John O'Connor (cardinal)

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His Eminence
John O'Connor
Cardinal, Archbishop of New York
Cardinal. John. Joseph. O' Connor.jpg
See New York
Appointed January 26, 1984
Installed March 19, 1984
Term ended May 3, 2000
Predecessor Terence Cooke
Successor Edward Egan
Other posts Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo
Orders
Ordination December 15, 1945
by Hugh L. Lamb
Consecration May 27, 1979
by John Paul II
Created cardinal May 25, 1985
by John Paul II
Rank Cardinal Priest
Personal details
Born (1920-01-15)January 15, 1920
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Died May 3, 2000(2000-05-03) (aged 80)
New York City, New York, United States
Buried St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, New York, United States
Denomination Roman Catholicism
Parents Thomas J. O'Connor & Dorothy Magdalene Gomple
Previous post
Alma mater
Motto There Can Be No Love Without Justice
Military career
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch  United States Army
Years of service 1952–1979
Rank US Navy O8 infobox.svg Rear admiral
Commands held Chief of Chaplains of the Navy
Battles/wars Korean War
Ordination history of
John O'Connor
History
Priestly ordination
Place of ordination Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul Edit this on Wikidata, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Edit this on Wikidata, United States Edit this on Wikidata
Episcopal consecration
Consecrated by Pope John Paul II
Date of consecration May 27, 1979
Place of consecration St. Peter's Basilica Edit this on Wikidata, Rome Edit this on Wikidata, Italy Edit this on Wikidata
Episcopal succession
Bishops consecrated by John O'Connor as principal consecrator
Alfred Jolson February 6, 1988
Patrick Sheridan December 12, 1990
James Michael Moynihan May 29, 1995
Edwin Frederick O'Brien March 25, 1996
Robert Anthony Brucato August 25, 1997
James Francis McCarthy June 29, 1999

John Joseph O'Connor (January 15, 1920 – May 3, 2000) was an American prelate of the Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of New York from 1984 until his death in 2000, and was created a cardinal in 1985. He previously served as auxiliary bishop of the Military Vicariate of the United States (1979–1983) and Bishop of Scranton (1983–1984).

Early life, education, and military career[edit]

O'Connor was born in Philadelphia, the fourth of five children of Thomas J. and Dorothy Magdalene (née Gomple) O'Connor (1886–1971), daughter of Gustave Gumpel, a kosher butcher and Jewish rabbi.[1][2][3] In 2014, his sister Mary O'Connor Ward discovered through genealogical research that their mother was born Jewish and was baptized as a Roman Catholic at age 19. John's parents were wed the following year.[4]

O'Connor attended public schools until his junior year of high school, when he enrolled in West Philadelphia Catholic High School for Boys.[3]

O'Connor then enrolled at St. Charles Borromeo Seminary, and after graduating from there he was ordained a priest for the Archdiocese of Philadelphia on December 15, 1945,[5] by Hugh L. Lamb, then an auxiliary bishop of the archdiocese. He was initially assigned[citation needed] to teach at St. James High School[6] in Chester, Pennsylvania.

O'Connor during his naval career

O'Connor joined the United States Navy Chaplain Corps in 1952 during the Korean War,[7] often entering combat zones in order to say Mass and to administer last rites to soldiers.[citation needed] He rose through the ranks to become a rear admiral and Chief of Chaplains of the Navy.[8] He served as Chief of Chaplains from spring[citation needed] 1975, for a period of four years, retiring in 1979.[8] He obtained approval for the establishment of the RP [Religious Program Specialist] Enlisting Rating, and oversaw the process of standing up this rating, initially accepting transfers from other enlisted rates. The RP rating provided chaplains with a dedicated enlisted community, instead of yeomen transferred to assist a chaplain for a period before returning to their nominal yeoman rate. During this period, he was made an Honorary Prelate of His Holiness,[citation needed] with the title of Right Reverend Monsignor,[9] on October 27, 1966.

O'Connor obtained a master's degree in advanced ethics from Villanova University and in 1970[citation needed] a doctorate in political science from Georgetown University, where he studied at the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service and wrote his dissertation[citation needed] under the United States' future Ambassador to the United Nations Jeane Kirkpatrick.[5][10]

Bishop[edit]

On April 24, 1979, Pope John Paul II appointed O'Connor as auxiliary bishop of the Military Vicariate for the United States,[5] subsequently reorganized as the Archdiocese for the Military Services in 1985,[11] and titular bishop of Cursola. He was consecrated to the episcopate on May 27, 1979 at St. Peter's Basilica in Rome by John Paul himself, with Cardinals Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy and Eduardo Martínez Somalo as co-consecrators.

