.

On December 7, 2017, Horgan announced that, following a review and despite his earlier opposition, the NDP government had decided to continue with construction of the Site C hydroelectric power plant. Horgan cited the review conducted by the BC Utilites Commission, which found that the cost to taxpayers of continuing with the project would be less than that of cancelling the project.[85] Horgan emphasized that the NDP would not have chosen to start the project.

By January 1, 2020, Horgan fulfilled a campaign promise to eliminate monthly medical service plan fees for individuals. The fee revenue was replaced with a payroll tax, paid solely by employers, not exceeding 1.95 percent of an employer's total remuneration (with an exemption for employers whose total remuneration does not exceed $500,000, hence exempting many small businesses from the tax).[86]

42nd Parliament[edit]

Elections in British Columbia must be held at least every four years, but the lieutenant governor has the right to dissolve Parliament early (in practice only ever on the advice of the premier). On September 21, 2020, Horgan asked Lieutenant Governor Janet Austin for an early election, ending the NDP-Green confidence and supply agreement that had allowed the NDP-Green coalition to form government following the 2017 election. In accordance with provincial constitutional practice, Austin granted the request, setting an election for October 24.[87] It was the first snap election in the province since 1986.

Horgan led the BC NDP to a decisive victory with 57 seats—the most the party had ever won in a provincial election, and the first time since 1996 that the NDP had won government in its own right. Several campaign issues were focused on, including whether or not to end the monopoly on car insurance held by the province's public insurer ICBC or to switch to a no-fault model.

On March 3, 2021, Horgan introduced Bill 9, the Local Elections Statutes Amendment Act 2021, a piece of legislation that regulated municipal elections in the province with regard to campaign financing and spending. It required all elector organizations (local municipal parties) to register and publish financial statements (including campaign financing and spending) with Elections BC. The bill was intended to improve transparency in municipal elections. The bill became law, coming into force for municipal elections on or after October 1, 2022.[88]

On October 28, 2021, it was announced that Horgan had discovered a growth in his throat that required surgery. As a result, he appointed Mike Farnworth as deputy premier.[89] Horgan underwent "successful" surgery on October 29, 2021. Six days later, Horgan announced that the growth was malignant. He said that he would require radiation treatment, and that he anticipated "a full recovery". He also said he planned to continue on as premier, and that he would take part in meetings virtually, but that Farnworth or other ministers might attend in-person at events on his behalf.[90]

From January 1, 2022, onwards, legislation introduced in 2021 required a minimum of five paid sick days per year for all employee's covered by the BC Employment Standards Act (ESA). This made BC the first province in Canada to implement legislation requiring employers to provide employees with paid sick leave and was part of the province's response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[91]

On June 28, 2022, Horgan announced that he would be stepping down as premier and NDP party leader once a new leader had been chosen to replace him.[13] On February 9, 2023, Horgan announced that he would resign as an MLA that March and retire from politics.[92] The by-election to replace him was held on June 24, 2023, which saw the NDP candidate Ravi Parmar win with 53.35% of the vote.[93]

Post-political career[edit]

Horgan's resignation as an MLA took effect on March 31, 2023. Shortly afterwards, The Globe and Mail reported that he would join the board of Elk Valley Resources, a new subsidiary of Teck Resources that produces metallurgical coal, pending shareholder approval.[94] However, Teck ultimately decided against splitting its coal and metal businesses and the appointment did not happen.[95]

He was appointed by Justin Trudeau to be the next ambassador to Germany on November 1, 2023.[95][96]

Electoral results[edit]

