|Born||John Frederick Milius
April 11, 1944
St. Louis, Missouri,
|Alma mater||University of Southern California School of Cinema-Television|
|Spouse(s)||Renee Fabri (1967–1978) (divorced) (2 children)
Celia Milius (1978–?) (divorced)
Elan Oberon (1992–present)
John Frederick Milius (born April 11, 1944) is an American screenwriter, director, and producer of motion pictures. He was one of the writers for the first two Dirty Harry films, received an Academy Award nomination as screenwriter of Apocalypse Now, and wrote and directed The Wind and the Lion, Conan the Barbarian and Red Dawn.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Early career
- 3 Director
- 4 Influence
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Selected credits
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Milius was born in St. Louis, Missouri, the youngest of three children to Elizabeth (née Roe) and William Styx Milius, who was a shoe manufacturer. When Milius was seven his father sold his business, retired and moved to California, where Milius became an enthusiastic surfer. When he was fourteen his parents sent him to a small private school, the Lowell Whiteman School, in the mountains of Steamboat Springs, Colorado "because I was a juvenile delinquent." Milius became a voracious reader and started to write short stories. "I had learned very early, to write in almost any style. I could write in fluent Hemingway, or in fluent Melville, or Conrad, or Jack Kerouac, and whatever." He says he was also influenced by the oral story telling of surfers at the time, who had a beatnik tradition.
Milius attempted to join the Marine Corps and volunteer for Vietnam War service in the late 1960s, but was rejected due to a chronic and sometimes disabling case of asthma. "It was totally demoralizing," he said later. "I missed going to my war. It probably caused me to be obsessed with war ever since."
At one stage Milius considered becoming an artist or historian. During a rainy day on a summer vacation in Hawaii, he stumbled upon a movie theatre showing a week of Akira Kurosawa films and fell in love with cinema.
He studied film at the University of Southern California School of Cinema-Television where his classmates included George Lucas, Basil Poledouris, Randal Kleiser and Don Glut. Milius says he was influenced by his teacher, Irwin Blacker:
He gave you the screenplay form, which I hated so much, and if you made one mistake on the form, you flunked the class. His attitude was that the least you can learn is the form. “I can’t grade you on the content. I can’t tell you whether this is a better story for you to write than that, you know? And I can’t teach you how to write the content, but I can certainly demand that you do it in the proper form.” He never talked about character arcs or anything like that; he simply talked about telling a good yarn, telling a good story. He said, “Do whatever you need to do. Be as radical and as outrageous as you can be. Take any kind of approach you want to take. Feel free to flash back, feel free to flash forward, feel free to flash back in the middle of a flashback. Feel free to use narration, all the tools are there for you to use."
I think Moby Dick is the best work of art ever made. My favorite work of art. I used to point out the dramatic entrance of characters, how they were threaded through.… Moby Dick was a perfect screenplay, a perfect example of the kind of drama that I was interested in. Another great influence on me was Kerouac, and a novel like On the Road, which has no tight, linear narrative, but sprawls, following this character. Moby Dick and On the Road are completely different kinds of novels, yet they’re both extremely disciplined. Nothing happens by accident in either of those two books.
Milius reflected his "ambitions stopped at B Westerns... I thought that was a good life. I never wanted to be Hitchcock or some big mogul, I didn't want to be Louis B. Mayer. I wanted to be, I don't know what, Budd Boetticher or something... John Ford." His short films at film school included The Reversal of Richard Sun (1966), Glut (1967) and Viking Women Don't Care (1967). He wrote a documentary, The Emperor (1967), directed by classmate George Lucas, who also edited an animated short Milius directed called Marcello I'm So Bored (1967) with John Strawbridge. Marcello won best animation at the National Student Film Festival and screened around the country in various festivals; it was praised by Vincent Canby of the New York Times. Milius received a job offer to work in animation but he turned it down as he could not see himself "sitting there drawing cell after cell."
Milius' first original scripts were Los Gringos and Last Resort. Milius then got a summer job working at the story department of American International Pictures through a student colleague of his who had begun working there, Willard Huyck. Huyck and Milius worked at AIP under producer Larry Gordon, reading scripts. They eventually collaborated on the screenplay for The Devil's 8 (1968), an action drama about moonshine drivers which ripped off The Dirty Dozen (1968).
