John Horgan

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The Honourable
John Horgan
MLA
John Horgan 2015.jpg
36th Premier of British Columbia
Assumed office
July 18, 2017
Monarch Elizabeth II
Lieutenant Governor Judith Guichon
Preceded by Christy Clark
Leader of the Opposition in the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia
In office
May 4, 2014 – July 18, 2017
Preceded by Adrian Dix
Succeeded by Christy Clark
Leader of the BC New Democratic Party
Assumed office
May 4, 2014
Preceded by Adrian Dix
Member of the British Columbia Legislative Assembly
for Malahat-Juan de Fuca
In office
May 17, 2005 – May 12, 2009
Preceded by Brian Kerr
Succeeded by riding dissolved
Member of the British Columbia Legislative Assembly
for Juan de Fuca
In office
May 12, 2009 – May 9, 2017
Preceded by riding established
Succeeded by riding dissolved
Member of the British Columbia Legislative Assembly
for Langford-Juan de Fuca
Assumed office
May 9, 2017
Preceded by first member
Official Opposition House Leader
In office
April 26, 2011 – March 18, 2014
Preceded by Mike Farnworth
Succeeded by Bruce Ralston
Opposition Energy Critic
In office
April 26, 2011 – March 18, 2014
Preceded by Doug Donaldson
Personal details
Born (1959-08-07) August 7, 1959 (age 58)
Victoria, British Columbia
Spouse(s) Ellie Horgan
Children 2
Occupation Public servant, consultant

John Joseph Horgan (born August 7, 1959) is a Canadian politician who is the 36th and current Premier of British Columbia since July 2017, leader of the British Columbia New Democratic Party and MLA for the constituency of Langford-Juan de Fuca[1] in the Canadian province of British Columbia. He was born and raised in Victoria, British Columbia.[2]

In June 2006, he was appointed the Official Opposition Critic for the Ministry of Energy and Mines in New Democrat leader Carole James' shadow cabinet, having previously served as the Official Opposition Critic for the Ministry of Education. In January 2011, he announced his candidacy for leadership of the BC NDP in the 2011 leadership election, finishing third.

Following the leadership election, he was appointed the Official Opposition Critic for Energy, and Opposition House Leader.[3] He was replaced by Bruce Ralston as Opposition House Leader following his entry into the 2014 leadership election.

On March 17, 2014, he announced his candidacy in the 2014 leadership election,[4] with the slogan "Real Leadership. For All BC".[5] During the campaign he has talked at length about the necessity of balancing the need for jobs and resource development, while protecting BC's natural environment.[6] Horgan was acclaimed to the position on May 1, 2014 and was officially inaugurated as party leader on May 5, 2014.[7]

In the 2017 provincial election held on May 9, 2017, Premier Christy Clark's Liberal government was reduced to 43 seats, one seat short of a majority. On May 29, 2017, it was announced that the NDP and Green Party of British Columbia had reached an agreement in which the Greens would support an NDP minority government.[8] Clark recalled the legislature in the coming weeks to seek its confidence in a Liberal government. Following a non-confidence motion on June 29, 2017, which was won by the NDP-Green alliance (44-42), Lieutenant Governor Judith Guichon turned down Clark's request for a snap election, and invited the NDP to form a minority government, subsequently Horgan succeeded Clark as the 36th Premier of British Columbia.

Career[edit]

Horgan was born in Victoria, British Columbia on August 7, 1959.[9] Horgan's father died when he was 18 months old, leaving his mother to raise him along with his three siblings.[10] He worked multiple jobs to save money for university, including at a pulp mill in Ocean Falls. He earned a Bachelor of Arts from Trent University (Ontario) in 1983 and married Ellie in 1984; the couple has two sons.