2020 British Columbia general election: Langford-Juan de Fuca
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
New Democratic John Horgan 18,073 67.89 +15.14 $29,254.09
Green Gord Baird 4,437 16.67 −2.46 $15,772.59
Liberal Kelly Darwin 3,980 14.95 −11.15 $3,601.34
Communist Tyson Riel Strandlund 130 0.49 $123.40
Total valid votes 26,620 99.54
Total rejected ballots 122 0.46 +0.03
Turnout 26,742 55.35 –6.76
Registered voters 48,316
New Democratic hold Swing +8.80
Source: Elections BC[97][98]
2017 British Columbia general election: Langford-Juan de Fuca
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
New Democratic John Horgan 13,224 52.75 -0.56 $57,955
Liberal Cathy Noel 6,544 26.11 -4.66 $59,254
Green Brendan Ralfs 4,795 19.13 +3.22 $5,406
Libertarian Scott Burton 262 1.05 $202
Vancouver Island Party Willie Nelson 242 0.97 $0
Total valid votes 25,067 99.57
Total rejected ballots 108 0.43 +0.04
Turnout 25,175 62.11 +4.04
Registered voters 40,532
New Democratic hold Swing +2.05
Source: Elections BC[99][100]
2013 British Columbia general election: Juan de Fuca
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
New Democratic John Horgan 12,338 53.32 −3.89 $97,977
Liberal Kerrie Reay 7,120 30.77 −3.33 $19,846
Green Carlos Serra 3,682 15.91 +7.23 $812
Total valid votes 23,140 99.61
Total rejected ballots 91 0.39 -0.14
Turnout 23,231 58.07 -1.79
Registered voters 40,002
New Democratic hold Swing -0.28
Source: Elections BC[101]
2009 British Columbia general election: Juan de Fuca
Party Candidate Votes % Expenditures
New Democratic John Horgan 11,520 57.21 $73,822
Liberal Jody Twa 6,866 34.10 $149,286
Green James Powell 1,749 8.69 $1,635
Total valid votes 20,135 99.47
Total rejected ballots 107 0.53
Turnout 20,242 59.87
Registered voters 33,812

2005 British Columbia general election: Malahat-Juan de Fuca
Party Candidate Votes % Expenditures
New Democratic John Horgan 12,460 46.09 $42,953
Liberal Cathy Basskin 10,528 38.94 $24,538
Green Steven Hurdle 2,610 9.65 $1,488
Democratic Reform Tom Morino 1,256 4.65 $2,775
Western Canada Concept Pattie O'Brien 180 0.67 $100
Total valid votes 27,034 100
Total rejected ballots 128 0.47
Turnout 27,162 69.57


