John Koza

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John R. Koza is a computer scientist and a former consulting professor at Stanford University, most notable for his work in pioneering the use of genetic programming for the optimization of complex problems. He was a cofounder of Scientific Games Corporation, a company which built computer systems to run state lotteries in the United States. John Koza is also credited with being the creator of the 'scratch card' with the help of retail promotions specialist Daniel Bower.

Degrees: B.A., Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1964. M.A. Mathematics, University of Michigan, 1966. M.S., Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1966. PhD., Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1972. Thesis entitled On Inducing a Non-Trivial, Parsimonious Grammar for a Given Sample of Sentences.

John Koza has his own company Genetic Programming Inc.. In 1999, he was using a 1000 node Beowulf cluster composed of 350 MHz Pentium II processors to do his research.[1]

Koza was featured in Popular Science for his work on evolutionary programming that alters its own code to find far more complex solutions. The machine, which he calls the "invention machine", has created antennae, circuits, and lenses, and has received a patent from the US Patent Office.

In 2006 Koza suggested a plan to revamp the Electoral College in the United States such that candidates would be elected by a National Popular Vote.[2]


  1. ^ John Koza (1999-08-11). "1000-Pentium beowulf computer for genetic programming research". 
  2. ^ Yi, Matthew (2006-07-24). "Stanford professor stumps for electoral alternative". San Francisco Chronicle. 

Works by Koza[edit]

  1. Koza, J.R. (1990). Genetic Programming: A Paradigm for Genetically Breeding Populations of Computer Programs to Solve Problems, Stanford University Computer Science Department technical report STAN-CS-90-1314. A thorough report, possibly used as a draft to his 1992 book.
  2. Koza, J.R. (1992). Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers by Means of Natural Selection, MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-11170-5
  3. Koza, J.R. (1994). Genetic Programming II: Automatic Discovery of Reusable Programs, MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-11189-6
  4. Koza, J.R.; Goldberg, David; Fogel, David; & Riolo, Rick, (Eds.) (1996). Genetic Programming 1996: Proceedings of the First Annual Conference (Complex Adaptive Systems), MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-61127-9
  5. Koza, J.R.; Deb, K.; Dorigo, M.; Fogel, D.; Garzon, M.; Iba, H.; & Riolo, R., (Eds.) (1997). Genetic Programming 1997: Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference, Morgan Kaufmann. ISBN 1-55860-483-9
  6. Koza, J.R.; & Others (Eds.)(1998). Genetic Programming 1998, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. ISBN 1-55860-548-7
  7. Koza, J.R.; Bennett, F.H.; Andre, D.; & Keane, M.A. (1999). Genetic Programming III: Darwinian Invention and Problem Solving, Morgan Kaufmann. ISBN 1-55860-543-6
  8. Koza, J.R.; Keane, M.A.; Streeter, M.J.; Mydlowec, W.; Yu, J.; & Lanza, G. (2003). Genetic Programming IV: Routine Human-Competitive Machine Intelligence, Springer. ISBN 1-4020-7446-8
  9. Koza, J.R.; Fadem,B.; Grueskin, M.; Mandell, M.S.; Richi, R.; & Zimmerman, J. F. (2011, third edition) [Every Vote Equal: A State-Based Plan For Electing The President By National Popular Vote] National Popular Vote Press. ISBN 978-0-9790107-2-9

External links[edit]