Milius' name had been mentioned in a 1968 Time magazine article about the new generation of Hollywood filmmakers, which also referred to George Lucas and Martin Scorsese. This was read by Mike Medavoy, who became Milius' agent. Medavoy called Milius "a badboy mad genius in a teenager's body, but he was a good and fast writer with original ideas." Milius began to get writing commissions: he wrote The Texans for Al Ruddy at Paramount, followed by Truck Driver. However he later expressed dissatisfaction with these early works:
I didn’t do a good job and I realized the reason I didn’t do a good job was because in both cases I was influenced by the people who had hired me. They said put this in and put that in, and I went along with it. Every time I went along with something in my whole career it usually didn’t work. Usually there’s a price to pay. You think of selling out, but there is a price to pay. Usually what people want you to do is make it current.
The real breaking point where I knew – and it was almost overnight – that I had become a good writer with a voice... When I started working on that, it was called The Crow Killer and I knew that material. I’d lived in the mountains, I had a trapline, I hunted, and I had a lot of experiences with characters up there. So, it was real easy to write that and there was a humor to it, a kind of bigger-than-life attitude. I was inspired by Carl Sandberg. I read a lot of his poetry and it’s this kind of abrupt description – ‘a train is coming, thundering steel, where are you going? Wichita.’ That great kind of feeling that he had, that’s what I was trying to do there. I remember there was a great poem about American braggarts. You know, American liars – ‘I am the ring-tailed cousin to the such and such that ate so and so and I can do this and I can do that better than Mike Fink the river man...’ I just realized that this was the voice that the script had to have. It was as clear as a bell. I knew that writing was particular to me.
Milius sold the script for $5,000. He says he was offered $17,000 to rewrite Skin Game (1971) but then Francis Ford Coppola made a counter offer of $15,000 for Milius to write Apocalypse Now. Apocalypse Now was an adaptation of Heart of Darkness set in the Vietnam War which George Lucas intended to direct as a follow up to his first feature THX 1138 (1971). Milius says Coppola:
Offered that wonderful fork in the road where I could go do my own thing rather than just rewrite some piece of crap that would probably be rewritten by somebody else. That was the most important decision I made in my life as a writer. That sort of steered me onto the path of doing my own work and being a little more like a novelist... I tackled an unpopular subject that no one was going to make a movie about where the chances were really slim that I could pull it off. There was no book, nothing but me and the blank page. And that was wonderful because I had followed my heart. One of the nicest times in my life was writing Apocalypse Now.
The commercial failure of THX 1138 delayed production plans for Apocalypse Now. Nonetheless Milius's writing career went from strength to strength. He sold his script for Jeremiah Johnson to Warner Bros for what became a record amount then followed this up by doing an uncredited draft of Dirty Harry (1971). Both films would become enormous box office successes (although the Jeremiah Johnson script was substantially reworked by Edward Anhalt).
Milius sold his script The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean for another high figure, which was compensation for not being allowed to direct. He then wrote a draft of the Dirty Harry sequel, Magnum Force (1973), another large hit.
By now Milius was one of the most sought after screenwriters in Hollywood. His profile was higher than most writers because he was seen as a colourful character with a talent for lively interviews, and his self-styled "Zen Anarchist"/"American samurai" persona made him stand out in Hollywood. For instance, he only rewrote Dirty Harry on the proviso he was given an expensive gun.
Milius wanted to move behind the camera. "Being a director is the only way anyone will listen to you in Hollywood," he said. "It's the next best thing to being a star."
Gangster films were popular at the time and Milius had written a script on John Dillinger. Milius offered it to American International Pictures for a fraction of his regular fee if they would let him direct it as well. AIP agreed. The movie was moderately successful and launched Milius's directing career. He worked on the script for a TV sequel, Melvin Purvis: G-Man (1974), a pilot for a proposed series about Melvin Purvis (there was a second TV movie, but no series).
Contemporary film writers grouped Milius in with the emerging "movie brats" generation of filmmakers that also including Lucas, Francis Ford Coppola, Terence Malick and Martin Scorsese. One of this group was Steven Spielberg who asked John Milius to help him with a scene in Jaws; Milius wrote this overnight and it became one of the most famous scenes in the movie.
The Wind and the Lion
Milius next directed the popular adventure film The Wind and the Lion (1975), which starred Sean Connery and Candice Bergen. He intended to follow this with Give Your Heart to the Hawks, a story about mountain man Jedidiah Smith. There was also talk he might make East of Suez, an action film, Extreme Prejudice, or a film about Joe McCarthy. Of these only Extreme Prejudice was ever made, a decade later, by Walter Hill.