  1. ^ "John Horgan on Instagram: "My father was born in Ireland and I still have an Irish passport, so I've marked the occasion for as long as I can remember. I'll be..."". March 17, 2021. Archived from the original on December 23, 2021. Retrieved November 29, 2021 – via Instagram.
  2. ^ "Juan de Fuca candidates and riding profile". Times Colonist. April 30, 2013. Archived from the original on November 11, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  3. ^ MacLeod, Andrew (April 26, 2011). "Dix announces BC NDP shadow cabinet". The Tyee. Archived from the original on August 11, 2017. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  4. ^ "John Horgan enters B.C. NDP leadership race with support of former leader". The Globe and Mail. March 17, 2014. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 18, 2014.
  5. ^ Archived March 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Shaw, Rob (April 8, 2014). "NDP's Farnworth abandons leadership run to back Horgan (updated)". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on June 24, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  7. ^ "John Horgan acclaimed new leader of B.C. NDP". CBC News. May 3, 2014. Archived from the original on May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
  8. ^ McElroy, Justin (May 29, 2017). "B.C. Green Party agrees to support NDP in the legislature". CBC News. Archived from the original on June 3, 2017. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  9. ^ McElroy, Justin; Zussman, Richard (June 30, 2017). "Showdown at Government House: the meeting that ended 16 years of B.C. Liberal rule". CBC News. Retrieved June 3, 2023.
  10. ^ Andrew, Weichel (November 8, 2020). "NDP winds 57 seats in final vote count of B.C. election". The Globe and Mail. CTV News. Archived from the original on December 1, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  11. ^ Schmunk, Rhianna (October 24, 2020). "B.C. NDP will form decisive majority government, CBC News projects". CBC News. Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  12. ^ Baldrey, Keith (November 8, 2021). "Opinion: Amid cancer diagnosis, Premier John Horgan hits a BC NDP milestone". Burnaby Now. Glacier Media Group. Retrieved August 15, 2022.
  13. ^ a b "John Horgan to announce he will step down as B.C. premier". Global News. Retrieved June 28, 2022.
  14. ^ "Former B.C. premier John Horgan named Canada's next ambassador to Germany |". Global News. Retrieved December 8, 2023.
  15. ^ "". X (formerly Twitter). Retrieved December 8, 2023. {{cite web}}: External link in |title= (help)
  16. ^ "Two Leaders, Two Bios". May 25, 2014. Archived from the original on April 14, 2017. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
  17. ^ "BC NDP Leader John Horgan hopes to make a premier of himself". Archived from the original on May 1, 2017. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  18. ^ "Alice Horgan Obituary (2009) - the Times Colonist". Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  19. ^ "John Horgan « A proven champion for people". BC NDP. Archived from the original on March 25, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  20. ^ "What are the odds? A reporter is randomly seated on a plane next to the B.C. premier. Here's their seven-hour chat". National Post. August 8, 2018. Retrieved August 15, 2018.
  21. ^ Schmunk, Rhianna (October 28, 2021). "B.C. Premier John Horgan to have biopsy surgery after discovering growth on throat". CBC News. Ottawa. Archived from the original on March 29, 2023. Retrieved October 23, 2023.
  22. ^ "NDP leading campaign prep". Goldstream Gazette. Langford, British Columbia. October 6, 2004. p. 1.
  23. ^ Smith, Charlie (January 29, 2004). "NDPers John Horgan, Ian Reid, and John Heaney played key roles in bringing slot machines to Vancouver". The Georgia Straight. Archived from the original on July 9, 2020. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
  24. ^ Rud, Jeff; Kines, Lindsay (September 4, 2004). "NDPers pin hopes on Island for vote breakout". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. A1.
  25. ^ O'Neil, Peter (November 10, 2016). "Court ruling to force hiring of hundreds of teachers in B.C." Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved November 11, 2023.
  26. ^ Bailey, Ian; Keating, Jack (October 4, 2005). "Teachers contract legislated". The Province. Vancouver, BC. p. A3.
  27. ^ Pynn, Larry (November 17, 2006). "'No rules' feared in oilpatch: B.C. infractions report 'boggles' expert's mind". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. B1.
  28. ^ "Island MLA pushes regulation of gasoline prices". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. February 23, 2007. p. A4.
  29. ^ "Local MLA John Horgan tabled a petition this week with 18,000 signatures calling for the B.C. government to protect consumers from gas-price gouging". Goldstream Gazette. Langford, BC. June 1, 2007. p. 9.
  30. ^ Clark, Christy (April 29, 2007). "Pushing for cheaper gas and higher electricity prices makes little sense". The Province. Vancouver, BC. p. A22.
  31. ^ Horgan, John (May 2, 2007). "MLA John Horgan responds". The Province. Vancouver, BC. p. A21.
  32. ^ Brethour, Patrick; Hoffman, Andy (January 26, 2007). "B.C. Premier accused of conflict over Alcan". The Globe and Mail. p. A10.
  33. ^ Sutherland, Scott (February 7, 2007). "Campbell cleared of conflict over Alcan". The Globe and Mail. p. S1.
