John Mason (c. 1600–1672)

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John Mason
J M face.JPG
Born 1600 in Ravensthorpe
Northamptonshire, England
Died 1672, age 72
Norwich, Connecticut
Nationality English
Occupation Major in Colonial Militia
Known for Commander of colonial militia at Mystic Massacre in Pequot War; Deputy Governor Connecticut
Religion Puritan
Coat of Arms

John Mason was born in Ravensthorpe,[1] Northamptonshire,[2] England in October 1600. Little is known about his life there and where he was educated. He enlisted in the military in 1624[3] and went to the Netherlands to serve in the sectarian Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), where he gained significant tactical military experience, first seeing action in the Breda Campaign. By 1629 he was a lieutenant in the Brabant Campaign and participated in the Siege of s'-Hertogenbosch, literally "The Duke's Forrest" in English, and known historically in French as Bois-le-Duc.[4] He served with Lord Thomas Fairfax under General Sir Horace Vere in the army of Frederik Hendrik, The Prince of Orange.

In 1632 he joined the great Puritan exodus and sailed from England settling in Dorchester, Mass. Bay Colony, where he was promptly appointed as the captain of the local militia. In 1633 he commanded the first American naval task force and pursued the pirate Dixie Bull routing him from New England waters. Along with Roger Ludlow, he planned and supervised the construction of the first fortifications on Castle Island (later known as Fort Independence) in Boston Harbor. In 1634 he was elected to represent Dorchester in the Massachusetts General Court where permission was granted for him to remove to the fertile Connecticut River valley. In 1635 he settled in Windsor, Connecticut at the confluence of the Farmington River and the Connecticut River; he would live here for the next twelve years and serve as a civil Magistrate and military leader of the nascent Connecticut Colony. In 1640 he married Anne Peck from a prominent Puritan family; they would have eight children.

The most prominent episode in Mason's lifelong career of public service was his overall command as captain of the Colonial forces in the Pequot War in 1637. This was the first declared and sustained conflict in Southern New England, which was a complex and risky campaign. The large and powerful hegemonic Pequot Tribe who the Puritans viewed as an eminent danger, greatly outnumbered the Colonial forces, but the English had superior weapons and tactics plus fervently believed that divine providence would ensure their ultimate victory. They also had the guidance and support of numerous Native allies who were tributaries to the Pequot, especially Mohegan Sachem Uncas who formed a unique and lasting bond with Mason and also Wequash Cooke. This brief and decisive war, with the Mystic Massacre in particular, forever changed the complexion of American society going forward. The massacre was featured in the History Channel series 10 Days That Unexpectedly Changed America. Subsequent to this victory, Mason was promoted to major and received numerous land grants as a reward for his services. Mason's Island at the mouth of the Mystic River remained in his family for over 250 years.

In 1647 Mason assumed command of Saybrook (Colony) Fort which controlled the main trade and supply route to the upper river valley. The fort promptly and mysteriously burned to the ground but another improved fort was quickly built nearby. He spent the next twelve years there and served as Commissioner of the United Colonies, as the chief military officer, magistrate and peacekeeper. He was continually called upon to negotiate the purchase of Indian lands, write a treaty or arbitrate some Native quarrel, many of which were instigated by his friend Uncas. His leadership abilities were unrivaled, which prompted the New Haven Colony to offer Mason a very lucrative position as manager of their new enterprise in relocating to the Delaware River area. This offer was very difficult to refuse, however the General Court of Connecticut was relieved when he declined to accept the offer and remained in Connecticut.

In 1659, Major John Mason, with his son-in-law Rev. James Fitch and most of the Saybrook residents, moved from the mouth of the Connecticut River to the head of the Thames River and founded the town of Norwich, Connecticut. The land "nine miles square" was purchased from the Mohegan Sachem Uncas; who also signed over to Mason as a protector and administrator, all the territory in his tribes domain.[5] Questions regarding title to these thousands of acres created legal disputes which lasted for seventy years, the Mohegan Land Case actually consisted of several cases and appeals making their way through various courts in Connecticut, Massachusetts and even back in London, England before the Lords Commissioners. Ultimately, lives*, fortunes and the lands were lost to the march of progress, greed and corruption. During his twelve years in Norwich, John Mason served for nine years as Deputy Governor 1660 to 1669 and he helped to write the constitutional Connecticut Charter. He served as acting Governor from 1661 to 1663 while Governor John Winthrop Jr. went to England to obtain approval of the Charter from King Charles II.