Big Wednesday and The A Team
In 1977, Milius formed his own production company, The A Team, with Buzz Feitshans, who had edited Dillinger. It's first production was an autobiographical surfing picture, Big Wednesday (1978). This was a major commercial disappointment although it has gone on to be a cult film.
Milius' friendship with George Lucas saw him given a percentage of the profits for Star Wars, which Mike Medavoy estimated earned Milius $1.5 million – in exchange Milius gave Lucas a percentage of the profits for Big Wednesday which amounted to nothing.
The A Team made a number of movies not directed by Milius. Notably, they produced the first three films from Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale: (I Wanna Hold Your Hand, 1941 (directed by Steven Spielberg) and Used Cars. He also produced Hardcore, directed by friend Paul Schrader.
Spielberg said in 1978 that Milius was key to the group of young filmmakers known as the New Hollywood, which included himself, Lucas, and Coppola:
John is our Scoutmaster. He's the one who will tell you to go on a trip and only take enough food, enough water for one day, and make you stay out longer than that. He's the one who says, 'Be a man. I don't want to see any tears.' He's a terrific raconteur, a wonderful story teller. John has more life than all the rest of us put together.
Milius' script for Apocalypse Now had been eventually filmed by Francis Ford Coppola and was released in 1979 to great acclaim.
Conan the the Barbarian
This was followed by the popular, if controversial, Red Dawn (1984).
He helped produce Uncommon Valor (1983) and acted as "spiritual adviser" for Lone Wolf McQuade (1983). He wrote and directed an episode for The New Twilight Zone (1985) and a story of his, "Viking Bikers from Hell" was used in an episode of Miami Vice (1987).
A film based on his 1970s script, Extreme Prejudice, released in 1987, though directed by Walter Hill. There was some talk he would direct a movie for HBO, Capone, but it was not made.
Farewell to the King and Flight of the Intruder
In the late 1980s Milius wrote and directed a World War Two adventure film Farewell to the King (1989). This flopped at the box office.
Milius was hired to rewrite the Russian sequences in the film of Hunt for the Red October for producerMace Neufeld based on the Tom Clancy novel. Neufeld then hired Milius to write and direct Flight of the Intruder based on the book by Stephen Coonts. It too was not a financial success.
"I think the culture had changed and that is why my films were less accepted," he reflected later. "I still think those are also great films, Farewell to the King especially."
In 1992 he claimed he was blacklisted for his conservative beliefs in liberal Hollywood, saying his flops were not as forgiven as those from more leftist directors. "It weighs ten times heavier against me," he said. "If you don't share the politically correct vision, then you are an outlaw, you are hunted and there is a price on your head, and if they catch you they will hang you."
1990s: Screenwriting, Cable TV
The film of Hunt for the Red October had been a big success, however, and Milius remained in high demand as a screenwriter: he did several drafts of another Clancy adaptation, Clear and Present Danger, which was another hit.
Milius wrote a series of projects that were not filmed - Bad Iron, a biker movie; Harlot's Ghost, for Francis Ford Coppola based on a novel by Norman Mailer; an adaptation of the Sgt. Rock comics for producer Joel Silver; and a version of Die Hard 3. He was going to direct an adaptation of Tom Clancy's novel Without Remorse with Gary Sinise but the project folded in 1995 two weeks before shooting was to commence due to the financial collapse of Savoy Pictures. In the mid 90s he came close to directing a project about Vikings, The Northmen, but could not secure the financing.
Some Milius scripts were filmed, though with different directors: a biopic of Geronimo for Walter Hill; and a Western, Texas Rangers which was shot a number of years later by a different director. He directed two films for cable: Motorcycle Gang (1994) and Rough Riders (1997). As of 2016 they are the last films Milius has directed.
Milius suffered a major financial reversal in the early 2000s when his accountant embezzled funds from him. He tried to get a job as a staff writer on the TV show Deadwood; showrunner David Milch was reluctant as he did not consider Milius a staff writer. Milius pleaded that he needed the money in order to pay for his son's tuition at law school. Milch offered to pay the fees. Milius helped create the HBO/BBC television series Rome. This meant he was able to repay the money to Milch.
