John II of Aragon
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John as a Knight of the Golden Fleece
Miniature from the southern Netherlands, 1473
|Reign||27 June 1458 – 20 January 1479|
|King of Navarre|
|Reign||8 September 1425 – 20 January 1479|
|Born||29 June 1398|
Medina del Campo
|Died||20 January 1479 (aged 80)|
|Consort||Blanche I of Navarre|
|Charles IV of Navarre|
Blanche II of Navarre
Eleanor I of Navarre
Ferdinand II of Aragon
Joanna, Queen of Naples
|Father||Ferdinand I of Aragon|
|Mother||Eleanor of Alburquerque|
John II (Catalan: Joan II, Aragonese: Chuan II and Basque: Joanes II), called the Great (el Gran) or the Faithless (el Sense Fe) (29 June 1398 – 20 January 1479), was the King of Navarre through his wife (jure uxoris) from 1425 and the King of Aragon in his own right from 1458 until his death. He was the son of Ferdinand I and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. John was also King of Sicily from 1458-1468.
John was born at Medina del Campo (in the Crown of Castile). In his youth he was one of the infantes (princes) of Aragon who took part in the dissensions of Castile during the minority and reign of John II. Till middle life he was also lieutenant-general in Aragon for his brother and predecessor Alfonso V, whose reign was mainly spent in Italy. In his old age he was engaged in incessant conflicts with his Aragonese and Catalan subjects, with Louis XI of France, and in preparing the way for the marriage of his son Ferdinand with Isabella I of Castile which brought about the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile and which was to create the Kingdom of Spain. His troubles with his subjects were closely connected with tragic dissensions within his own family.
John was first married to Blanche I of Navarre of the house of Évreux. By right of Blanche he became king of Navarre, and on her death in 1441 he was left in possession of the kingdom for his lifetime. But one son, Charles, given the title "Prince of Viana" as heir of Navarre, had been born of the marriage. John quickly came to regard this son with jealousy. After his second marriage, to Juana Enríquez, it grew into absolute hatred, being encouraged by Juana. John tried to deprive his son of his constitutional right to act as lieutenant-general of Aragon during his father's absence. Charles's cause was taken up by the Aragonese, however, and the king's attempt to make his second wife lieutenant-general was set aside.
There followed the long Navarrese Civil War, with alternations of success and defeat, ending only with the death of the prince of Viana, perhaps by poison administered by his stepmother in 1461. The Catalans, who had adopted the cause of Charles and who had grievances of their own, called in a succession of foreign pretenders in a War against John II. His last years John spent contending with these. He was forced to pawn Roussillon, his possession on the north-east of the Pyrenees, to King Louis XI of France, who refused to part with it.
In his old age John was blinded by cataracts, but recovered his eyesight by the operation of couching conducted by his physician Abiathar Crescas, a Jew. The Catalan revolt was pacified in 1472, but John carried on a war, in which he was generally unfortunate, with his neighbor the French king till his death in 1479. He was succeeded by Ferdinand, his son by his second marriage, who was already married to Isabella I of Castile. With his death and son's accession to the throne of Aragon, the unification of Spain under one royal house began in earnest.
Marriages and issue
From his first marriage to Blanche of Navarre, John had the following children:
- Prince Charles of Viana (1421–1461)
- Infanta Juana (1423 – 22 August 1425)
- Queen Blanche II of Navarre (1424–1464)
- Queen Eleanor of Navarre
From his second marriage to Juana Enríquez, John had the following children:
- Alfonso de Aragón y de Escobar, Duke of Villahermosa
- Juan de Aragón (1440–1475), Archbishop of Zaragoza
- Felipe de Carrayos del Radona (Phillipe del Radona)
|Ancestors of John II of Aragon|
- Ferran Soldevila, Ferrán Valls i Taberner, Antonio Badia y Torres, Francesc X. Hernandez, Rafael Tasis i Marca, Francesc Gordo-Guarinos, Eufemià Fort i Cogul, i Miquel Coll i Alentorn.[page needed]
- Teófilo F. Ruiz (2007). Spain's centuries of crisis: 1300–1474; Volume 4 of A history of Spain. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-2789-9.[page needed]
- Elena Woodacre, The Queens Regnant of Navarre: Succession, Politics, and Partnership, 1274–1512, (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), 91.
- de Sousa, Antonio Caetano (1735). Historia genealogica da casa real portugueza [Genealogical History of the Royal House of Portugal] (in Portuguese). 2. Lisboa Occidental. p. 497.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John II of Aragon.|
- Rivadeneyra. "Cronicas de los reyes de Castilla," Biblioteca de autores espanoles, vols. Ixvi, Ixviii. Madrid, 1845.
- Zurita, G. Anales de Aragon. Saragossa, 1610.[title incomplete][volume & issue needed]
- Prescott W. H. History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella. 1854.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "John II of Aragon". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 440.
John II of AragonBorn: 29 June 1397 Died: 20 January 1479
Alfonso the Magnanimous
| King of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca,
Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica;
Count of Barcelona
Ferdinand the Catholic
| Count of Roussillon and Cerdagne
Louis the Prudent
| King of Navarre (jure uxoris)
with Blanche I
Charles IV de jure
| King of Navarre de facto
withholding the crown from
Charles IV and Blanche II
Title last held byMartin of Aragon
| Duke of Montblanc
Ferdinand II of Aragon
James II of Urgell
| Lord of Balaguer|
Hugh of Cardona
| Duke of Gandia
Charles of Viana