On May 6, 1983, John Paul II named O'Connor Bishop of Scranton,[5] and he was installed in that position on the following June 29.[12]

Archbishop of New York[edit]

Styles of
John O'Connor
Coat of arms of John Joseph O'Connor (cardinal).svg
Reference style His Eminence
Spoken style Your Eminence
Informal style Cardinal
See New York

On January 26, 1984, after the death of Cardinal Terence Cooke three months earlier, O'Connor was appointed Archbishop of New York[5] and administrator of the Military Vicariate of the United States, and installed on March 19. He was elevated to cardinal in the consistory of May 25, 1985, with the titulur church of Santi Giovanni e Paolo in Rome, the traditional one for the Archbishop of New York from 1946 to 2009.

As archbishop, O'Connor skillfully brought to bear the power and prestige of his office to bear witness to traditional Catholic doctrine. Upon his death, The New York Times called O'Connor "a familiar and towering presence, a leader whose views and personality were forcefully injected into the great civic debates of his time, a man who considered himself a conciliator, but who never hesitated to be a combatant", and one of the Catholic Church's "most powerful symbols on moral and political issues."[5]

Pro-life advocacy[edit]

O'Connor believed in protecting all human life and was a forceful opponent of abortion, human cloning, capital punishment, human trafficking, and unjust war.[13][14] Horrified by a visit to Dachau concentration camp, O'Connor was inspired to found a Roman Catholic religious institute dedicated to the sanctity of all human life to serve pregnant women and the dying.[15] In 1991 his dream was realized in the Sisters of Life. He assailed what he called the "horror of euthanasia", asking rhetorically, "What makes us think that permitted lawful suicide will not become obligated suicide?"[16]

In 2000, O'Connor called for a "major overhaul" of the punitive Rockefeller drug laws, which he believed produced "grave injustices".[17]

Critiques of US military actions[edit]

Despite his years spent as a naval chaplain, O'Connor offered severe critiques of some United States military policies. In the 1980s, he condemned US support for counterrevolutionary guerrilla forces in Central America, opposed the US's mining of the waters off Nicaragua, questioned spending on new weapons systems, and preached caution in regard to American military actions abroad.[5][18]

In 1998, O'Connor questioned whether the United States' cruise missile strikes on Afghanistan and Sudan were morally justifiable.[19] In 1999, during the Kosovo War, he used his weekly column in the archdiocesan newspaper, Catholic New York, to challenge repeatedly the morality of NATO's bombing campaign of Yugoslavia,[20] suggesting that it did not meet the Catholic Church's criteria for a just war,[14] and going so far as to ask, "Does the relentless bombing of Yugoslavia prove the power of the Western world or its weakness?"[21] Three years before the 9/11 attacks on New York City, O'Connor insisted that the traditional just war principles must be applied to evaluate the morality of military responses to unconventional warfare and terrorism.[19]

Relations with organized labor[edit]

O'Connor's father had been a lifelong union member,[22] and O'Connor was also a passionate defender of organized labor and an advocate for the poor and the homeless.[5]

Early in his tenure, O'Connor set a pro-labor direction for the archdiocese. During a strike in 1984 by the 1199, the largest health care workers union in New York, O'Connor strongly criticized the League of Voluntary Hospitals, of which the archdiocese was a member, for threatening to fire striking union members who refused to return to work, calling it "strikebreaking" and vowing that no Catholic hospital would do so.[23] The following year, when a contract with 1199 still had not been reached, he threatened to break with the league and settle with the union unilaterally to reach an agreement "that gives justice to the workers".[23]

In his homily during a Labor Day Mass at St. Patrick's in 1986, O'Connor expressed his strong commitment to organized labor:

[S]o many of our freedoms in this country, so much of the building up of society, is precisely attributable to the union movement, a movement that I personally will defend despite the weakness of some of its members, despite the corruption with which we are all familiar that pervades all society, a movement that I personally will defend with my life.[24]

In 1987, when the television broadcast employees' union was on strike against NBC, a non-union crew from NBC appeared at the cardinal's residence to cover one of O'Connor's press conferences. O'Connor declined to admit them, directing his secretary to "tell them they're not invited."[25]