He worked on a number of other projects during the decade that were not filmed, including biopics of John Basilone and Curtis Le May; a third Conan film, King Conan: Crown of Iron; a film of The Son Tay Raid; Saigon Bureau, about the AIP Bureau of photojournalists in the Vietnam War.
In 2010 John Milius was working on a new project, a film biography of Genghis Khan, when he had a stroke. For a while Milius was unable to speak or move but he ultimately recovered.
Milius has long claimed to be an outsider in Hollywood. In 2001 he stated:
I've always been considered a nut. They kind of tolerate me. It's certainly affected me. I've been blacklisted for a large part of my career because of my politics—as surely as any writer was blacklisted back in the 1950s. It's just that my politics are from the other side, and Hollywood always veers left.
He wrote a number of iconic film lines such as "Charlie don't surf" and "I love the smell of napalm in the morning," from Apocalypse Now, and the famous Dirty Harry one-liners delivered by Clint Eastwood, including "Go ahead, make my day" and "Ask yourself one question, 'do I feel lucky?' Well, do you punk?". Milius also had a hand in the USS Indianapolis monologue in the film Jaws; the sequence was performed by Robert Shaw. When Spielberg asked him to punch up the screenplay for Saving Private Ryan, Milius suggested the Normandy cemetery bookends where Ryan, now an elderly hero of World War II, in a moment of survivor guilt, asks his wife "Did I live a good life?"
After his work on Rough Riders (1997), Milius became an instrumental force in lobbying Congress to award President Theodore Roosevelt the Medal of Honor (posthumously), for acts of conspicuous gallantry while in combat on San Juan Hill. Milius made two films featuring Roosevelt: The Wind and the Lion (where he was played by Brian Keith) and the made-for-TV film Rough Riders (where Tom Berenger took the role).
The character of John Milner from the 1973 George Lucas film American Graffiti was inspired by Milius, who was a good friend of Lucas while they were at USC film school. Likewise, the character Walter Sobchak in the 1998 film The Big Lebowski, made by his friends the Coen Brothers, was partly based on Milius. Aleksandar Hemon's novella "Blind Jozef Pronek and Dead Souls" features an episode with Milius, who is described as "sitting at a desk sucking on a cigar as long as a walking stick."
Milius was also instrumental during the startup of the UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship) organization: it was his idea to use the octagon-shaped cage, and his association with UFC helped provide interest and investors to the startup UFC.
Writer Nat Segaloff called Milius:
The best writer of the co-called USC Mafia, a tight-knit group that resuscitated—some say homogenised American cinema in the 1970s... Raised on Ford, Hawks, Lean and Kurosawa, shaped by filmmakers as disparate as Fellini and Delmer Daves, Milius favours history books over comic books, character over special effects, and heroes with roots in reality, time, place and customs. Milius' stories reflect his own deeply held ethic, which embraces the values of tradition, adventure, spiritualism, honour and an intense loyalty to friends... Although he privately chafes at his public image as a gun-toting, liberal baiting provocateur, he allows himself to be painted as such, at times even holding the brush. He plays the Hollywood game like a pro, yet sticks to his own rules; he is a romantic filmmaker who avoids love scenes; his movies contain violence, yet no death in them is without meaning.
Milius is a self-proclaimed Zen anarchist, but he also publicly aligns himself with conservative factions in Hollywood and he was interviewed in the documentary Rated R: Republicans in Hollywood. He has also been consultant to a military think tank, the Institute for Creative Technologies. Milius said:
I’m not a reactionary — I’m just a right-wing extremist so far beyond the Christian Identity people like that and stuff, that they can’t even imagine. I’m so far beyond that I’m a Maoist. I’m an anarchist. I’ve always been an anarchist. Any true, real right-winger if he goes far enough hates all form of government, because government should be done to cattle and not human beings.
For years Milius was a member of the Board of Directors of the National Rifle Association, where he was a leader (with Charlton Heston) in resisting a takeover attempt by advocates of the so-called Militia Movement.
Milius is Jewish and has been married three times. His current marriage (since 1992) is to actress Elan Oberon (who appeared in Red Dawn as the woman behind the counter at the store, his 1989 film Farewell to the King and who is seen—and heard—singing Garryowen in Rough Riders).
He has two children by his first wife, Renee Fabri (m. 7 January 1967), and one child by his second wife, Celia Kaye (m. 26 February 1978).
Milius was a passionate surfer for much of his life but gave it up when he turned fifty.
