John Miller (entrepreneur)

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Not to be confused with John A. Millar.

John A. Miller (born August John Mueller in 1872, Homewood, Illinois – died June 24, 1941, Houston, Texas) was an American roller coaster designer and builder, inventor, and businessman. Having patented over 100 key roller coaster components,[1] he is widely considered the "father of the modern high-speed roller coaster."[2] During his lifetime, he participated in the design of approximately 140 coasters[3] and was a key business partner and mentor to other well-known roller coaster designers, Harry C. Baker and John C. Allen.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Miller was born in Homewood Illinois and worked as a coaster builder at a very early age.[2] At the age of 19, he started working with La Marcus Thompson and went on to serve as Thompson's chief engineer.[2] By 1911, he was working as a consultant to the Philadelphia Toboggan Company[4] He also worked with noted designers Frederick Ingersoll and Fred and Josiah Pearce.[5]

Miller in 1910 designed a device that prevented cars from rolling backward down the lift hill in the event of pull chain breakage. It attached to the track and clicked onto the rungs of the chain. Known as the safety chain dog, or safety ratchet, it evolved into the device on the underside of cars that makes that distinctive clinkety-clank sound of wooden coasters.

A roller coaster wheel assembly. The underfriction wheels are on the bottom. The three sets of wheels clamp onto the track.

Miller's most important contribution to coaster technology, though, was the underfriction wheel. In 1919,[6] he patented the "Miller Under Friction Wheel," also called the "upstop wheel," which consisted of a wheel that ran under the track to keep the coaster cars from flying off. This allowed the designers to use very steep drops, sharp horizontal and vertical curves and high speeds.[1] These are found on nearly every roller coaster in operation.[5]

Miller & Baker[edit]

Besides patenting ingenious inventions for coasters—including several types of brakes and car bar locks—Miller built his share of unusual "scream machines." In 1920 Miller went into business with Harry C. Baker as "Miller & Baker, Inc." and over the next three years, they built popular coasters all over North America. Characteristics of their roller coasters are camelback hills (multiple straight or slightly angled drops that went all the way to the ground) and large, flat turns.[1]

Miller & Baker built other types of amusement rides and structures as well. In addition to coasters, the firm constructed mill chutes, and domed roof buildings for carousels and dance pavilions.[7]

The John Miller Company[edit]

After 1923, Miller continued to design and build coasters for his own company, "The John Miller Company." The Dip-Lo-Docus (c. 1923), billed as "The Jazz Ride," featured revolving three-seater cars, whereas the Flying Turns (1929) consisted of cars with swiveling rubber wheels tearing through a half-cylindrical chute like a toboggan. The legendary Cyclone (1928-1958) at Puritas Springs near Cleveland, Ohio was honored with a place on the Smithsonian Institution's list of Great Lost Roller Coasters. It was hidden so much by foliage that only the boarding platform was visible to riders before they began to race through the ravine. This 1928 ride was considered one of the golden-age classics of the period.[1]

Later life[edit]

Although many of his most famous coasters were built during the 1920s, Miller never stopped building coasters. He continued to travel to supervise site installations and consult on roller coaster design until his death. He died on June 24, 1941, while working on a coaster project at Playland Park in Houston, Texas, at the age of 69.[5] He is interred in the Homewood Memorial Gardens in Homewood, IL.[8]

Roller coasters[edit]

During his lifetime, Miller designed or contributed to the design of approximately 140 roller coasters.[3]