Following his death, the Service Employees International Union, Local 1199, published a 12-page tribute to O'Connor, calling him "the patron saint of working people" and describing his support for low-wage and other workers and his efforts in helping limousine drivers unionize, helping end the strike at The Daily News in 1990, and pushing for fringe benefits for minimum-wage home health care workers.[26]

Relations with the Jewish community[edit]

O'Connor played an active role in Catholic–Jewish relations. He strongly denounced anti-Semitism, declaring that one "cannot be a faithful Christian and an anti-Semite. They are incompatible, because anti-Semitism is a sin."[27] He wrote an apology to Jewish leaders in New York for past harm done to the Jewish community.[28]

O'Connor criticized Swiss banks' failure to compensate victims of the Holocaust, which he called "a human rights issue, an issue of the human race."[29] Even when disagreeing with him over political questions, Jewish leaders acknowledged that O'Connor was "a friend, a powerful voice against anti-Semitism".[30]

The Jewish Council for Public Affairs called him, "a true friend and champion of Catholic–Jewish relations [and] a humanitarian who used the power of his pulpit to advocate for disadvantaged people throughout the world and in his own community."[31] Holocaust survivor and Nobel laureate Elie Wiesel called O'Connor, "a good Christian" and a man "who understands our pain."[32]

Relations with the gay community[edit]

O'Connor adhered to the Catholic teaching that homosexual acts are contrary to natural law, intrinsically immoral and therefore never permissible, while homosexual desires are intrinsically disordered but not in themselves sinful.

O'Connor actively opposed Executive Order 50, a mayoral order issued in 1980 by Mayor Ed Koch, which required all city contractors, including religious entities, to provide services on a non-discriminatory basis with respect to race, creed, age, sex, handicap, as well as "sexual orientation or affectational preference".[33] After the Salvation Army received a warning from the city that its contracts for child care services would be canceled for refusing to comply with the executive order's provisions regarding sexual orientation,[34] the Archdiocese of New York and Agudath Israel, an Orthodox Jewish organization, threatened to cancel their contracts with the city if forced to comply.[34] O'Connor maintained that the executive order would cause the Catholic Church to appear to condone homosexual practices and lifestyle.[35][35] Writing in Catholic New York in January 1985, O'Connor characterized the order as "an exceedingly dangerous precedent [that would] invite unacceptable governmental intrusion into and excessive entanglement with the Church's conducting of its own internal affairs." Drawing the traditional Catholic distinction between homosexual "inclinations" and "behavior", he stated that "we do not believe that homosexual behavior ... should be elevated to a protected category."[36]

We do not believe that religious agencies should be required to employ those engaging in or advocating homosexual behavior. We are willing to consider on a case-by-case basis the employment of individuals who have engaged in or may at some future time engage in homosexual behavior. We approach those who have engaged in or may engage in what the Church considers illicit heterosexual behavior the same way.... We believe, however, that only a religious agency itself can properly determine the requirements of any particular job within that agency, and whether or not a particular individual meets or is reasonably likely to meet such requirements.[37]

Subsequently, the Salvation Army, the archdiocese, and Agudath Israel, together with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, brought suit against the City of New York to overturn the executive order on the grounds that the mayor had exceeded his executive authority in issuing it.[35][33] In September 1984, the New York Supreme Court agreed with the religious entities and struck down that part of the executive order that prohibited discrimination based upon "sexual orientation or affectational preference" on the grounds that the mayor had exceeded his authority.[33] In June 1985, New York's highest court upheld the lower court's decision striking down the executive order.[38]

O'Connor vigorously and actively opposed city and state legislation guaranteeing the civil rights of homosexual persons, including legislation (supported by then-Mayors Ed Koch, David Dinkins, and Rudy Giuliani) prohibiting discrimination based upon sexual orientation in housing, public accommodations and employment.[39]

O'Connor also supported the decision by the Ancient Order of Hibernians to exclude the Irish Lesbian and Gay Organization from marching as such under its own banner in New York City's St. Patrick's Day parade.[40] The Hibernians argued that their decision as to which organizations may march in the parade, which honors Saint Patrick, a Catholic saint, was protected by the First Amendment and that they could not be compelled to admit a group whose beliefs conflicted with theirs.[41] In 1992, in a decision criticized by the New York Civil Liberties Union, the City of New York ordered the Hibernians to admit the gay organization to march in the parade.[42] The city subsequently denied the Hibernians a permit for the parade until, in 1993, a federal judge in New York held that the city's permit denial was "patently unconstitutional" because the parade was private, not public, and constituted "a pristine form of speech" as to which the parade sponsor had a right to control the content and tone.[43]