  34. ^ "Horgan wants conflict legislation changed". Goldstream Gazette. Langford, BC. May 4, 2007. p. 1.
  35. ^ "Horgan in for the karma not the cash". The Sooke Mirror. Sooke, BC. May 23, 2007. p. 10.
  36. ^ Thompson, Michelle (May 14, 2008). "MLAs keep word to donate raises". Cowichan News Leader. Duncan, BC. p. 2.
  37. ^ Siefken, Krista (January 27, 2009). "Valley MLAs donate almost $30,000 from salary increase". Cowichan News Leader Pictorial. Duncan, BC.
  38. ^ Matas, Robert (August 27, 2009). "Overruling utilities regulator puts Campbell in tricky spot". The Globe and Mail. p. S3.
  39. ^ Hunter, Justine (April 29, 2010). "B.C. sidelines energy regulator". The Globe and Mail. p. A8.
  40. ^ Shaw, Rob (March 12, 2013). "30,000 sign petition against smart meters". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. A4.
  41. ^ Simpson, Scott (June 2, 2010). "NDP calls for a rethink on Clean Energy Act; Hydro rates will climb as a result of Liberal policy, critics claim". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. C10.
  42. ^ Horgan, John (December 16, 2011). "Restore oversight". The Province. Vancouver, BC. p. A17.
  43. ^ Horgan, John (February 10, 2010). "Artificial panic over power". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A22.
  44. ^ Horgan, John (March 27, 2010). "B.C.'s energy plan must put the public interest first". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. C5.
  45. ^ Lekstrom, Blair (February 17, 2010). "Energy minister's commitment". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A18.
  46. ^ Lekstrom, Blair (April 7, 2010). "The Liberal government has a vision, the Opposition doesn't". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A11.
  47. ^ Lux, Ryan (February 18, 2011). "Birch bark document presented to legislature". Alaska Highway News. Fort St. John, BC. p. A1.
  48. ^ Kines, Lindsay (November 20, 2010). "James draws 'line in the sand' on her leadership; 'Enough of this infighting,' declares NDP boss, vowing to decide on her future after weighing support today". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. A1.
  49. ^ Morrow, Shayne (February 7, 2011). "Horgan aims for middle ground". Alberni Valley Times. Port Alberni, BC. p. 1.
  50. ^ Bailey, Ian (February 17, 2011). "Horgan changes tack on carbon tax". The Globe and Mail. p. S2.
  51. ^ Shaw, Rob (February 17, 2011). "Carbon tax should be expanded, Horgan says". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A2.
  52. ^ Shaw, Rob (March 17, 2011). "Horgan gains Lali's support in NDP battle". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. A4.
  53. ^ Bailey, Ian (April 8, 2011). "Exiting the NDP race, Simons backs Horgan". The Globe and Mail. p. S2.
  54. ^ Crawford, Tiffany (March 1, 2011). "B.C. residents prefer Mike Farnworth for NDP leader". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A4.
  55. ^ Palmer, Vaughn (April 2, 2011). "Horgan's Heroes growing in numbers; He's still a long shot, but new supporters are discovering Juan de Fuca MLA each day". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A3.
  56. ^ Ward, Doug (April 9, 2011). "Popularity, leadership styles come to the fore; Mike Farnworth and Adrian Dix have opposite approaches, with John Horgan somewhere in between". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A4.
  57. ^ Bailey, Ian (April 27, 2011). "Dix's shadow cabinet includes all of the dissident 'Baker's Dozen'". The Globe and Mail. p. S3.
  58. ^ "Candidates speak out on issues". The Sooke Mirror. Sooke, BC. May 8, 2013. p. 1.
  59. ^ Watts, Richard (May 15, 2013). "Island Ridings – Juan De Fuca: Horgan gets a decisive win in diverse western riding". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. B4.
  60. ^ Bitonti, Daniel (May 11, 2013). "Horgan says land use key to Vancouver Island". The Globe and Mail. p. S4.
  61. ^ Simpson, Scott (April 11, 2013). "Four more LNG projects proposed for B.C.; Companies including ExxonMobil and Nexen express interest; NDP urges caution". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A1.
  62. ^ Kines, Lindsay (July 5, 2013). "Get ready for a jolt on your hydro bills; Higher rates needed to pay for upgrading, energy minister says". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. A1.
  63. ^ Bennett, Bill (July 15, 2013). "Response to horgan". Daily Bulletin. Kimberley, BC. p. 7.
  64. ^ Raits, Pirjo (December 11, 2013). "A chat with JdF MLA John Horgan". The Sooke Mirror. Sooke, BC. p. 1.
  65. ^ Meissner, Dirk (December 24, 2013). "NDP leader race to heat up in 2014". The Globe and Mail. p. S2.
  66. ^ "MLA Farnworth first to enter NDP race. Hume, Mark". The Globe and Mail. March 3, 2014. p. S1.
  67. ^ Bailey, Ian (March 18, 2014). "John Horgan enters leadership race with support of former NDP leader". The Globe and Mail. p. S1.
  68. ^ Bailey, Ian (March 19, 2014). "Horgan rallies support for campaign". The Globe and Mail. p. S2.
  69. ^ Austin, Ian (March 24, 2014). "15 NDP MLAs back Horgan but won't discuss Kwan". The Province. Vancouver, BC. p. A3.
  70. ^ "Trio of Tri-City NDPers back Horgan, not Farnworth, for leader". The Tri City News. Coquitlam, BC. April 4, 2014. p. 1.
  71. ^ Hunter, Justine (April 9, 2014). "NDP's Horgan sole candidate for leadership as Farnworth drops out". The Globe and Mail. p. S1.