Name Park Location Opened Closed Ref(s)
Greyhound Lakewood Fairgrounds Atlanta, GA 1915 1974 [9]
Jack Rabbit Riverview Park Des Moines, IA 1915 1919 [10]
Dip-Lo-Docus Olympic Park Irvington, NJ 1923  ? [11]
Cyclone Puritas Springs Cleveland, OH 1928 1958 [12]
Greyhound Celoron Park Jamestown, NY 1924 1959 [13]
Flying Turns Euclid Beach Park Cleveland, OH 1929 1969 [14]
Ravine Flyer Waldameer Park Erie, PA 1922 1938 [15]
Thunderbolt Revere Beach Revere, MA 1921 1930 [16]
Thunderbolt Coney Island New York, NY 1925 1982[a] [17]
Beach Coaster Ocean View Pavilion Amusement Park Jacksonville, FL 1928 1949[b] [18]
Screechin' Eagle LeSourdsville Lake Amusement Park Middletown, OH 1928 2002[c] [19][20]
Legend Arnolds Park Arnolds Park, IA 1930[d] N/A [21]
Racer Kennywood Pittsburgh, PA 1927 N/A [22]
Jack Rabbit Kennywood Pittsburgh, PA 1920 N/A [23]
Thunderbolt[e] Kennywood Pittsburgh, PA 1924 N/A [24]
Big Dipper Blackpool Pleasure Beach Blackpool, England 1923 N/A [25]
Big Dipper Geauga Lake Aurora, OH 1925 2007[f] [26]
Classic Coaster Washington State Fair Puyallup, WA 1935 N/A [27]
Jack Rabbit[g] Seabreeze Amusement Park Rochester, NY 1920 N/A [28]
Roller Coaster[h] Lagoon Amusement Park Farmington, UT 1921 N/A [29]
Zippin Pippin[i] Bay Beach Amusement Park Green Bay, WI 2011 N/A [30]
The Wild One[j] Six Flags America Largo, MD 1917 N/A [31][32]
Jack Rabbit Clementon Park Clementon, NJ 1919 2002[k] [33]
Dips Buckroe Beach Park Hampton, VA 1920 1985 [34]
Screem Machine[l] Splash Zone Water Park Wildwood, NJ 1919 1984 [35]
The Big Beast Edgewater Park Detroit, MI 1927 1981 [36]
Speed Hound Don Hanson's Amusement Park Harveys Lake, PA 1931 1980 [37]
Roller Coaster Riverview Park Des Moines, IA 1920 1978 [38]
Alps Willow Grove Park Willow Grove, PA 1905 1975 [39]
Comet Silver Beach Amusement Park St. Joseph, MI 1924 1971[m] [40]
Thriller[n] Riverside Park Indianapolis, IN 1924 1970 [41][42]
Derby Racer Euclid Beach Park Cleveland, OH 1913 1969 [43]
Flying Dragon Walled Lake Park Walled Lake, MI 1929 1968 [44]
Jack Rabbit Natatorium Park Spokane, WA 1920 1968 [45]
Big Dipper Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1920 1967 [46]
Fireball Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1923 1967 [47]
Flying Turns Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1935 1967 [48]
Humming Bird Riverview Beach Park Pennsville, NJ 1923 1967 [49]
Pippin Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1921 1967 [50]
Sea Serpent Pacific Ocean Park Santa Monica, CA 1925 1967 [51]
Dips Buckeye Lake Amusement Park Buckeye Lake, OH 1924 1958[o] [52][53]
Giant Winnipeg Beach Manitoba, Canada 1919 1964[p] [54]
Skyrocket Fairyland Park Kansas City, MO 1923 1966 [55]
Aero Dips Euclid Beach Park Cleveland, OH 1909 1965 [56]
Jet Star[q] Olympic Park Irvington, NJ 1925 1965 [57]
Deep Dip Coaster Fair Park Nashville, TN 1924 1964 [58]
Gee Wiz Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1912 1963 [59]
Crystal Flyer Crystal Beach Park Vermilion, OH 1926 1962 [60]
Big Dipper Jefferson Beach St. Clair Shores, MI 1927 1959 [61]
Comet Chain of Rocks Amusement Park St. Louis, MO 1926 1958 [62]
Cyclone Lake Ariel Amusement Park 1928 1955
Derby Racer Central Park 1912 1951
Rocket Lakeworth Park 1930 1951
Sky Rocket Steeplechase Island - 1921 1951
Velvet Racer Ghost Town on the River 1936 1951
Mountain Dips / "Giant" Coaster Rocky Glen Park Moosic, PA 1920 1944
Cyclone DandiLion Park 1929 1949
Deep Dipper Carlin's Park 1919 1949
Racer Dip Bay Shore Park 1920 1947
Skyrocket Meyer's Lake Park 1924 1946
Triple Racing Coaster State Fair of Texas 1936 1946
Skyrocket Palisades Amusement Park Fort Lee, NJ 1926 1944
Giant Coaster Central Park 1921 1942
Jack Rabbit Keansburg Amusement Park 1931 1941
Wildcat Enna Jettick Park 1921 1941
Flying Turns Steeplechase Park 1934 1939
Greyhound Hazle Park 1923 1939
Thunderbolt Moxahala Amusement Park 1928 1939
Whoopee Baby Scenic Neptune Beach 1927 1939
Whoopee Coaster Neptune Beach 1929 1939
Wildcat Merrimack Park 1921 1938
Derby Racer Lakeside Amusement Park 1911 1937
Jack Rabbit Capital Beach Park 1918 1936
Racing Derby Ghost Town on the River 1910 1936
Gorge Ride Cascade Park New Castle, PA 1922 1935
Flying Turns Century of Progress 1933 1934