He waited tables at the Keg in Victoria before earning a his master's degree in history from the University of Sydney in 1986. Returning to Canada he went to Ottawa and worked as a legislative assistant to Jim Manly, and later to Lynn Hunter. Horgan returned to Victoria in 1991 and became Ministerial Assistant to Dave Zirnhelt. In 1993 he was named Analyst, Policy Coordination Branch, Ministry of Government Services, and in 1996, Director at the Cabinet Policy and Communications Secretariat, Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations. His positions from 1991 through 1998 saw him assume increasing responsibilities within government, including lead negotiator on the Columbia Basin Trust and as a participant on teams for the Columbia River Treaty and Land Use Plans. In 1998 he worked as a Director in the Crown Corporations Secretariat before going on to work at Columbia Power as Director of Corporate Affairs, focusing on getting Keenleyside and Brilliant dams repowered. In 1999 he was appointed Chief of Staff in the Office of Premier Dan Miller. His last job in government was at the level of Associate Deputy Minister working in the Ministry of Finance on energy projects. Following the change of government in 2001, Horgan created a small business that focused on policy, management, research and government liaison work.[11]

38th Parliament[edit]

As the 2005 provincial election was approaching, the 45 year old Horgan won NDP nomination, against Julie Thomas of Shawnigan Lake in the riding of Malahat-Juan de Fuca.[12] The incumbent MLA Brian Kerr was not seeking re-election, so in the general election Horgan faced BC Liberal Cathy Basskin of Cowichan Bay, Democratic Reform BC party leader Tom Morino, Green Party candidate Steven Hurdle, and Western Canada Concept candidate Pattie O'Brien. Though Horgan won his riding, the NDP under Carole James's leadership formed the official opposition to the BC Liberals who formed an absolute majority government. Horgan was named opposition critic to the Minister of Education Shirley Bond. Horgan criticized the government's 2005 Teachers' Collective Agreement Act which legislated a new contract onto teachers, after several months of unsuccessful collective bargaining, as " [inflaming] an already volatile situation".[13] In June 2006, Horgan was moved over to critic to the Minister of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resource, Richard Neufeld. Horgan called for the Oil and Gas Commission to provide more transparent reporting after it was claimed its annual 97% compliance rating was near-perfect, despite 2,500 known infractions, the majority of which were rated major or serious.[14] Following a sudden sharp increase in gasoline prices in early 2007 Horgan introduced the Retail Petroleum Consumer Protection Act as a private member bill which, if passed, would have put gasoline prices under the jurisdiction of the B.C. Utilities Commission, same as electricity and natural gas.[15] The bill was supported by an 18,000-signature petition[16] and elicited editorial responses from Minister Neufeld and Christy Clark.[17][18]

In January 2007 Horgan accused Premier Gordon Campbell of conflict-of-interest, due to owning shares of Alcan while signing an order-in-council approving an agreement between Alcan and BC Hydro which was subsequently overturned by the Utilities Commission as being not in the public interest.[19] The Ethic Commissioner cleared Campbell of wrongdoing but made a recommendation that cabinet ministers and other senior officials place their assets in blind trusts.[20] Horgan subsequently introduced this recommendation as the private member bill Members' Conflict of Interest Amendment Act in the third and fourth sessions and, similar but more comprehensive bill, in line with the Federal Accountability Act, but they were not advanced beyond first reading.[21]

In Fall 2008, Horgan was diagnosed with bladder cancer and underwent treatment surgery to remove it. Following a legislative amendment that immediate increased MLA salaries by 29%, Horgan, along with all other NDP MLAs, donated the increase to charities in his riding such as hospices and food banks, for the remainder of the 38th Parliament.[22][23][24]

39th Parliament[edit]

Horgan was acclaimed as the NDP candidate for the 2009 election in the Juan de Fuca riding. He easily defeated Colwood mayor Jody Twa of the BC Liberals and Metchosin farmer James Powell of the Green Party. In the 39th Parliament the NDP again formed the official opposition to the BC Liberals who formed their third consecutive absolute majority government. Party leader Carole James kept Horgan as energy and mines critic. Horgan was critical of the government over-turning the BC Utilities Commission's decision on obtaining electricity from independent power producers[25] and exempting the Site C dam and the northwest transmission line projects from Utilities Commission review, arguing that the projects were not in the public interest.[26] Horgan linked the government's imposition of private IPP electricity purchasing agreements on BC Hydro and the exemption of BC Utilities Commission review of major public projects (including the smart meter implementation program)[27] to increases in BC Hydro rates.[28][29] Horgan responded to the government's energy plan with an editorial[30][31] to which Minister Blair Lekstrom responded.[32][33] He presented to the legislature a declaration of opposition to the Site C, as signed by Peace River area residents and First Nations.[34]