In 1987, O'Connor had prohibited DignityUSA, an organization of gay Catholics, from holding masses in parishes in the archdiocese.[44][45] After eight years of protests by the group, O'Connor started meeting with the group twice a year.[46]

HIV and contraception controversy[edit]

O'Connor opposed condom distribution as an AIDS-prevention measure, viewing it as being contrary to the Catholic Church's teaching that contraception is immoral and its use a sin. O'Connor rejected the argument that condoms distributed to gay men are not contraceptives. O'Connor's response was that using an "evil act" was not justified by good intentions, and that the church should not be seen as encouraging sinful acts among others (other fertile heterosexual couples who might wrongly interpret his narrow support as license for their own contraception).[47][48] He also claimed that sexual abstinence is a sure way to prevent infection,[47] claiming condoms were only 50% effective against HIV transmission.[49] HIV activist group ACT UP was appalled by the cardinal's apparent opinion that it was sinful for an HIV positive person to use a condom to prevent transmission of HIV to his HIV negative partner, an opinion they believe would translate directly into more deaths.[50] This caused many of the confrontations between the group and the cardinal.

Early on in the AIDS epidemic, O'Connor approved the opening of a specialized AIDS unit to provide medical care for the sick and dying in the former St. Clare's Hospital in Manhattan, the first of its kind in the state. He often nurtured and ministered to dying AIDS patients, many of whom were homosexual. Even though he condemned homosexual acts—some members of ACT UP had protested in front of St. Patrick's Cathedral in his absence, to protest, holding placards such as "Cardinal O'Connor Loves Gay People...If They Are Dying of AIDS"—[51] he would not allow his moral differences to interfere with ministering to them.

In 1987, O'Connor was appointed to President Ronald Reagan's President's Commission on the HIV Epidemic, also known as the Watkins Commission, serving alongside 12 other members, few of whom were AIDS experts, including James D. Watkins, Richard DeVos, and Penny Pullen.[52] The commission was initially controversial among HIV researchers and activists as lacking expertise on the disease and as being in disarray.[53][54] The Watkins Commission surprised many of its critics, however, by issuing a final report in 1988 that lent conservative support for antibias laws to protect HIV-positive people, on-demand treatment for drug addicts, and the speeding of AIDS-related research.[55] The New York Times praised the commission's "remarkable strides" and its proposed $2 billion campaign against AIDS among drug addicts.[56] The Watkins Commission's recommendations were similar to the recommendations subsequently made by a committee of HIV experts appointed by the National Academy of Sciences.[57]

On December 10, 1989, 4,500 members of ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) and Women's Health Action and Mobilization (WHAM) held a demonstration at St. Patrick's Cathedral to voice their opposition to the cardinal's positions on AIDS education, the distribution of condoms in public schools, and abortion. The protest resulted in 43 arrests on the cathedral grounds. At the time it was the largest demonstration against the Catholic Church in history and remained so until Pope Benedict XVI's visit in 2010 to the United Kingdom spurred protests by approximately 20,000 people.[58]

Illness and death[edit]

When O'Connor reached the retirement age for bishops of 75 years in January 1995, he submitted his resignation to Pope John Paul II as required by canon law[59], but the Pope did not accept it.[60] He was diagnosed in 1999 as having a brain tumor, from which he eventually died. He continued to serve as Archbishop of New York until his death.

O'Connor died in the archbishop's residence on May 3, 2000, and was interred in the crypt beneath the main altar of St. Patrick's Cathedral. Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Clinton, Vice President Al Gore, Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, former President George H. W. Bush, Texas Governor George W. Bush, New York Governor George Pataki, New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani, former New York City Mayors Ed Koch and David Dinkins were among the dignitaries who attended his funeral, which was presided over by the Cardinal Secretary of State Angelo Sodano.[61] The eulogy was delivered by Cardinal William W. Baum.[62]

Legacy[edit]

Congressional Gold Medal awarded to O'Connor

O'Connor was posthumously awarded the Jackie Robinson Empire State Medal of Freedom by New York Governor George Pataki on December 21, 2000. On March 7, 2000, O'Connor was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal by unanimous support in the United States Senate and only one vote against the resolution in the United States House of Representatives.