Cyclone Chester Park 1927 1935
Some Kick Venice Amusement Pier 1923 1934
Big Dipper Roton Point 1914 1933
Comet Pacific City 1923 1933
Flash Riverside Park Indianapolis, IN 1924 1970 [63]
Flash White City Chicago, IL 1928 1933
Greyhound Riverside Amusement Park Agawam, MA 1915 1933
Lightning Riverside Amusement Park Agawam, MA 1920 1933
Racing Coaster White City Chicago, IL 1910 1933
Devil Liberty Pier 1925 1932
Jack Rabbit Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1914 1932
Derby Racer Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1910 1931
Big Dipper Krug Park 1918 1930
Jack Rabbit Racer Queens Park 1915 1930
Jack Rabbit Paxtang Park 1923 1929
Pippin Luna Park Cleveland, OH 1923 1929
Roller Coaster Arnolds Park 1922 1929
Big Dipper Idora Park Youngstown, OH 1922 1928
Giant Coaster Harlem Park 1912 1928
Greyhound Island Beach Park 1922 1928
Jack Rabbit Playland Park 1928 1928
Skyrocket Idora Park Youngstown, OH 1927 1928
Thriller Exposition Park 1926 1928
Big Dipper Gordon Gardens 1922 1927
Jack Rabbit Rocky Springs Park 1918 1927
Racer Kennywood Pittsburgh, PA 1910 1926
Cannon Ball Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1919 1925
Comet Palisades Amusement Park Fort Lee, NJ 1921 1925
Jack Rabbit Revere Beach Revere, MA 1916 1924
Zip Lick Pier 1922 1924
Blue Streak Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1911 1923
Chase through the Clouds Silver Beach Amusement Park 1905 1923
Speed-O-Plane Kennywood Pittsburgh, PA 1911 1923
Deep Dipper Frederick Road Park 1920 1922
Giant Coaster Dips East End Park 1913 1922
Leap the Dips Forest Park 1907 1922
Great Mountain Ride Forest Park Highlands Amusement Park 1912 1921
The Gorge Cascade Park New Castle, PA 1903 1921
Royal Gorge Scenic Railway Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1908 1920
Jack Rabbit Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1915 1919
Velvet Coaster Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1909 1919
Scenic Railway White City Chicago, IL 1905 1916
Figure Eight Seabreeze 1903 1915
Royal Dip Coaster Playland Park 1915 1915
Dip The Dips Clyffside Park 1909 1913
Pikes Peak Scenic Railway Riverview Park Chicago, IL 1907 1911
Scenic Railway Kennywood Pittsburgh, PA 1904 1910
Scenic Railway Erie Beach Park 1910 1930
Deep Dips Olympic Park 1920  ?
Derby Racer Electric Par k  ?  ?
Dips Liberty Park  ?  ?
Figure 8 Hague Park  ?  ?
Giant Coaster Lakewood Park 1923 1982
Greyhound Stanley Park  ?
L.A. Thompson Scenic Railway Lake Erie Park & Casino  ?  ?
Pippin Wildwood Park  ?  ?
Racer Dips Forest Park Highlands Amusement Park 1920 1940
Roller Coaster Woodlawn Park 1922  ?
Scenic Railway Ghost Town on the River 1905  ?
Sidewinder Legend City 1968 1983
Sky Rocket Coney Island Cincinnati, OH 1921 1944
Skyline Twister Rolling Green Park 1928 1972
Velvet Coaster Woodside Park 1925  ?
Velvet Coaster Lakeside Amusement Park 1908  ?
Skyrocket Playland Park (Houston, Texas)[r] Houston, TX 1924 1963 [64][65][66]
  1. ^ Dismantled in 2000
  2. ^ Dismantled in 1950
  3. ^ Dismantled in 2011; remnants sent to the National Roller Coaster Museum & Archives (NRCMA) in Arlington, Texas.
  4. ^ The official clam is 1927, but RCDB research supports 1930
  5. ^ Originally named Pippin, it was redesigned in 1968 by Andy Vettel
  6. ^ The coaster is still standing as of September 2016
  7. ^ Partially destroyed in a fire in 1923 and rebuilt
  8. ^ Referred to as White Roller Coaster by locals
  9. ^ Modeled after the 1923 original that was located at Libertyland in Memphis, TN
  10. ^ Originally named "The Giant Coaster" when it was located at Paragon Park in Hull, MA (1917–1985), it was redesigned in 1932 by Herbert Schmeck after being partially destroyed in a fire
  11. ^ Removed in 2007
  12. ^ Formerly known as Jack Rabbit (1919–1975)
  13. ^ Removed in 1975
  14. ^ Original in 1914 was moved/rebuilt in 1924 and considered a new ride
  15. ^ Remained standing until 1966, until it was destroyed in a storm that blew it over into the lake.
  16. ^ Removed in 1966
  17. ^ Badly damaged in a storm in 1950, it was redesigned/rebuilt by PTC's Herbert Schmeck and reopened in 1952
  18. ^ Relocated from Luna Park, Houston (1924-1934)