During criticism of party leader Carole James, Horgan remained loyal.[35] Following her resignation, the 51 year old Horgan put himself forward for the leadership position. Policy platforms he campaigned on included a comprehensive review of laxatives under a Fair Tax Commission,[36] expanding the carbon tax to include the exempted large industrial emitters,[37] getting the Evergreen Line and light rail to the Western Communities built, implementing the recommendations of the Select Standing Committee on Aquaculture, continuing the ban on North Coast tanker traffic and offshore oil exploration, and introducing an Endangered Species Act.[38] He was endorsed by Robin Austin, Gary Coons, Kathy Corrigan, Scott Fraser, Maurine Karagianis, Bill Routley, Shane Simpson, and Claire Trevena, as well as Harry Lali[39] and Nicholas Simons[40] after they dropped out of the race. Opinion polling placed Horgan in third behind Adrian Dix and Mike Farnworth, but seen as a suitable compromise candidate between the party's preferred stronger candidate of Dix and the more likable Farnworth.[41][42][43] Dix went on to win and assigned Horgan back to the role of critic for the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources which Doug Donaldson had overseen during the leadership election, as well as adding house leader to his duties.[44]

40th Parliament and Opposition Leader[edit]

In the 2013 election Horgan again won the Juan de Fuca riding, this time against BC Liberal candidate and Sooke councillor Kerrie Reay and Green Party candidate Carlos Serra. On the local level, his campaign focused on transportation issues[45] and regional growth[46] while on the provincial campaign he promised a comprehensive review of BC Hydro, in particular its debt load, commitments to independent power producers, and future infrastructure requirements,[47] and advocated a market-driven approach to creating a liquefied natural gas industry, in contrast to the BC Liberal approach, at the time, of presenting expressions of interest as committed future revenue.[48] The NDP were favoured to win the general election but, while Horgan won his riding, the party again formed the official opposition with Horgan returning to his role as critic for the energy portfolio in the 40th Parliament. Shortly after the election, Horgan and Minister of Energy and Mines Bill Bennett exchanged op-eds regarding new BC Hydro rate increases and cost overruns in the Northwest Transmission line project.[49][50]

"I've been shaped by the people I've met along the way. I've had great role models and I've had great mentors and a little bit of good luck. Now as a leader in a political movement I want to pay that forward." –John Horgan[51]

In September 2013, Dix announced his resignation as NDP leader and both Horgan and Farnsworth were immediately considered front-runners to replace him. A month later Horgan stated his intention not to run and encouraged the younger NDP MLAs, such as David Eby, Spencer Chandra Herbert and Rob Fleming, to enter the leadership race.[52] However, by January 2014 only Mike Farnworth announced an intention to run.[53] With Farnworth formally declaring his candidacy in early March 2014,[54] Horgan was urged to re-considered. The 54-year old Horgan announced his candidacy on March 17 backed by Carole James, Maurine Karagianis and Bill Routley.[55] David Eby and Michelle Mungall endorsed him and co-chaired his campaign[56] and within a week 15 MLAs endorsed him.[57] In early April, with Horgan receiving further endorsements from Dawn Black, Joe Trasolini and Fin Donnelly – all figures from Farnworth's Tri-Cities-area,[58] Farnworth withdrew from the leadership race, leaving Horgan the sole candidate.[59] After the deadline for nominations passed on May 1, Horgan was acclaimed leader of the BC NDP. He appointed Farnsworth as opposition house leader, with Mungall as his deputy and critic of social development,[60] and split his old position of critic position into three parts divided between Norm Macdonald as critic of energy and mines, Bruce Ralston on natural gas, Dix on BC Hydro, as well as charging the younger MLAs with significant portfolios, like Rob Fleming with education, Spencer Chandra Herbert with environment, and David Eby with eight specific critic responsibilities.[61]