To honor O'Connor's service as a naval chaplain, the Catholic Center at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, is named the O'Connor Center.[citation needed] The largest student-run pro-life conference in the United States is named in his honor.[63] It is held annually at Georgetown University the day before the annual March for Life.[63]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Golway 2001, p. 1.
  2. ^ Langan, Sheila (June 11, 2014). "New York Cardinal John O'Connor Was the Grandson of a Jewish Rabbi". Irish Central. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 15, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "His Life". His Eminence John Cardinal O'Connor, D.D., Ph.D.: In Memoriam, 1920–2000. Irondale, Alabama: Eternal Word Television Network. Retrieved November 3, 2017. 
  4. ^ McDonnell, Claudia (April 30, 2014). "Cardinal O'Connor's Mother Was Convert from Judaism, Family Research Reveals". Catholic New York. Retrieved November 4, 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Steinfels, Peter (May 4, 2000). "Death of a Cardinal; Cardinal O'Connor, 80, Dies; Forceful Voice for Vatican". The New York Times. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  6. ^ Golway 2001, p. 13.
  7. ^ Keller & Gregory 2012, p. 249; Rudin 2012, p. 116.
  8. ^ a b Rudin 2012, pp. 116–117.
  9. ^ "Instruction on the Dress, Titles and Coat-of-Arms of Cardinals, Bishops and lesser Prelates". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. April 13, 1969. Retrieved December 31, 2012. 
  10. ^ Marlin & Miner 2017, p. 291; Rudin 2012, p. 116.
  11. ^ Burch & Stimpson 2017, p. 82.
  12. ^ Earley 1994, p. 288.
  13. ^ O'Connor 1990.
  14. ^ a b O'Connor, John J. (April 29, 1999). "Conditions for a Just War". Catholic New York. Archived from the original on September 20, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2017. 
  15. ^ "History". Sisters of Life. Retrieved November 4, 2017. 
  16. ^ Bruni, Frank (April 8, 1996). "Cardinal's Easter Joy Is Tempered by Court Ruling on Aided Suicide". The New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 2017. 
  17. ^ O'Connor, John J. (February 3, 2000). "The Rockefeller Drug Laws". Catholic New York. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved November 4, 2017. 
  18. ^ Hentoff 1988, pp. 85–87.
  19. ^ a b O'Connor, John J. (August 27, 1998). "Were the Attacks Morally Justifiable?". Catholic New York. Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved November 4, 2017. 
  20. ^ O'Connor, John J. (June 3, 1999). "Many Moral Questions on Kosovo Conflict". Catholic New York. Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved November 4, 2017. 
  21. ^ O'Connor, John J. (May 13, 1999). "Ten Good Men for a Power-Mad World". Catholic New York. Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved November 4, 2017. 
  22. ^ Golway 2001, pp. 45, 178; Hentoff 1988, p. 29; Rudin 2012, p. 115.
  23. ^ a b Sullivan, Ronald (September 2, 1985). "O'Connor Says He May Uphold Hospital Accord". The New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2017. 
  24. ^ Hentoff 1988, p. 258; Rudin 2012, p. 115.
  25. ^ Hentoff 1988, pp. 222–223.
  26. ^ Greenhouse, Steven (July 24, 2000). "Union Celebrates O'Connor's Labor Views". The New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2017. 
  27. ^ Rudin, A. James (2005). "A Jewish–Catholic Friendship". America. Vol. 193 no. 5. Retrieved October 30, 2017. 
  28. ^ Lookstein, Haskel (May 12, 2000). "The Cardinal's Epistles to the Jews". The Jewish Week. 
  29. ^ O'Connor, John J. (August 16, 1998). "When Will the Holocaust Really End?". Catholic New York. Archived from the original on September 20, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2017. 
  30. ^ Goldman, Ari L. (January 12, 1987). "O'Connor Is Upset by Critics of Trip". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  31. ^ "JCPA Mourns Death of John Cardinal O'Connor: Jewish Community Loses 'Good Friend'" (Press release). New York: Jewish Council for Public Affairs. May 4, 2000. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved October 30, 2017. 
  32. ^ Goldman, Ari L. (February 15, 1987). "For Cardinal, Wiesel Visit Proved a Calm in Storm over Trip". The New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2017. 
  33. ^ a b c Barbanel, Josh (November 27, 1984). "Archdiocese Challenges Koch's Order on Hiring". The New York Times. Retrieved January 2, 2009. 