In 1669, pleading old age and infirmities, he retired to a revered advisory position but he suffered painfully in the last years of his life from cancer, which was then referred to as "ye strangury".[6] He died on January 30, 1672, at the age of seventy two and is buried in the Post-Gager cemetery with the other founders of Norwichtown, Connecticut.[7]

Education[edit]

Pequot War Attack
Pequod War Etching

John Mason was well educated, but it is not known where he was schooled in England or perhaps a military school in the Netherlands. His activities from the earliest days in New England give evidence of training as a military engineer. His prose is vigorous and direct in his regular correspondence with the Winthrop Family and in his history of the Pequot War.[8]

Pequot War 1636–1637[edit]

Initially the colonists were invited to trade in the Connecticut River valley with the notion that everyone had something to gain, however soon the status quo was significantly disrupted and the dominant Pequot Tribe lost considerable control over their empire. Within a few short years of rapid change, the complex clash of cultures was in full swing with all of its many misunderstandings and ramifications. Although Natives far outnumbered the English Colonists, the Epidemic of 1633–1634 caused high mortality rates and along with internal schisms and machinations, the once powerful tribe was at a turning point. The Grand Sachem Sassacus needed to prove his proud leadership status but was unable to convince his neighboring tribes and enemies to act in confederation against the rising tide of aggressive Colonists. Instead the Mohegan's and Narragansett's chose to ally with the English to gain their independence from subservience and tribute. The Narragansett's were reluctant to participate for fear of reprisal, however the Mohegan Uncas was enthusiastic to fight towards obtaining his ultimate goal of being in control of the region (some historians claim that he orchestrated the entire scenario). Both sides launched a series of minor raids with valuable property loss and increasing death tolls until the Connecticut General Court raised a force of 90 men for an offensive war against the Pequot. This would be the first declared and sustained conflict in Southern New England and would set the tone for many years to come in America. The Pequot War started in the predawn hours of May 26, 1637 when English forces led by Captain's John Mason and John Underhill, along with their Native allies, attacked one of two main fortified Pequot villages at Mistick. Only 20 soldiers breached the palisade's gate and were quickly overwhelmed to the point that they utilized fire to create chaos and facilitate their escape from within. The ensuing conflagration trapped the majority of the natives and caused their death, those who managed to exit were slain by the sword or musket from the others who surrounded the fort. Only a handful of approximately 500 men, women and children would survive what became known as the Battle of Mistick Fort. As the soldiers made the exhausted withdrawal march to their boats, they faced several attacks by frantic warriors from the other village of Weinshauks, but again the Pequot's suffered very heavy losses versus relatively few by the Colonists. These two severe back to back defeats, literally broke the resources and spirit of the tribe who then decided to retreat west to the Hudson River area. They were pursued along the southern coast, with other confrontations at Sachem's Head and the Fairfield swamp fight, suffering more deaths and capture. Sassacus and his core family band did manage to make it to New York but was finally killed there by the very tribe he sought refuge with. The Mohawk did not want to suffer a similar wrath from the English, so they cut off his hands and head and delivered them to the victorious Colonist's, which finally ended the Pequot War.

Capitol Figure
1889 Unveiling Invitation

Mason recounted his experiences in the Pequot War in his narrative: Major Mason's Brief History of the Pequot War, which was originally printed in 1677 by Increase Mather and later reprinted by Thomas Prince in 1736.[9]

Later career[edit]

In 1640 an event took place that forever changed the political boundaries of the Connecticut River Valley. From its founding until that time, Springfield, Massachusetts (then called Agawam) had been administered by the Connecticut Colony along with Connecticut's three other settlements - at Wethersfield, Hartford, and Windsor. In the spring of 1640, grain was very scarce and cattle were dying of starvation. The nearby Connecticut River Valley settlements of Windsor (then called "Matianuck") and Hartford (then called "Newtown") gave power to William Pynchon, the founder of Springfield, to buy corn for all three English settlements. If the natives would not sell their corn at market prices, then Pynchon was authorized to offer more money. The natives refused to sell their corn at market prices, and then later refused to sell it at "reasonable" prices. Pynchon refused to buy it, believing it best not to broadcast the English colonists' weaknesses, and also wanting to keep market values steady.[10]