Milius suffered financial reversals when a good friend absconded with his money. He also had a stroke which left him unable to speak or walk. However, he recovered.
- The Reversal of Richard Sun (1966) (short) – writer, director
- Marcello, I'm So Bored (1967) (short) – co-director
- Glut (1967) (short) – writer, director
- Viking Women Don't Care (1967) (short) – writer, director
- The Emperor (1967) (short documentary) – writer – directed by George Lucas about Bob "The Emperor" Hudson
- The Devil's 8 (1968) – writer
- Dirty Harry (1971) – uncredited writer
- Evel Knievel (1971) – co-writer with Alan Caillou
- The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean (1972) – writer
- Jeremiah Johnson (1972) – writer with Edward Anhalt
- Magnum Force (1973) – writer
- Dillinger (1973) – writer, director
- Melvin Purvis: G-Man (1974) – co-writer with William F. Nolan (TV movie)
- The Wind and the Lion (1975) – writer, director
- Jaws (1975) – uncredited writer
- Big Wednesday (1978) – writer, director
- I Wanna Hold Your Hand (1978) – executive producer
- Hardcore (1979) – executive producer
- Apocalypse Now (1979) – writer (first draft written in 1969)
- 1941 (1979) – story, executive producer
- Used Cars (1980) – executive producer
- Conan the Barbarian (1982) – writer, director
- Uncommon Valor (1983) – producer
- Lone Wolf McQuade (1983) – "spiritual adviser"
- Red Dawn (1984) – writer, director
- The New Twilight Zone (1985) (TV series) episode "Opening Day" – writer, director
- Miami Vice (1987) (TV series) episode "Viking Bikers from Hell" – story (writing as "Walter Kurtz")
- Extreme Prejudice (1987) – writer (Milius wrote this in the 1970s and was announced as director originally)
- Men Who Ride Mountains (1989) (documentary)
- Farewell to the King (1989) – writer, director
- The Hunt for Red October (1990) – uncredited writer
- Flight of the Intruder (1991) – director, uncredited writer
- Geronimo: An American Legend (1993) – writer
- Clear and Present Danger (1994) – writer
- Motorcycle Gang (1994) – director
- Rough Riders (1997) – writer, director
- Texas Rangers (2001) – wrote original drafts in 1991 and 1993
- Delta (2003) (TV pilot) – executive producer
- Rome (2005) (TV series) – co-creator, co-executive producer
- Los Gringos (1968) – his first completed script – "It actually wasn't bad. It was sort of like The Wild Bunch ... there was a lot of killing and shooting and riding and dust... sombreros.... It was a pretty good idea, actually. It had everything, and it was certainly as original as The Wild Bunch, but it wasn't as skillfully written as later stuff."
- The Last Resort (1969) – the second script he ever wrote
- The Texans (1969) – a contemporary version of Red River written for Al Ruddy at Paramount after Milius' work at AIP – announced in 1979 to be made with Sam Peckinpah – Milius later said it "wasn't very good"
- The Haul (1971) – originally called The Truck Driver, Milius's third script
- The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy (mid-1970s)
- Give Your Heart to the Hawks (1975) – about mountain men in the 1820s based on a novel by Winfred Blevins - biopic on Jedediah Smith
- East of Suez (1978) - to be made for Orion Pictures
- Capone (1987) - movie biography about Al Capone for HBO
- Bad Iron (1990) script about bikers
- Harlot's Ghost (1991) - for Francis Ford Coppola based on Norman Mailer novel. "It's a perfect film for Francis," said Milius. "It deals with things he already knows--gangsters and war. It's like a cross between The Godfather and Apocalypse Now. It's about families and duplicity and danger, but this time provoked by the government."