  34. ^ a b Glenn 2002, p. 194.
  35. ^ a b c "Obit-O'Connor". New Zealand Digital Library. June 4, 2000. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  36. ^ Hentoff 1988, pp. 89–90.
  37. ^ Hentoff 1988, pp. 90–91.
  38. ^ Berger, Joseph (February 7, 1986). "Brooklyn Diocese Joins Homosexual-Bill Fight". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  39. ^ Peddicord 1996, pp. 64, 68–69, 83, 92.
  40. ^ Pérez-Peña, Richard (January 20, 1993). "St. Patrick Parade Sponsor May Quit Over Gay Dispute". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  41. ^ Onishi, Norimitsu (March 16, 1994). "Irish Parade Becomes a Political Hurdle". The New York Times. Retrieved January 4, 2009. 
  42. ^ Hevesi, Dennis (October 29, 1992). "Gay Irish Win Right to a Parade That Might Die". The New York Times. Retrieved November 2, 2017. 
  43. ^ "New York City Abandons ILGO in St. Patrick's Day Dispute". Lesbian/Gay Law Notes. Lesbian & Gay Law Association of Greater New York. March 1994. ISSN 8755-9021. Retrieved November 2, 2017. 
  44. ^ Golway 2001, pp. 54ff.
  45. ^ "Homosexuals Protest Ending of Their Mass". The New York Times. March 16, 1987. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  46. ^ "Social Justice". Dignity New York. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  47. ^ a b Navarro, Mireya (January 3, 1993). "Ethics of Giving AIDS Advice Troubles Catholic Hospitals". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  48. ^ Goldman, Ari L. (December 30, 1987). "Catholic Leader Rebuts O'Connor on Condom Issue". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  49. ^ O'Connor & Koch 1989, p. 239.
  50. ^ Purdum, Todd S. (December 12, 1989). "Cardinal Says He Won't Yield to Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2009. Jay Blotcher, a spokesman for the Aids Coalition to Unleash Power, or ACT UP, one of the protest's sponsors, said: 'Unfortunately, the dead bodies that the Cardinal is stepping over are the bodies of the people with AIDS who have already died. And what he faces are more bodies of people who could potentially contract the disease because the church refuses to give them access to safe-sex educuation [sic].' 
  51. ^ Goldman, Ari L. (July 27, 1987). "300 Fault O'Connor Role On AIDS Commission". The New York Times. Retrieved January 1, 2009. 
  52. ^ "Reagan's AIDS Panel: Who the Members Are". The New York Times. July 24, 1987. Retrieved February 13, 2013. 
  53. ^ "AIDS Panel Head Says Rift Is Over". The New York Times. The Associated Press. November 11, 1987. Retrieved November 2, 2017. 
  54. ^ Feldman & Wang Miller 1998, p. 172: "In July 1987 ... Reagan appointed an AIDS Commission that included opponents of AIDS education and was devoid of physicians who had treated AIDS patients or scientists who had engaged in AIDS research. The Commission appointments reflected the influence of conservatives who feared not only AIDS, but homosexuals. In naming this body, Reagan sent an unfortunate message to the public that he did not care enough about the AIDS problem to muster the best scientific information available."
  55. ^ Gilden, Dave (2003). "Politics before Science?". HIV Plus. Vol. 6 no. 2. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved November 2, 2017. 
  56. ^ "The Right Fight Against AIDS; As the Admiral Says, Focus on Addicts". The New York Times. February 28, 1988. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  57. ^ Boffey, Philip M. (June 2, 1988). "Expert Panel Sees Poor Leadership in U.S. AIDS Battle". The New York Times. Retrieved November 2, 2017. 
  58. ^ "Papal Visit: Thousands Protest against Pope in London". BBC News. September 18, 2010. Retrieved November 2, 2017. 
  59. ^ "Can. 401 §1". Code of Canon Law. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved 22 September 2018. 
  60. ^ Queen, Prothero & Shattuck 2001, p. 520.
  61. ^ "O'Connor Entombed at St. Patrick's Cathedral". USA Today. May 8, 2000. Retrieved March 13, 2007. [permanent dead link]
  62. ^ Caulfield, Brian; McDonnell, Claudia (January 2000). "'He Hasn't Left'". Catholic New York. Archived from the original on September 12, 2007. Retrieved December 31, 2008. 
  63. ^ a b "Home". Cardinal O'Connor Conference on Life. Archived from the original on July 24, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2017. 