Just prior to becoming leader, the parliament's second session, Horgan introduced two private member bills, the Standing Committee Reform Act, 2014 (Bill M-203) that would have expanded the scope of their terms of reference and required they be appointed at the beginning of each parliament with membership in proportion to party standings, and the Parliamentary Calendar Act, 2014 (Bill M-204) that would have legislated that the parliament must convene in the Spring and Fall of each year. After he became leader, these two bills were re-introduced by NDP critic on democratic reform Gary Holman in the fourth session (2015). As leader, Horgan introduced three bills, all in the fifth session: the Hydro Affordability Act, 2016 (Bill M-206) that would allow the Utilities Commission to require a utility to offer a 'lifeline rate' to low-income households, the Speculator Tracking and Housing Affordability Fund Act, 2016 (Bill M-209) that would have allowed participating jurisdictions that levy a 2% property tax on residential properties held vacant for use in affordable housing initiatives, and Campaign Finance Reform Act, 2016 (Bill M-213) that would ban corporations and unions from making financial political contributions and require the chief electoral officer review and provide recommendations regarding the financing of the political process. In the sixth session Horgan introduced the Get Big Money Out of Politics Act, 2017 which would ban union and corporate donations to political campaigns, prohibit political contributions from foreigners, and prohibit the Premier and ministers from receiving second salaries.[62]

Premier of British Columbia[edit]

Horgan succeeded Christy Clark as the 36th Premier of British Columbia on July 18, 2017, following 16 years of BC Liberal rule over four terms. The 2017 election ultimately resulted in Horgan's NDP forming a minority government with the support of the BC Greens in a confidence-and-supply agreement, following five weeks of post-election negotiations, two electoral recounts and the subsequent defeat of the Liberal government by the combined NDP and Green MLAs on a confidence vote. Formally, Horgan was proclaimed Premier-designate on June 29, 2017, after Lieutenant Governor Judith Guichon invited him to form a government. His government is the third time the NDP has governed British Columbia, as well as the first NDP minority government (and the first minority government since W. A. C. Bennett's first mandate, following the 1952 election 65 years before). Horgan is the province's sixth NDP Premier. Horgan is also BC's first Premier from Vancouver Island since John Hart in 1947.

Electoral results[edit]

British Columbia general election, 2017: Langford-Juan de Fuca
Party Candidate Votes %
New Democratic John Horgan 12,144 52.78
Liberal Cathy Noel 6,062 26.35
Green Brendan Ralfs 4,341 18.87
Libertarian Scott Burton 238 1.03
Vancouver Island Party Willie Nelson 222 0.96
Total valid votes 23,007 100.00
Source: Elections BC[63]
British Columbia general election, 2013: Juan de Fuca
Party Candidate Votes % Expenditures
New Democratic John Horgan 12,338 53.32 $97,977
Liberal Kerrie Reay 7,120 30.77 $20,367
Green Carlos Serra 3,682 15.91 $812
Total valid votes 23,140 100%
Total rejected ballots 91 0.39%
Turnout 23,231 58.07%
British Columbia general election, 2009: Juan de Fuca
Party Candidate Votes % Expenditures
New Democratic John Horgan 11,520 57.21 $73,822
Liberal Jody Twa 6,866 34.10 $149,286
Green James Powell 1,749 8.69 $1,635
Total valid votes 20,135 100
Total rejected ballots 107 0.53
Turnout 20,242 59.87


British Columbia general election, 2005: Malahat-Juan de Fuca
Party Candidate Votes % Expenditures
New Democratic John Horgan 12,460 46.09 $42,953
Liberal Cathy Basskin 10,528 38.94 $24,538
Green Steven Hurdle 2,610 9.65 $1,488
Democratic Reform Tom Morino 1,256 4.65 $2,775
Western Canada Concept Pattie O'Brien 180 0.67 $100
Total valid votes 27,034 100
Total rejected ballots 128 0.47
Turnout 27,162 69.57


