John Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset
John Frederick Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset, KG (24 March 1745 – 19 July 1799) was the only son of Lord John Philip Sackville, second son of Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset. He succeeded to the dukedom in 1769 on the death of his uncle, Charles Sackville, 2nd Duke of Dorset. He was the British Ambassador to France between 1783 and 1789 in the lead up to the French Revolution.
He is best remembered for his love of cricket. He was both a good player and an important patron, but his interest was sharpened by gambling, cricket being a major attraction for gamblers throughout the 18th century. His other sporting interests included billiards and tennis, he also acquired a reputation as a womaniser.
The young John Sackville was schooled at Westminster, where he first became a noted proponent of cricket. He went on to join Hambledon Cricket Club, based in Hambledon, Hampshire, which was the leading cricket club of the day. He was joined there by Sir Horatio Mann, a Carthusian, and Lord Tankerville of Eton and Surrey, who was his keenest rival.
Dorset gained a reputation as a keen competitor. The Morning Post in 1773 wrote: "The Duke...having run a considerable number of notches from off strokes, the opposing fielders very unpolitely swarmed round his bat so close as to impede his making a full stroke; his Grace gently expostulated with them on this unfair mode, and pointed out their danger, which having no effect, he, with proper spirit made full play at a ball and in so doing brought one of the gentlemen to the ground".
In the same year, Dorset presented the Vine Cricket Ground, Sevenoaks, Kent, to the town, at a peppercorn rent, literally. It is one of the oldest cricket grounds in England. The first nationally reported cricket match had taken place here in the 1734 season when "The Gentlemen of Kent" beat "The Gentlemen of Sussex". Sevenoaks Town Council still has the Vine Cricket Club, though the rent doubled to two peppercorns after the pavilion was built in the 19th century. They must also pay the Lord Sackville (if asked) one cricket ball on 21 July each year.
In 1775, a full-scale riot broke out at the Artillery Ground when Dorset's side was not performing too well. In 1782 the Morning Chronicle noted that "His Grace is one of the few noblemen who endeavour to combine the elegance of modern luxury with the more manly sports of the old English times".
Dorset's patronage of cricket was expensive — the Whitehall Evening Post in 1783 noted that the cost to Dorset of maintaining his team, before bets, was £1,000 a year. This was a lot, but less than the amounts some of his contemporaries were spending on racing. The report went to say that Dorset was unrivalled (among noblemen) "at cricket, tennis and billiards".
Ambassador to France
In 1784 Dorset moved to Paris, surprising his critics with newfound public dedication, to serve as ambassador to France. On 16 July 1789, two days after the Storming of the Bastille he reported to Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, "Thus, my Lord, the greatest revolution that we know anything of has been effected with, comparatively speaking—if the magnitude of the event is considered—the loss of very few lives. From this moment we may consider France as a free country, the King a very limited monarch, and the nobility as reduced to a level with the rest of the nation."
- His Grace of Dorset was, as usual, the most distinguished for skill and activity. The French, however, cannot imitate us in such vigorous exertions of the body, so that we seldom see them enter the lists.
The following year The Times noted that horse-racing was losing popularity in France, with cricket, on Dorset's recommendation, taking its place. In 1789 Dorset planned what might have become the first international cricket tour. His touring side, which included William Yalden, William Bedster and Lumpy Stevens, got as far as congregating on 10 August at Dover. But the French Revolution meant that they never got to France, thereby making his tour the first international cricket tour to be cancelled for political reasons. Just as the American Civil War 80 or so years later destroyed the prospect of cricket becoming popular there, so the French Revolution destroyed any footholds the game had in France.
Back in England, Dorset became one of the first members of the Marylebone Cricket Club; his public life continued in the post of Steward of the Royal Household, in which capacity his main role was to keep an eye on the dissolute Prince of Wales, the future George IV.
Dorset was a notorious womanizer. Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton became Prime Minister and his mistress Anne Parsons had the influence, if not the position, of a First Lady in her country. The Duke divorced his wife on the 23 March 1769. Parsons may have become the First Minister's wife had he not discovered that Parsons was having an affair with Sackville.