Cited works[edit]

Burch, Brian; Stimpson, Emily (2017). The American Catholic Almanac: A Daily Reader of Patriots, Saints, Rogues, and Ordinary People who Changed the United States. New York: Image. ISBN 978-0-553-41874-3. 
Earley, James B. (1994). Envisioning Faith: The Pictorial History of the Diocese of Scranton. Devon, Pennsylvania: W.T. Cooke Publishing. 
Feldman, Douglas A.; Wang Miller, Julia (1998). The AIDS Crisis: A Documentary History. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-28715-2. 
Glenn, Charles L. (2002). The Ambiguous Embrace: Government and Faith-Based Schools and Social Agencies. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-09280-5. 
Golway, Terry (2001). Full of Grace: An Oral Biography of John Cardinal O'Connor. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7434-4814-7. 
Hentoff, Nat (1988). John Cardinal O'Connor: At the Storm Center of a Changing American Catholic Church. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 978-0-684-18944-4. 
Keller, Daniella E.; Gregory, David L. (2012). "O'Connor, John Cardinal (1920–2009)". In Coulter, Michael L.; Myers, Richard S.; Varacalli, Joseph A. Encyclopedia of Catholic Social Thought, Social Science, and Social Policy. 3. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. pp. 248–251. ISBN 978-0-8108-8266-9. 
Marlin, George J.; Miner, Brad (2017). Sons of Saint Patrick: A History of the Archbishops of New York, from Dagger John to Timmytown. San Francisco, California: Ignatius Press. ISBN 978-1-62164-113-1. 
O'Connor, John J. (1990). "Abortion: Questions and Answers"Free access subject to limited trial, subscription normally required. The Human Life Review. New York: The Human Life Foundation. 16 (3): 65–96. ISSN 0097-9783. Retrieved November 4, 2017. 
O'Connor, John; Koch, Edward I. (1989). His Eminence and Hizzoner. New York: William Morrow & Co. ISBN 978-0-688-07928-4. 
Peddicord, Richard (1996). Gay and Lesbian Rights: A Question: Sexual Ethics or Social Justice?. Kansas City, Missouri: Sheed & Ward. ISBN 978-1-55612-759-5. 
Queen, Edward L., II; Prothero, Stephen R.; Shattuck, Gardiner H., eds. (2001). Encyclopedia of American Religious History. 2 (2nd ed.). New York: Facts on File. ISBN 978-0-8160-4335-4. 
Rudin, James (2012). Cushing, Spellman, O'Connor: The Surprising Story of How Three American Cardinals Transformed Catholic–Jewish Relations. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8028-6567-0. 

Further reading[edit]

Bush, George W. (July 10, 2001). "Remarks by the President at Congressional Gold Medal Ceremony Honoring John Cardinal O'Connor" (Press release). Washington: White House Office. Retrieved November 3, 2017. 
"Cardinal O'Connor's Writings". Catholic New York. Archived from the original on August 7, 2004. Retrieved November 3, 2017. 
"His Life". His Eminence John Cardinal O'Connor, D.D., Ph.D.: In Memoriam, 1920–2000. Irondale, Alabama: Eternal Word Television Network. Retrieved November 3, 2017. 
O'Connor, John (June 21, 1994). "Cardinal O'Connor; Daly; Shearer". Charlie Rose (Interview). Interviewed by Rose, Charlie. PBS. Retrieved November 3, 2017 – via CharlieRose.com. 
 ———  (1995). A Moment of Grace: John Cardinal O'Connor on the Catechism of the Catholic Church. San Francisco, California: Ignatius Press. ISBN 978-0-89870-554-6. 
Quindlen, Anna (February 17, 1993). "Church and State". Public & Private. The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2017. 
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Thomas Benjamin Fulton
— TITULAR —
Bishop of Cursola
1979–1983
Succeeded by
Pedro Luís Guido Scarpa (cs; de; fi)
Preceded by
J. Carroll McCormick
Bishop of Scranton
1983–1984
Succeeded by
James Timlin
Preceded by
Terence Cooke
Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York
1984–2000
Succeeded by
Edward Egan
Cardinal-Priest of Santi Giovanni e Paolo
1985–2000
Military offices
Preceded by
Francis L. Garrett
Chief of Chaplains of the United States Navy
1975–1979
Succeeded by
Ross H. Trower