Patents[edit]

Number Date Description
13,588 1913, July 1 reissue
979,875 1910, December 27
979,982 1910, December 27
979,983 1910, December 27 Braking Apparatus
979,984 1910, December 27 Chain Dog
1,037,957 1912, September 10
1,037,958 1912, September 10
1,038,174 1912, September 10
1,038,175 1912, September 10
1,062,838 1913, May 27
1,062,839 1913, May 27
1,076,779 1913, October 28
1,319,888 1919, October 28 Underfriction Wheel
1,373,754 1921, April 5
1,380,730 1921, June 7
1,380,731 1921, June 7
1,380,732 1921, June 7
1,409,750 1922, February 14
1,409,751 1922, February 14
1,415,187 1922, May 9
1,438,452 1922, December 12
1,448,763 1923, May 20
1,448,764 1923, May 20
1,476,995 1923, December 11
1,501,060 1924, July 15
1,501,061 1924, July 15 Track construction
1,536,122 1925, May 5 Track construction
1,536,448 1925, May 5 Coaster with tight turns
1,539,094 1925, May 26 Ferris Wheel
1,562,035 1925, November 17 Pleasure Railway Car
1,562,036 1925, November 17 Pleasure Railway Structure
1,591,722 1926, July 6 Amusement Structure
1,593,587 1926, July 27 Pleasure Railway Structure
1,605,369 1926, November 2 Truck for Pleasure Railway Cars
1,606,769 1926, November 16 Roof Structure
1,606,770 1926, November 16 Handle-bar Structure
1,607,771 1926, November 23 Water-chute Structure
1,613,118 1927, January 4 Pleasure Railway Structure
1,629,520 1927, May 24 Pleasure Railway Structure
1,645,202 1927, October 11 Roof Structure
1,656,218 1928, January 17 Pleasure Railway Car
1,825,468 1931, September 29 Pleasure Railway Structure