  72. ^ "Port Coquitlam MLA gets opposition house leader post". The Tri City News. Coquitlam, BC. June 24, 2014. p. 1.
  73. ^ Palmer, Vaughn (July 24, 2014). "The Opposition prepares to join legislative fray; Portfolio shuffle". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. B6.
  74. ^ Kines, Lindsay (February 17, 2017). "Sixth time the charm for B.C. NDP ad bill?". Times – Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. A6.
  75. ^ Smart, Amy (May 4, 2017). "Horgan faces four challengers in Langford-Juan de Fuca riding". Times – Colonist. Victoria, BC. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  76. ^ Shaw, Rob (April 21, 2017). "B.C. election 2017: Clark, Horgan get personal in scrappy leaders debate". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on July 25, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2020.
  77. ^ Zussman, Richard (May 30, 2017). "NDP-Green alliance to focus on electoral reform, stopping Kinder Morgan and banning big money". CBC News. Archived from the original on May 30, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  78. ^ McElroy, Justin (May 30, 2017). "Christy Clark to stay on as B.C. premier — for now". CBC News. Archived from the original on May 30, 2017. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  79. ^ McElroy, Justin (June 29, 2017). "Timeline: the B.C. Election that took 52 days". CBC News. Archived from the original on June 30, 2017. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
  80. ^ McElroy, Justin (June 29, 2017). "B.C. Liberal government loses confidence vote 44–42, sparking either NDP government or election". CBC News. Archived from the original on November 4, 2017. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
  81. ^ Justin, McElroy (May 30, 2017). "Christy Clark to stay on as B.C. premier — for now". CBC News. Archived from the original on May 30, 2017. Retrieved October 23, 2023.
  82. ^ Keller, James; Hunter, Justine; Hager, Mike (June 29, 2017). "B.C. NDP to take power following confidence vote, ending 16 years of Liberal rule". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on July 6, 2017. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
  83. ^ McElroy, Justin (June 29, 2017). "B.C.'s new NDP government sworn into office". CBC News. Archived from the original on October 9, 2017. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
  84. ^ Shaw, Rob (September 8, 2017). "MLA Darryl Plecas defects from B.C. Liberals to become Speaker". Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  85. ^ Premier, Office of the (December 11, 2017). "Government will complete Site C construction, will not burden taxpayers or BC Hydro customers with previous government's debt". BC Government News. Retrieved November 11, 2023.
  86. ^ "B.C. sends out final Medical Service Plan bills ahead of January elimination". Global News. Retrieved October 23, 2023.
  87. ^ "British Columbians heading to the polls on October 24 in fall election". Global News. Archived from the original on September 22, 2020. Retrieved September 21, 2020.
  88. ^ "New Rules for Local Elections". Elections BC. March 26, 2021. Archived from the original on May 10, 2023. Retrieved November 12, 2023.
  89. ^ Judd, Amy (October 28, 2021). "B.C. Premier John Horgan to undergo surgery to remove growth in throat". Global News. Archived from the original on October 28, 2021. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  90. ^ Zussman, Richard (November 4, 2021). "B.C. Premier John Horgan diagnosed with throat cancer". Global News. Archived from the original on November 4, 2021. Retrieved November 5, 2021.
  91. ^ Premier, Office of the (November 24, 2021). "Five paid sick days coming Jan. 1". BC Government News. Retrieved October 25, 2023.
  92. ^ "Former B.C. premier John Horgan open to job offers from Canucks, Trudeau as he announces retirement". CBC News. February 9, 2023. Retrieved February 9, 2023.
  93. ^ Premier, Office of the (May 27, 2023). "Byelections called for Vancouver-Mount Pleasant, Langford-Juan de Fuca | BC Gov News". Retrieved June 3, 2023.
  94. ^ Bailey, Ian (April 1, 2023). "Former B.C. premier John Horgan joins board of coal business". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved April 1, 2023.
  95. ^ a b DeRosa, Katie (November 1, 2023). "Former B.C. premier John Horgan to be Canada's next ambassador to Germany". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved November 1, 2023.
  96. ^ "Prime Minister announces John Horgan as Canada's next Ambassador to Germany". Prime Minister of Canada. November 1, 2023. Retrieved November 1, 2023.
  97. ^ "Statement of Vote — 42nd Provincial General Election" (PDF). Elections BC. Retrieved October 30, 2021.
  98. ^ "Election Financing Reports". Elections BC. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
  99. ^ "2017 Provincial General Election - Statement of Votes" (PDF). Elections BC. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
  100. ^ "Election Financing Reports". Elections BC. Retrieved September 12, 2020.
  101. ^ "Statement of Votes - 40th Provincial General Election" (PDF). Elections BC. Retrieved May 17, 2017.

External links[edit]

Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Isabelle Poupart (acting)
Ambassador to Germany
Order of precedence
Preceded byas 34th Premier of British Columbia Order of precedence in British Columbia
as of 2022
Succeeded byas Speaker of the Legislative Assembly