References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.bcndp.ca/team
  2. ^ "Juan de Fuca candidates and riding profile". Victoria Times-Colonist, Apirl 30, 2013.
  3. ^ "Dix announces BC NDP shadow cabinet". The Tyee, April 26, 2011.
  4. ^ "John Horgan enters B.C. NDP leadership race with support of former leader". The Globe and Mail. March 17, 2014. Retrieved March 18, 2014. 
  5. ^ http://www.teamhorgan.ca Archived March 29, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ "NDP's Farnworth abandons leadership run to back Horgan". Vancouver Sun, April 8, 2014.
  7. ^ "John Horgan acclaimed new leader of B.C. NDP". CBC News. May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2014. 
  8. ^ "B.C. Green Party agrees to support NDP in the legislature". CBC News, May 29, 2017.
  9. ^ "Two Leaders, Two Bios". May 25, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2017. 
  10. ^ "John Horgan « A proven champion for people". BC NDP. Retrieved March 25, 2017. 
  11. ^ "NDP leading campaign prep". Goldstream Gazette. Langford, British Columbia. October 6, 2004. p. 1. 
  12. ^ Rud, Jeff; Kines, Lindsay (September 4, 2004). "NDPers pin hopes on Island for vote breakout". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. A1. 
  13. ^ Bailey, Ian; Keating, Jack (October 4, 2005). "Teachers contract legislated". The Province. Vancouver, BC. p. A3. 
  14. ^ Pynn, Larry (November 17, 2006). "'No rules' feared in oilpatch: B.C. infractions report 'boggles' expert's mind". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. B1. 
  15. ^ "Island MLA pushes regulation of gasoline prices". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. February 23, 2007. p. A4. 
  16. ^ "Local MLA John Horgan tabled a petition this week with 18,000 signatures calling for the B.C. government to protect consumers from gas-price gouging". Goldstream Gazette. Langford, BC. June 1, 2007. p. 9. 
  17. ^ Clark, Christy (April 29, 2007). "Pushing for cheaper gas and higher electricity prices makes little sense". The Province. Vancouver, BC. p. A22. 
  18. ^ Horgan, John (May 2, 2007). "MLA John Horgan responds". The Province. Vancouver, BC. p. A21. 
  19. ^ Brethour, Patrick; Hoffman, Andy (January 26, 2007). "B.C. Premier accused of conflict over Alcan". The Globe and Mail. p. A10. 
  20. ^ Sutherland, Scott (February 7, 2007). "Campbell cleared of conflict over Alcan". The Globe and Mail. p. S1. 
  21. ^ "Horgan wants conflict legislation changed". Goldstream Gazette. Langford, BC. May 4, 2007. p. 1. 
  22. ^ "Horgan in for the karma not the cash". The Sooke Mirror. Sooke, BC. May 23, 2007. p. 10. 
  23. ^ Thompson, Michelle (May 14, 2008). "MLAs keep word to donate raises". Cowichan News Leader. Duncan, BC. p. 2. 
  24. ^ Siefken, Krista (January 27, 2009). "Valley MLAs donate almost $30,000 from salary increase". Cowichan News Leader Pictorial. Duncan, BC. 
  25. ^ Matas, Robert (August 27, 2009). "Overruling utilities regulator puts Campbell in tricky spot". The Globe and Mail. p. S3. 
  26. ^ Hunter, Justine (April 29, 2010). "B.C. sidelines energy regulator". The Globe and Mail. p. A8. 
  27. ^ Shaw, Rob (March 12, 2013). "30,000 sign petition against smart meters". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. A4. 
  28. ^ Simpson, Scott (June 2, 2010). "NDP calls for a rethink on Clean Energy Act; Hydro rates will climb as a result of Liberal policy, critics claim". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. C10. 
  29. ^ Horgan, John (December 16, 2011). "Restore oversight". The Province. Vancouver, BC. p. A17. 
  30. ^ Horgan, John (February 10, 2010). "Artificial panic over power". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A22. 
  31. ^ Horgan, John (March 27, 2010). "B.C.'s energy plan must put the public interest first". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. C5. 
  32. ^ Lekstrom, Blair (February 17, 2010). "Energy minister's commitment". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A18. 
  33. ^ Lekstrom, Blair (April 7, 2010). "The Liberal government has a vision, the Opposition doesn't". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A11. 
  34. ^ Lux, Ryan (February 18, 2011). "Birch bark document presented to legislature". Alaska Highway News. Fort St. John, BC. p. A1. 