Leading citizens of what would become Hartford were furious with Pynchon for not purchasing any grain. With Windsor and Wethersfield's consent, the three southerly settlements commissioned John Mason to travel to Springfield with "money in one hand and a sword in the other." [11] On reaching what would become Springfield, Mason threatened the local natives with war if they did not sell their corn at a "reasonable price." The natives capitulated and ultimately sold the colonists corn; however, Mason's intimidating approach led to the natives' deepening distrust of the English colonists. Pynchon, an avowed "man of peace," believed in negotiation with the natives (and thus, quickly made a fortune), whereas Mason believed in subduing natives by force if necessary. This philosophical difference led to Mason using "hard words" against Pynchon. Pynchon's settlement, however, agreed with him and his philosophy, and that same year voted to separate from the Connecticut Colony and be annexed by the Massachusetts Bay Colony. As this local controversy was heating up the Massachusetts Bay Colony decided to reassert its jurisdiction over the land bordering the Connecticut River, realizing that it was its most valuable for farming.

In 1645, when Sir Thomas Fairfax was made commander in chief, he addressed a letter to Major Mason in Connecticut urging him to return to England, join his standard and accept a Major-General's commission in the Parliamentary Army to serve in the English Civil War.[12] Mason declined this offer and remained in Connecticut.

In 1647, Mason removed his family to Old Saybrook, Connecticut and spent the next twelve years as commander of this strategic fort. During this period he also declined an offer from the New Haven Colony to relocate to Delaware and be their military leader.

In 1660, Mason founded the town of Norwich, New London County, Connecticut and served as Deputy Governor (1660–1669), and Major General (1654–1672) of the forces of Connecticut.[13]

In the summer of 1670 John Mason acted as an intermediary between Roger Williams and the Connecticut government regarding a boundary dispute between Rhode Island and Connecticut.

John Mason was one of the most trusted men in Connecticut during his three and a half decades of residence there, in both civil and military matters. In his latter years the formal colony records referred to him simply as "the Major," without forename or surname.

Mason Statue Mystic Conn

Family[edit]

Mason Statue Windsor CT

John Mason married his first wife (name unknown) in 1634 at Dorchester, she died in the spring of 1638 at Windsor. They had a daughter Israel who was born in the winter of 1635 at Windsor and she married John Bissell Jr. on June 17, 1657 at Windsor. They had nine children, he died in 1693 and it is uncertain when she died.

He married Anne Peck in July 1639, in Hingham, Massachusetts. Anne Peck was born on November 16, 1619 in Hingham, Norfolkshire, England and died in 1671 in Norwich, New London County, Connecticut. She was the daughter of Rev. Robert Peck, who was born at Beccles, Suffolk, England, in 1580.[14] ( He was graduated at Magdalene College, Cambridge; the degree of A. B. was conferred upon him in 1599, and that of A. M., in 1603. He was a talented and influential clergyman and Puritan who had fled his Hingham, Norfolk, England, church after the crackdown by Archbishop Laud.[15][16] He later returned to Hingham, England in 1641and died there in 1656. )

In his list of "some omitted in former records being gone yet had children born here", Matthew Grant included "Captain Masen" and credited him with four children born in Windsor,[17] which are best accounted for as the daughter Israel by his first wife, and then with second wife Anne had Priscilla b.1641, and Samuel b.1644, and John b.1646.

Children born at Saybrook, Connecticut were Rachel b.1648 and Ann b.1650 and Daniel b.1652; and then Elizabeth was born at Stonington, Connecticut in 1654.

All of the Major's sons - Samuel, John and Daniel were also military officers and prominent civil servants. Many subsequent descendants served as military officers, doctors, lawyers and reverends here in America.

Memorials[edit]

Mason's Island at the mouth of the Mystic River in Stonington, Connecticut, is named after John Mason. It was owned by the Mason family from 1651 to 1913

After the Civil War a statue movement was sweeping the nation - local citizens and organizations were erecting monuments of heroes and patriots everywhere. The prominent citizens of Mystic,Connecticut decided to create a larger than life bronze and granite monument of Major John Mason, the commander of the Colonial forces in the 1637 Pequot War, the very first declared and sustained conflict in the early colonies. In 1889 the John Mason statue was placed at the intersection of Pequot Avenue and Clift Street in Mystic, Conn. near what was thought to be the location of the fortified Pequot village where the Mistick Massacre occurred. After the war the Colonial government declared the once dominant Pequot Tribe to be extinct. Even though a few survivors and descendants continued to remain in their former territory, they were ignored along with occasional complaints about the statue being on the sacred site where their ancestors perished. The statue remained there for 103 years, that is until the early 1990s when the resurgent Pequot's managed to obtain federal recognition and build a large gambling and entertainment empire. Former and new complaints about the statue could no longer be ignored and in the spirit of a current political correctness movement and studying the sensitivity and appropriateness of the statue's location, a committee chartered by the Town of Groton, Connecticut recommended that it be relocated. In 1996 the State of Connecticut (DEP/Parks Dept.) decided to relocate the statue of Major John Mason to the Palisado Green in Windsor, Connecticut, at 41°51′29″N 72°38′11″W / 41.85806°N 72.63639°W / 41.85806; -72.63639 which is where John Mason lived at the time of the war. The original plaque which glorified him for the war victory was removed and given to the Mystic River Historical Society and a new plaque outlining the Major's entire career replaced it. This essentially re-birthed the statue to now represent John Mason in a more balanced and comprehensive manner for a lifetime of public service including many prominent accomplishments as the preeminent founder of the nascent Connecticut Colony.[18]