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Rutherford, Scott (2000) The American Roller Coaster, MBI Publishing Company, Wisconsin. ISBN 0760306893.
  2. ^ a b c Cartmell, Robert (1987). The Incredible Scream Machine: A History of the Roller Coaster. Fairview Park, OH: Amusement Park Books, Inc. pp. 117–136. ISBN 0879723416. 
  3. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "John A. Miller". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  4. ^ Urbanowicz, Steven J. (1987). The Roller Coaster Lover's Companion. New York: Citadell Press. ISBN 0806523093. 
  5. ^ a b c "John A. Miller". MIT Inventor of the Week Archive. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  6. ^ US patent 1319888, John Miller, "Pleasure railway structure", issued 1919-10-28 
  7. ^ Miller and Baker Inc. 1923 Catalogue (reprint). Natrona Heights, PA: Amusement Park Journal. 1923. 
  8. ^ Habben, David. "John A. Miller (1872-1941)". Retrieved 24 Aug 2013. 
  9. ^ Marden, Duane. "Greyhound  (Lakewood Fairgrounds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  10. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jack Rabbit  (Riverview Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  11. ^ Kilby, Jack; Noyce, Robert; Roebling, John A. (2008). Inventors and Inventions. 4. New York: Marshall Cavendish. p. 1084. ISBN 0761477675. 
  12. ^ Marden, Duane. "Cyclone  (Puritas Springs)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  13. ^ Marden, Duane. "Greyhound  (Celoron Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  14. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flying Turns  (Euclid Beach Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  15. ^ Marden, Duane. "Ravine Flyer  (Waldameer Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  16. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thunderbolt  (Revere Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  17. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thunderbolt  (Coney Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  18. ^ Marden, Duane. "Beach Coaster  (Ocean View Pavilion Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  19. ^ Marden, Duane. "Screechin' Eagle  (LeSourdsville Lake Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  20. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thunderbolt  (Moxahala Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  21. ^ Marden, Duane. "Legend  (Arnold's Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  22. ^ Marden, Duane. "Racer  (Kennywood)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  23. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jack Rabbit  (Kennywood)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  24. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thunderbolt  (Kennywood)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  25. ^ Marden, Duane. "Big Dipper  (Blackpool Pleasure Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  26. ^ Marden, Duane. "Big Dipper  (Geauga Lake & Wildwater Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  27. ^ Marden, Duane. "Classic Coaster  (Washington State Fair)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  28. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jack Rabbit  (Seabreeze)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  29. ^ Marden, Duane. "Roller Coaster  (Lagoon Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  30. ^ Marden, Duane. "Zippin Pippin  (Bay Beach Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  31. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Wild One  (Six Flags America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  32. ^ Marden, Duane. "Giant Coaster  (Paragon Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  33. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jack Rabbit  (Clementon Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  34. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dips  (Buckroe Beach Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  35. ^ Marden, Duane. "Screem Machine  (Splash Zone Water Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  36. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Big Beast  (Buckroe Beach Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 23, 2016. 
  37. ^ Marden, Duane. "Speed Hound  (Don Hanson's Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  38. ^ Marden, Duane. "Roller Coaster  (Riverview Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  39. ^ Marden, Duane. "Alps  (Willow Grove Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  40. ^ Marden, Duane. "Comet  (Silver Beach Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  41. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thriller  (Riverside Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  42. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thriller  (Riverside Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  43. ^ Marden, Duane. "Derby Racer  (Euclid Beach Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  44. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flying Dragon  (Walled Lake Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  45. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jack Rabbit  (Natatorium Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  46. ^ Marden, Duane. "Big Dipper  (Riverview Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  47. ^ Marden, Duane. "Fireball  (Riverview Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  48. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flying Turns  (Riverview Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  49. ^ Marden, Duane. "Humming Bird  (Riverview Beach Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  50. ^ Marden, Duane. "Pippin  (Riverview Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  51. ^ Marden, Duane. "Sea Serpent  (Pacific Ocean Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  52. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dips  (Buckeye Lake)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  53. ^ "Buckeye Lake Amusement Park". Buckeye Lake Historical Society. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  54. ^ Marden, Duane. "Giant  (Winnipeg Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  55. ^ Marden, Duane. "Skyrocket  (Fairyland Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  56. ^ Marden, Duane. "Aero Dips  (Euclid Beach Park])". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  57. ^ Marden, Duane. "Jet Star  (Olympic Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  58. ^ Marden, Duane. "Deep Dip Coaster  (Fair Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  59. ^ Marden, Duane. "Gee Wiz  (Riverview Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  60. ^ Marden, Duane. "Crystal Flyer  (Crystal Beach Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  61. ^ Marden, Duane. "Big Dipper  (Jefferson Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  62. ^ Marden, Duane. "Comet  (Chain of Rocks Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 26, 2016. 
  63. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flash  (Riverside Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved September 25, 2016. 
  64. ^ Inc, Nielsen Business Media (1942-03-07). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 
  65. ^ "Roller Coaster - Playland Park (Houston, Texas, USA)". rcdb.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19. 
  66. ^ "Playland Park (Houston, Texas, USA)". rcdb.com. Retrieved 2015-11-19. 

External links[edit]