John Merryman (August 9, 1824 – November 15, 1881) was the petitioner in the case Ex parte Merryman which was one of the best known habeas corpus cases of the American Civil War. Merryman was also a militia officer during the Civil War, and a Maryland politician.
Merryman began his work life as an employee in Richard Norris' hardware store in Baltimore City. The following year he moved to Guayama, Puerto Rico to work for his uncle, Samuel N. Gott. Merryman returned to Maryland in 1842 to manage farms and raise Hereford cattle. Merryman married Ann Louisa, daughter of Elijah Bosley Gittings, in 1844. John and Ann Louisa had eleven children. Merryman, a Democrat, served as president of the Board of County Commissioners, Baltimore County, in 1857. At the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, he was a farmer in Cockeysville, Maryland.
Prior to the Civil War, Merryman was a 3rd lieutenant in the Baltimore County Troops. By 1861 he was a 1st lieutenant in the Baltimore County Horse Guards. Following the Pratt Street Riot in Baltimore, the Maryland legislature voted against secession. However, concerned about further unrest from pro-Southern element, they voted to keep the railways closed so Union troops could not travel through Maryland on the way to the South. While carrying out this policy, Governor Hicks ordered Merryman to aid in the destruction of several bridges north of Baltimore.
On May 25, 1861, Merryman was arrested at his home in Cockeysville by Union troops, and confined in Fort McHenry. Merryman petitioned for a writ of habeas corpus, which was granted by Chief Justice Taney, but the writ was disobeyed by General George Cadwalader, the arresting officer, under orders from President Lincoln, even though Taney cited Cadwalader for contempt. Taney declared Lincoln's suspension of habeas corpus unconstitutional (see Ex parte Merryman). Merryman was indicted by the grand jury of a United States District Court for shooting a commanding officer.
While Merryman was in jail awaiting a hearing, Taney had furniture and home-cooked meals brought to him in his cell. Merryman later named one of his sons Roger B. Taney Merryman in the Chief Justice's honor.
Merryman was State Treasurer of Maryland from 1870 to 1872.
- Maryland State Archives
- Toomey, Daniel Carroll. The Civil War in Maryland. Baltimore, MD: Toomey Press. p. 21.
- Nancy Bramucci Sheads (2005). "Teaching American History in Maryland – Documents for the Classroom: Arrest of the Maryland Legislature, 1861". Maryland State Archives. Retrieved April 3, 2016.
- The Sun. "The Indictment for Treason Against John Merryman." July 11, 1861: 1, col. 5.
- The Politics of Continuity.
- Baker, Jean H. The Politics of Continuity; Maryland Political Parties from 1858 to 1870. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973.
- Maryland State Archives. Ex Parte Merryman. Retrieved October 12, 2007 from http://teachingamericanhistorymd.net/000001/000000/000107/html/t107.html
- McGinty, Brian. The Body of John Merryman: Abraham Lincoln and the Suspension of Habeas Corpus. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011.
- White, Jonathan W. Abraham Lincoln and Treason in the Civil War: The Trials of John Merryman. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2011.
|Treasurer of Maryland
John W. Davis