  • Commander of first American Naval task force against the pirate Dixie Bull 1633
  • Lieutenant at Dorchester and Civil Engineer of initial fortifications at Castle Island in Boston Harbor.(later known as Fort Independence) 1634
  • Deputy for Dorchester to Massachusetts Bay Colony General Court, 1634 - 1635
  • Captain and Commander of Colonial forces in the Pequot War 1637
  • Deputy for Windsor to Connecticut Court, 1637 - 1641
  • Assistant to the Connecticut Court, 1642–1659, 1669-71 [CT Civil List 35]
  • Commander of Saybrook Fort 1647-1659. War committee for Saybrook, May 1653, October 1654
  • Major General - chief military officer of the United Colonies 1654 - 1672
  • Deputy Governor of Connecticut Colony, 1660 - 1668
  • - Mason also served as acting Governor from 1661 to 1663, while Gov. John Winthrop Jr. went to London to obtain approval of the Charter from King Charles II
  • Commissioner for United Colonies, June 1654, May 1655, May 1656, May 1657, - - May 1660, May 1661
  • Patentee of the original Connecticut Constitution - Royal Charter, 1662
  • Also Overseer (first Indian Agent) and Administrator of Mohegan Lands 1659-1672

In honor of Norwich's Bi-centennial in 1859, The Mason Monument Assoc. was formed and money was donated to erect a Founders Monument in the original burial grounds at Bean Hill. Major John Mason was their leader and this monument is also referred to as the Mason Monument but includes the names of all the 38 original settlers.

For the 250 th anniversary celebration in 1909, a temporary plaster Founders Monument was created featuring a Puritan family and placed on the green at Chelsea Parade, it soon dissolved from exposure to the elements.

Founders Monument Norwichtown

There is a life sized stone carving of Major John Mason on the Connecticut State Capitol building as he was a preeminent founder of the Colony and subsequent State.

Estate[edit]

On 10 February 1634 "Captayne Mason" received a grant of 2 acres (8,100 m2) in Dorchester. He drew 6 acres (24,000 m2) of meadow beyond Naponset in lot #73.

In the Windsor land inventory on 28 February 1640, John Mason held seven parcels, six of which were granted to him: "a home lot with some additions to it", 10 acres (40,000 m2); "in the Palisado where his house stands and mead adjoining" 20.5 acres (83,000 m2); "in the first mead on the north side of the rivulet, for mead and addition in swamp" 8 acres (32,000 m2); "in the northwest field for upland" 8 acres (32,000 m2) "with some addition on the bank side"; "over the Great River in breadth by the river twenty-six rods more or less, and continues that breadth to the east side of the west marsh, and there it is but sixteen rods in breadth and so continues to the end of the three miles"; 9 acres (36,000 m2) "of land by Rocky Hill"; and "by a deed of exchange with Thomas Duy [Dewey] ... on the east side of the Great River in breadth eighteen rods more or less, in length three miles".

On 5 January 1641 Connecticut court ordered "that Captain Mason shall have 500 acres (2.0 km2) of ground, for him and his heirs, about Pequot Country, and the dispose of 500 more acres to such soldiers as joined with him in the service when they conquered the Indians there".

On 12 July 1644 John Mason of Windsor sold to William Hosford of Windsor 8 acres (32,000 m2) in a little meadow with addition of swamp.

On 11 September 1651 "the island commonly called Chippachauge in Mistick Bay is given to Capt. John Mason, and also 100 acres (0.40 km2) of upland and 10 acres (40,000 m2) of meadow near Mistick, where he shall make choice". Henceforth, this island became known as Mason's Island, located at the mouth of the Mystic River.