- unused version of Die Hard 3 (1992) - co written with Barry Beckerman
- Sgt Rock (1993) - for producer Joel Silver
- Without Remorse (1995) - adaptation of the novel by Tom Clancy which Milius wrote and was going to direct with Gary Sinise and Laurence Fishburne - it shut down shortly into pre production
- Mexico (1990s)
- Manila John (2000) – about John Basilone
- King Conan: Crown of Iron (2001–02) – sequel to Conan the Barbarian
- The Northmen (1995) - about a monk who is captured by Vikings
- The Son Tay Raid – about the Son Tay Raid
- Curtis LeMay biography
- Jornada del Muerto (Journey of Death) (2003) - biker film starring Triple H
- Dodge City (circa 2005) – Western series for CBS
- Saigon Bureau (circa 2008) – about the AIP Bureau of photojournalists in the Vietnam War, a collaboration with Chris Noth based on the book Requiem
- Genghis Kahn (circa 2010) – three hour biopic on the famous leader
- Pharaoh – proposed 2010 TV series
- The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean (1972) – based on his script
- The Wind and the Lion (1975) – based on his script
- Homefront: The Voice of Freedom (2011) – based on the video game
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- ANNUAL COMPETITION: 'A' GRADES FOR FILM FESTIVAL STUDENTS FILM FESTIVAL Thomas, Kevin. Los Angeles Times (1923–Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 22 Jan 1968: c1.
- Honored Student Movies Shown Here By VINCENT CANBY. New York Times (1923–Current file) [New York, N.Y] 18 Apr 1968: 58
- AT MUSEUM OF ART: ANIMATED FILMS ENTER THE CINEMA LIMELIGHT Thomas, Kevin. Los Angeles Times (1923–Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 24 May 1968: c1
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- Movies Leaving 'Hollywood' Behind: Studio System Passe Film Forges Ahead By MEL GUSSOW Special to The New York Times. New York Times (1923–Current file) [New York, N.Y] 27 May 1970: 36.
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- Hollywood's Script Door: Tom Mankiewicz, Tonic for Ailing Screenplays The Script Doctor By Paul Attanssio Washington Post Staff WriterLOS ANGELES. The Washington Post (1974–Current file) [Washington, D.C] 03 Mar 1985: G1.
- Gottschalk Jr, Earl C. (31 July 1975). "Focus on Filmland: Young Screenwriters, New Hollywood Breed, Zoom to Superstardom They Receive Up to $400,000 For Scripts and the Right To Direct Own Material Crisp Nostalgia or Rehash? Focus of Filmland: Screenwriters Are Zooming to New Superstardom". Wall Street Journal. p. 1.
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- Alumni of Film School Now 'Star' as Directors: 24,000 Students On '10. Best' Lists Wayne vs. Godard A Different Mood' By PAUL GARDNER. New York Times (1923–Current file) [New York, N.Y] 30 Jan 1974: 24.
- MOVIE CALL SHEET: MILIUS TACKLES A NEW MOUNTAIN Murphy, Mary. Los Angeles Times (1923–Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 11 June 1975: e20.
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- ZEMECKIS PUTS HIS HEART AND SOUL IN 'ROMANCING THE STONE' Pollock, Dale. Los Angeles Times (1923–Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 29 Mar 1984: m1.
- Lindsey, Robert (28 May 1978). "THE NEW NEW WAVE OF FILM MAKERS: A YOUNG GROUP OF WRITER-DIRECTORS HAS MOVED INTO POSITIONS OF POWER IN HOLLYWOOD. ALL FRIENDS THEY TRADE IDEAS, HELP ONE ANOTHER TO GET JOBS, AND EVEN SHARE IN PROFITS FROM ONE ANOTHER'S FILMS. FILM MAKERS". New York Times. p. SM3.
- MILIUS: MIGHT MAKES A RITE: JOHN MILIUS Pollock, Dale. Los Angeles Times (1923–Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 14 May 1982: h1.
- "Dirty Harriet". Los Angeles Times. 27 July 1986.
- "Exclusive Interview: John Milius on 'Milius'". Craveonle. 6 Jan 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- Stanley, Alessandra (31 May 1992). "Hidden Hollywood: Political conservatives in the film industry say they are out of fashion. Many choose silence. Hidden Hollywood". New York Times. p. V1.
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- Good, Owen. "Red Dawn's Writer Didn't Actually Write Homefront's Script, Say Ex-Developers [UPDATE]". Kotaku.
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- David D'Arcy, "Go ahead, pinko liberals, make my day", The Guardian, 8 November 2001 accessed 5 January 2012
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- "One of the inspirations for the character of Walter is the Coen Brothers' friend, writer-director John Milius, an infamously bombastic right-winger with an obsession with all things militaristic." http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0118715/trivia
- A Man Named Milius, and His Imprint on The UFC Archived April 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
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- FILM CLIPS: 'TELEFON' TO LINK BRONSON, SIEGEL Kilday, Gregg. Los Angeles Times (1923–Current File) [Los Angeles, Calif] 30 Aug 1976: f7.
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