Sackville's best-known and most enduring mistress was the Venetian ballerina Giovanna Zanerini, who was the principal ballerina at the King's Theatre, Haymarket, and used the stage name Giovanna Baccelli. Dorset commissioned a painting of her in 1780–81 from Thomas Gainsborough, which is reckoned to be one of Gainsborough's later masterpieces. He also commissioned a painting by Joshua Reynolds and a sculpture showing her nude and prone on a divan and cushions; this is still to be found at Knole. When made Ambassador to France, Dorset even took her to Paris with him, and she danced at the Opera by invitation. (When he was made Knight of the Garter (KG), she wore the blue ribbon of the Garter while dancing) Dorset and Giovanna had a son together: John Frederick Sackville (1778–1796), who was raised by his father at Paris and Knole after the couple parted in 1789.
The Duke was also known for his affair (c. 1777–1779) with the Countess of Derby, and briefly (c. 1784) with Lady Elizabeth Foster, daughter of Frederick Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol and mistress of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire. The first affair was notable because it did not lead to a divorce. The Countess of Derby was born Lady Elizabeth Hamilton, the only daughter of the 6th Duke of Hamilton and the beauty Elizabeth Gunning. However, the Earl of Derby refused to divorce his errant wife. This meant that Lady Derby was ostracized for the remainder of her life, and Dorset soon lost interest and abandoned his lover. He was received back into society, and even received by his former mistress's betrayed husband Lord Derby.
Marriage and descendants
In 1790, after returning from France, Dorset married twenty-three-year-old Arabella Diana Cope (1767–1825), daughter and co-heiress of Sir Charles Cope, 2nd Baronet, and stepdaughter of Charles Jenkinson, 1st Earl of Liverpool. Dorset and Arabella had one son together, George John Frederick, who was born on 15 November 1793, and two daughters, Lady Mary Sackville, born on 30 July 1792, and Lady Elizabeth Sackville, born on 11 August 1795. The Duke died in 1799, aged 54, and left a life interest in his estates and free disposition thereof (in case of the death of their young son) to his wife. At his death, Arabella, Duchess of Dorset was thus a very wealthy heiress and from 1799 until her own death in 1825, Arabella, Duchess of Dorset (as she preferred to be known) controlled the Sackville estates and wealth in trust for their son. She remarried 1801 Charles Whitworth, who became 1st Earl of Whitworth, but had no further issue.
George John Frederick became the 4th Duke of Dorset on his father's death at the family seat, Knole House, near Sevenoaks, Kent at the age of only 6 but spent the rest of his life under the legal and financial control of his mother and stepfather. He died in a riding accident in Ireland, aged 21 having just become engaged to Lady Elizabeth Thynne (born 1795), elder daughter of Thomas Thynne, 2nd Marquess of Bath. (She went on to marry October 1816 Lord Cawdor and have many children). Although the dukedom passed to his cousin Charles, Viscount Sackville, the estates remained at the disposition of Arabella until her own death in 1825, when Knole went to her elder daughter Mary, Countess of Plymouth, and Buckhurst and the Middlesex lands (of the Cranfield family) to her younger daughter Elizabeth, Countess De La Warr.
Lady Mary Sackville had married firstly Other Windsor, 6th Earl of Plymouth (1789–1833) on 5 August 1811 and secondly her first husband's stepfather William Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst on 25 May 1839. She died childless on 20 July 1864, leaving her estates to her sister Countess De La Warr and her heirs male.
The Countess De La Ware was created Baroness Buckhurst in her own right (a title later inherited by a younger son Reginald who is ancestor of the present Earl De La Warr). Another line stemming from this lady is that of the Barons Sackville, a title created in compensation for losing the Buckhurst title. The 1st Baron Sackville inherited Knole, according to the will of Mary, Countess of Plymouth. (He died unmarried, as did his brother the 2nd Baron). Their nephew, the 3rd Baron Sackville, was father of the writer Vita Sackville-West who created a garden at Sissinghurst. Knole House, still lived in by the Sackville-West family, and Sissinghurst, the family home of Lord Carnock have both been given to the National Trust.
- "SACKVILLE, John Frederick (1745-99)". History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
- G. B. Buckley, Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket, Cotterell, 1935.
- G. B. Buckley, Fresh Light on Pre-Victorian Cricket, Cotterell, 1937.