On 14 March 1660 the "jurisdiction power over that land that Uncas and Wawequa have made over to Major Mason is by him surrendered to this Colony. Nevertheless for the laying out of those lands to farms or plantations the Court doth leave it in the hands of Major Mason. It is also ordered and provided with the consent of Major Mason, that Uncus & Wawequa and their Indians and successors shall be supplied with sufficient planting ground at all times as the Court sees cause out of that land. And the Major doth reserve for himself a competence of land sufficient to make a farm".

On 14 May 1663 the court granted "unto the Major, our worshipful Deputy Governor, 500 acres (2.0 km2) of land for a farm, where he shall choose it, if it may not be prejudicial to a plantation already set up or to set up, so there be not above 50 acres (200,000 m2) of meadow in it". On 13 October 1664, the "Major propounding to the Court to take up his former grant of a farm, at a place by the Indians called Pomakuck, near Norwich, the Court grants liberty to him to take up his former grant in that place, upon the same terms as it was granted to him by the Court".

Masons Island circa 1950
Masons Island Mystic aerial view

On 20 May 1668 the "Major desiring this Court to grant him a farm" of about 300 acres (1.2 km2), for "one of his sons, his desire is hereby granted (provided there be not above 30 acres (120,000 m2) of meadow) and Lt. Griswold & Ensign Tracy are hereby desired to lay it out to him in some convenient place near that tract of land granted Jer[emiah] Adams, it being the place the Major hath pitched upon, the name of the place is Uncupsitt, provided it prejudice no plantation or former grant".

On 9 May 1672 "Ensign Tracy is appointed to join with Sergeant Tho[mas] Leffingwell in laying out to the Major and Mr. Howkins their grants of land according to their grants".

Descendants[edit]

John Mason's descendants number in the thousands today. Some of his notable descendants include;

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Saint Denys Church Records
  2. ^ Ancestry.com UK
  3. ^ Muster Roll, Brington, Northhamptonshire England
  4. ^ Mason, Theodore West (1909). A Mason Record. New York: The Grafton Press. p. 11. 
  5. ^ Caulkins, Frances Manwaring (1866). History of Norwich. [Hartford] Self-published. 
  6. ^ Bradstreet, Reverend Simon, Journal January 30, 1672 New London, Conn.
  7. ^ Haynes, Williams. Connecticut's Own Major A Profile of John Mason (1600-1672). Connecticut Booklet Series - No. 1 (Second Printing ed.). Essex, Connecticut: The Pequot Press Inc. pp. 3–13. 
  8. ^ Mason, John. A Brief History of the Pequot War (1736) (annotated online electronic text edition [pdf]).
  9. ^ John, Mason. A Brief History of the Pequot War: especially of the memorable taking of their fort at Mistick in Connecticut in 1637 (Boston: S. Kneeland and T. Green 1736).
  10. ^ Barrows, Charles Henry (2009) [1911, The Connecticut Valley Historical Society]. The history of Springfield in Massachusetts for the young: being also in some part the history of other towns and cities in the county of Hampden. BiblioBazaar. pp. 46–48. ISBN 1117219402. 
  11. ^ Barrows, 1911
  12. ^ Mason, Theodore West (1909). A Mason Record. The Grafton Press. p. 11. 
  13. ^ Connecticut State Register, 1924 Government & Military records, p. 645.
  14. ^ "Peck, Robert (PK598R2)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  15. ^ Rev. Peck was eventually forced to flee and emigrated to the then colony of Massachusetts, where he founded the town of Hingham, Massachusetts. He was joined in settling the town with other members of his parish from Hingham, England. He resided in Hingham, Massachusetts for several years, until King Charles I had been executed and Oliver Cromwell had taken the reins of government. Robert Peck then elected to return to Hingham, Norfolk, and resumed as rector of St Andrews Church. He died in Hingham but left descendants in America, including his brother Joseph Peck, who settled in Rehoboth, Massachusetts and whose descendants continued to live in the area through the twentieth century. Today's Pecks Corner in Rehoboth is named for this early family.
  16. ^ The Will of Rev. Robert Peck, father of Ann Peck, Hingham, Norfolk, England, A Genealogical History of the Descendants of Joseph Peck Who Emigrated with His Family to This Country in 1638, Ira Ballou Peck, 1868
  17. ^ Grant 93
  18. ^ Maronn, Marcus (1996). John Mason Statue Report. Mystic & Noank Library, Indian & Colonial Research Center, Windsor Historical Society, CT. State Library: The Mason Family Memorial Association. 

Further reading[edit]