  35. ^ Kines, Lindsay (November 20, 2010). "James draws 'line in the sand' on her leadership; 'Enough of this infighting,' declares NDP boss, vowing to decide on her future after weighing support today". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. A1. 
  36. ^ Morrow, Shayne (February 7, 2011). "Horgan aims for middle ground". Alberni Valley Times. Port Alberni, BC. p. 1. 
  37. ^ Bailey, Ian (February 17, 2011). "Horgan changes tack on carbon tax". The Globe and Mail. p. S2. 
  38. ^ Shaw, Rob (February 17, 2011). "Carbon tax should be expanded, Horgan says". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A2. 
  39. ^ Shaw, Rob (March 17, 2011). "Horgan gains Lali's support in NDP battle". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. A4. 
  40. ^ Bailey, Ian (April 8, 2011). "Exiting the NDP race, Simons backs Horgan". The Globe and Mail. p. S2. 
  41. ^ Crawford, Tiffany (March 1, 2011). "B.C. residents prefer Mike Farnworth for NDP leader". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A4. 
  42. ^ Palmer, Vaughn (April 2, 2011). "Horgan's Heroes growing in numbers; He's still a long shot, but new supporters are discovering Juan de Fuca MLA each day". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A3. 
  43. ^ Ward, Doug (April 9, 2011). "Popularity, leadership styles come to the fore; Mike Farnworth and Adrian Dix have opposite approaches, with John Horgan somewhere in between". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A4. 
  44. ^ Bailey, Ian (April 27, 2011). "Dix's shadow cabinet includes all of the dissident 'Baker's Dozen'". The Globe and Mail. p. S3. 
  45. ^ "Candidates speak out on issues". The Sooke Mirror. Sooke, BC. May 8, 2013. p. 1. 
  46. ^ Watts, Richard (May 15, 2013). "Island Ridings - Juan De Fuca: Horgan gets a decisive win in diverse western riding". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. B4. 
  47. ^ Bitonti, Daniel (May 11, 2013). "Horgan says land use key to Vancouver Island". The Globe and Mail. p. S4. 
  48. ^ Simpson, Scott (April 11, 2013). "Four more LNG projects proposed for B.C.; Companies including ExxonMobil and Nexen express interest; NDP urges caution". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. A1. 
  49. ^ Kines, Lindsay (July 5, 2013). "Get ready for a jolt on your hydro bills; Higher rates needed to pay for upgrading, energy minister says". Times Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. A1. 
  50. ^ Bennett, Bill (July 15, 2013). "Response to horgan". Daily Bulletin. Kimberley, BC. p. 7. 
  51. ^ https://www.bcndp.ca/about-john
  52. ^ Raits, Pirjo (December 11, 2013). "A chat with JdF MLA John Horgan". The Sooke Mirror. Sooke, BC. p. 1. 
  53. ^ Meissner, Dirk (December 24, 2013). "NDP leader race to heat up in 2014". The Globe and Mail. p. S2. 
  54. ^ "MLA Farnworth first to enter NDP race. Hume, Mark". The Globe and Mail. March 3, 2014. p. S1. 
  55. ^ Bailey, Ian (March 18, 2014). "John Horgan enters leadership race with support of former NDP leader". The Globe and Mail. p. S1. 
  56. ^ Bailey, Ian (March 19, 2014). "Horgan rallies support for campaign". The Globe and Mail. p. S2. 
  57. ^ Austin, Ian (March 24, 2014). "15 NDP MLAs back Horgan but won't discuss Kwan". The Province. Vancouver, BC. p. A3. 
  58. ^ "Trio of Tri-City NDPers back Horgan, not Farnworth, for leader". The Tri City News. Coquitlam, BC. April 4, 2014. p. 1. 
  59. ^ Hunter, Justine (April 9, 2014). "NDP's Horgan sole candidate for leadership as Farnworth drops out". The Globe and Mail. p. S1. 
  60. ^ "Port Coquitlam MLA gets opposition house leader post". The Tri City News. Coquitlam, BC. June 24, 2014. p. 1. 
  61. ^ Palmer, Vaughn (July 24, 2014). "The Opposition prepares to join legislative fray; Portfolio shuffle". The Vancouver Sun. Vancouver, BC. p. B6. 
  62. ^ Kines, Lindsay (February 17, 2017). "Sixth time the charm for B.C. NDP ad bill?". Times - Colonist. Victoria, BC. p. A6. 
  63. ^ "2017 Provincial General Election Preliminary Voting Results". Elections BC. Retrieved 11 May 2017. 

External links[edit]

Order of precedence
Preceded by
Judith Guichon
as Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia
Order of precedence in British Columbia
as of 2017
Succeeded by
Robert J. Bauman
as Chief Justice of British Columbia