John Jennings (Royal Navy officer)

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Sir John Jennings
Admiral John Jennings (1664-1743), by Godfrey Kneller.jpg
Admiral John Jennings (Godfrey Kneller, 1708-1709)
Born1664
Died23 December 1743
Greenwich, London, Great Britain
Allegiance Great Britain
Service/branch Royal Navy
Years of service1687–1743
RankAdmiral
Commands heldHMS St Paul
HMS Experiment
HMS Victory
HMS Mary
HMS Chichester
HMS Plymouth
HMS Kent
HMS St George
Mediterranean Fleet
Greenwich Hospital
Battles/warsWar of Spanish Succession

Sir John Jennings (1664 – 23 December 1743) was a Royal Navy officer and Whig politician who sat in the English and British House of Commons between 1705 and 1734. He commanded HMS Kent at Cadiz and Vigo in 1702 during the War of the Spanish Succession. He went on to be Commander-in-Chief of the Jamaica Station, then Senior Naval Lord and finally Governor of Greenwich Hospital.

Early life[edit]

Jennings was the fifteenth child of Philip Jennings of Duddleston Hall, Shropshire and his wife Christian Eyton, daughter of Sir Gerard Eyton of Eyton, Shropshire.[1] He was descended from a Shropshire family which had suffered for its adherence to the Royalist cause during the English Civil War. He married Alice Breton.[1]

Naval career[edit]

Jennings was appointed a lieutenant on HMS Pearl in 1687, and served with the same rank in HMS St David and HMS Swallow, before being promoted to the command of the St Paul, a fireship.[2] In 1690 he was made captain of the newly launched HMS Experiment, of 32 guns, and employed in cruising off the coast of Ireland, where he intercepted a number of small vessels which were being used as transports by James II's forces.[3] In 1693, Jennings was nominated captain of the Victory, flagship of Sir John Ashby; later the same year he was transferred to the 62-gun HMS Mary, in which he went to the Mediterranean with Admiral Russell.[3] In 1696, he was removed to the Chichester, of 80 guns; and, in the following year, was entrusted with the command of the Plymouth, with which he captured a St Malo privateer.[2] Shortly afterwards, together with the frigate HMS Rye, he fell in with three French ships: one quickly surrendered, and Jennings, leaving the Rye to look after their prize, pursued the other two and succeeded in compelling one to strike her flag after a vigorous defence. Having conducted their prizes to port, the Rye and the Plymouth fell in with the Severn, a British man-of-war, and the three ships steered together for the coast of France, where they took five vessels laden with wine from Bordeaux, and a small ship of war.[4]

On the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, Jennings commanded HMS Kent (of 70 guns) under Admiral Rooke at Cadiz and Vigo in 1702, where he played a part in the destruction of the Franco-Spanish fleet. He took part in the capture of Gibraltar, and was captain of the 96-gun HMS St George at the Battle of Málaga in 1704. He was knighted for his exploits by Queen Anne on 9 September 1704, and having been promoted to rear admiral in 1705, became Commander-in-Chief of the Jamaica Station in 1706.[5] He was promoted to vice admiral in 1708 and admiral in 1709. His attack on Tenerife in 1706 was unsuccessful. He commanded the fleet off Lisbon from 1708 to 1710, and was later Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Fleet.[2]

Parliamentary career[edit]

At the 1705 English general election, Jennings was returned as Whig Member of Parliament for Queenborough. He was absent from the division on the choice of Speaker on 25 October 1705 and was absent on active service until the winter of 1707–8. Then in November he gave evidence to the Lords on the encouragement of trade in the West Indies and in January 1708 gave evidence on the bill for the encouragement of seamen. He also submitted a paper containing thirteen proposals to improve methods of manning the fleet, of which three were included in a Lords address to the Queen. He was returned again for Queenborough at the 1708 British general election. In parliament, he supported the naturalization of the Palatines in 1709 and voted for the impeachment of Dr Sacheverell in 1710. At the 1710 British general election, he was defeated at Queenborough, but was returned in the poll as MP for Portsmouth. However he was unseated on petition on 3 February 1711.[1]

Jennings was returned as MP for Rochester on the Admiralty interest at the 1715 British general election. He voted with the Administration, except on the peerage bill which he opposed. He joined the Board of Admiralty under the Whig government in October 1714[6] but stood down when the Government fell in April 1717.[6] He returned to the Admiralty Board under the Second Stanhope–Sunderland ministry in March 1718[6] He was also appointed governor of Greenwich Hospital and Ranger of Greenwich Park from 1720, and presented the marble statue of George II by Rysbrack which stands in the Grand Square of the Hospital.[2] in September 1721, he was advanced to Senior Naval Lord [7] Also in 1721, he acquired Newsells Bury at Barkway in Hertfordshire..[3][8] He was becoming deaf, but resigned from the Admiralty Board in June 1727 because he objected to serving under Lord Berkeley, the first Sea lord. He was returned again as MP for Rochester at the 1727 British general election. Although Berkeley was dismissed from the Admiralty board in 1727, Jennings was not keen to return, hoping instead for a promotion or peerage. He was promoted to rear-admiral of England in January 1733, but resigned a year later when Sir John Norris was made admiral of the fleet and commander in chief.[9]

Death and legacy[edit]

Jennings died at Greenwich on 23 December 1743 at the age of 79, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.[10] With his wife Alice, he had one son, George, who duly inherited Newsells.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "JENNINGS, Sir John (1664-1743), of Byfleet, Surr". History of Parliament Online (1690-1715). Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d "John Jennings". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d Laughton, John Knox (1892). "Jennings, John" . In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 29. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  4. ^ Campbell, p. 228
  5. ^ Cundall, p. xx
  6. ^ a b c "Sainty, JC, Lord High Admiral and Commissioners of the Admiralty 1660-1870, Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 4: Admiralty Officials 1660-1870 (1975), pp. 18-31". Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  7. ^ Rodger, p. 51-52
  8. ^ Prince, p. 101
  9. ^ "JENNINGS, Sir John (1664-1743), of Newsells, in Barkway, Herts". History of Parliament Online (1715-1754). Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  10. ^ "Sir John Jennings". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 4 August 2017.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Parliament of England
Preceded by
Thomas King
Robert Crawford
Member of Parliament for Queenborough
1705–1707
With: Thomas King
Succeeded by
Parliament of Great Britain
Parliament of Great Britain
Preceded by
Parliament of England
Member of Parliament for Queenborough
1707–1710
With: Thomas King 1707–1708
Henry Withers 1708–1710
Succeeded by
Thomas King
James Herbert
Preceded by
Admiral George Churchill
Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Wager
Member of Parliament for Portsmouth
1710–1711
With: Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Wager
Succeeded by
Admiral Sir James Wishart
Sir William Gifford
Preceded by
Admiral Sir John Leake
William Cage
Member of Parliament for Rochester
1715–1734
With: Sir Thomas Palmer 1715–1724
Sir Thomas Colby 1724–1727
David Polhill 1727–1734
Succeeded by
David Polhill
Admiral Nicholas Haddock
Military offices
Preceded by
William Kerr
Commander-in-Chief, Jamaica Station
1706
Succeeded by
Charles Wager
Preceded by
Sir George Byng
Senior Naval Lord
1721–1727
Succeeded by
Sir John Norris
Preceded by
Lord Aylmer
Governor, Greenwich Hospital
1720–1743
Succeeded by
Sir John Balchen
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Viscount Torrington
Rear-Admiral of Great Britain
1733–1743
Succeeded by
Thomas Mathews