- Wikisource, https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Englishmen_in_the_French_Revolution/Chapter_II
- Peter Durrant, ‘FitzRoy, Augustus Henry, third duke of Grafton (1735–1811)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Oct 2008 accessed 14 Feb 2017
- A. A. Hanham, ‘Parsons, Anne [Nancy] married name Anne Maynard, Viscountess Maynard] (c.1735–1814/15)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, May 2005 accessed 14 Feb 2017
- Giovanna Baccelli (1753-1801): Born Giovanna Francesca Antonia Giuseppe Zanerini. a.k.a. La Baccelli, Jannette.
- Jeremy Black. British Diplomats and Diplomacy: 1688-1800 University of Exeter Press, 2001 - 244 pages p. 107
- Sackville-West, Robert (2010) Inheritance: The Story of Knole and the Sackvilles. Walker & Co., New York
- This illegitimate son himself fathered an illegitimate son Sackville Sackville who died without issue. Giovanna herself had a relationship with Henry Herbert, 10th Earl of Pembroke (died 1794) until his death, and finally with a Mr. James Carey, with whom she remained until her death in 1801. This French blog claims that she married Carey, and that Dorset made her an annuity of 400 pounds.
- The young Duke of Dorset, who had just inherited his title, had courted her in 1770 but failed to follow through to a betrothal. In fact, he left for France with his then-mistress Mrs Nancy Horton (Nancy Maynard), formerly mistress of the newly re-married Duke of Grafton. Her mother, now Duchess of Argyll, persuaded her to choose another suitor Edward Smith-Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby who would make a better husband. The couple who married in 1774 produced two children, a son and heir (born 1775) and a daughter Charlotte (c. 1776–1805). By 1777, Dorset had returned from the Continent and the relationship was revived via Lady Derby's participation in the first women's cricket match. At this time, the Earl of Derby began courting the beautiful actress Eliza Farren (later his second wife in 1798), and perhaps this combined with Dorset's personal attractions convinced Lady Betty to succumb to Dorset. Her second daughter Elizabeth Henrietta (born ca 1778–1857) was popularly supposed to be fathered by Dorset; the Earl acknowledged the child, but Lady Derby slipped off to the up-and-coming resort Brighthelmstone which was conveniently near Knole. By 1779, Dorset and the pregnant Lady Derby eloped.
- Georgian (18th century) social mores were less rigid than Regency or Victorian social mores. Only the Court and the most rigid families refused to receive women who had been divorced and had subsequently married respectably. By 1804, this was beginning to change, when the new Lady Holland was not received after she was divorced and remarried to her lover Lord Holland. However, fashionable men and a few ladies still visited Holland House.
- By his first marriage in 1769 to the Anglo-Indian heiress Amelia Watts, he was father of the Prime Minister Lord Liverpool. Her half-brother Charles Jenkinson, 3rd Earl of Liverpool (1784–1851) is the ancestor via his daughter Lady Selina Foljambe and her eldest son of the present Earl of Liverpool
- Derek Birley, A Social History of English Cricket, Aurum, 1999.
- Arthur Haygarth, Scores & Biographies, Volume 1 (1744–1826), Lillywhite, 1862.
- Ashley Mote, The Glory Days of Cricket, Robson, 1997.
- John Nyren, The Cricketers of my Time (ed. Ashley Mote), Robson, 1998.
- H. T. Waghorn, The Dawn of Cricket, Electric Press, 1906.
- Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. .
- A database entry on the 3rd Duke of Dorset (retrieved on 20 February 2005)
- Tate Britain - Giovanna Zanerini at the Wayback Machine (archived 18 November 2001) (retrieved on 20 February 2005)
- Sevenoaks Life - A History of Sevenoaks Town (retrieved on 20 February 2005)
- Archive page on Thomas Gainsborough
- Pictures of the 3rd Duke of Dorset held by the National Portrait Gallery
- Houses in Kent - Knole
The Viscount Falmouth
| Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard
The Earl of Cholmondeley
The Duke of Chandos
| Lord Steward
The Earl of Leicester
The Duke of Manchester
| British Ambassador to France
The Duke of Dorset
| Lord Lieutenant of Kent
The Earl of Romney
|Peerage of Great Britain|
| Duke of Dorset