John Flammang Schrank
|John Flammang Schrank|
March 5, 1876|
Erding, Kingdom of Bavaria
|Died||September 15, 1943
Central State Mental Hospital
John Flammang Schrank (March 5, 1876 – September 15, 1943) was a resident of New York, best known for his attempt to assassinate former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt on October 14, 1912, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Schrank was born in Erding, Bavaria, on March 5, 1876. He emigrated to America at the age of 9. His parents died soon after, leaving Schrank to work for his uncle, a New York tavern owner and landlord. Upon their deaths Schrank's aunt and uncle left him valuable properties, with the expectation that Schrank could live a quiet and peaceful life. Schrank was heartbroken, not just because he had lost his second set of parents, but also because his first and only girlfriend Emily Ziegler had died in the General Slocum disaster on New York's East River.
Schrank sold the properties, and drifted around the East Coast for years. He became profoundly religious, and a fluent Bible scholar whose debating skills were well-known around his neighborhood's watering holes and public parks. He wrote spare and vivid poetry. He spent a great deal of time walking around city streets at night but caused no documented trouble.
The 1912 Presidential election campaign was characterized by a serious split in the Republican Party between the conservative wing under President William Howard Taft and the liberal/reform wing under ex-President Theodore Roosevelt. After a bitter confrontation at the Republican Convention, Taft won renomination. Roosevelt led a bolt of his followers, who held a convention and nominated him for President on the ticket of the Progressive Party, nicknamed the "Bull Moose Party". Taft and his supporters attacked Roosevelt for being power-hungry, and seeking to break the tradition that U.S. Presidents only serve up to two terms in office.
On October 14, 1912, while Theodore Roosevelt was campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Schrank attempted to assassinate him.
According to documents found on Schrank after the attempted assassination, Schrank had written that he was advised by the ghost of William McKinley in a dream to avenge his death, pointing to a picture of Theodore Roosevelt. Different accounts claim that in the dream he instead saw McKinley rise from a coffin and point at Roosevelt, who was wearing a monk's robe.
Roosevelt was at the Gilpatrick Hotel at a dinner provided by the hotel's owner, a supporter. The ex-President was scheduled to deliver a speech at the Milwaukee Auditorium. News had circulated that Roosevelt was at the hotel, and Schrank (who had been following Roosevelt from New Orleans to Milwaukee) went to the hotel. The ex-President had finished his meal, and was leaving the hotel to enter his car when Schrank acted.
Schrank did shoot Roosevelt, but the bullet lodged in Roosevelt's chest only after hitting both his steel eyeglass case and a 50-page copy of his speech titled "Progressive Cause Greater Than Any Individual", which he was carrying in his jacket. Schrank was immediately disarmed, and subdued by police. A frenzied mob shouted for Schrank to be lynched when Roosevelt shouted for Schrank to remain unharmed. The astonished crowd looked at Roosevelt and one member said, “Is he okay?”; Roosevelt, with a reassuring smile, said, “I’m alright, I’m alright”. In relief, the crowd gave applause. Roosevelt ordered, "Bring him to me". He looked down at Schrank, and said "You poor creature." Roosevelt ordered, "Officers, take charge of him, and see that there is no violence done to him". Schrank was led away as the crowd boo at him, and applauded for Roosevelt.
Roosevelt, as an experienced hunter and anatomist, correctly concluded that since he was not coughing blood, the bullet had not reached his lung, and he declined suggestions to go to the hospital immediately. Instead, he delivered his scheduled speech with blood seeping into his shirt. He spoke for 90 minutes before completing his speech and accepting medical attention. His opening comments to the gathered crowd were, "Ladies and gentlemen, I don't know whether you fully understand that I have just been shot, but it takes more than that to kill a Bull Moose."
Afterwards, probes and an x-ray showed that the bullet had lodged in Roosevelt's chest muscle, but did not penetrate the pleura. Doctors concluded that it would be less dangerous to leave it in place than to attempt to remove it, and Roosevelt carried the bullet with him for the rest of his life. In later years, when asked about the bullet inside him, Roosevelt would say, "I do not mind it any more than if it were in my waistcoat pocket."
Both Taft and Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson suspended their own campaigning until Roosevelt recovered and resumed his. When asked if the shooting would affect his election campaign, he said to the reporter "I'm fit as a bull moose", which inspired the party's emblem. Roosevelt made only two more speeches in the campaign. Although Roosevelt won more votes and electoral votes than Taft, Wilson bested both of them to win the presidency.
Schrank maintained, later, that he had nothing against the man himself, and he did not intend to kill "the citizen Roosevelt", but rather "Roosevelt, the third-termer." He claimed to have shot Roosevelt as a warning to other third-termers, and that it was the ghost of William McKinley that told him to perform the act. When Roosevelt died in 1919, Schrank conceded that he was a great American and was sorry to hear of his death.
Soon after the assassination attempt, doctors examined Schrank and reported that he was suffering from "insane delusions, grandiose in character," declaring him to be insane. Schrank was committed to the Central State Hospital for the Criminally Insane in Waupun, Wisconsin, in 1914. He remained there for 29 more years, until he died on September 15, 1943 of bronchial pneumonia. His body was donated to the Medical School at Marquette University (now the Medical College of Wisconsin) for anatomical dissection.
While John F. Schrank was committed, he wrote a number of letters to the doctor he was consulting at the Mental Hospital, Dr. Adin Sherman. The University of North Carolina at Wilmington possesses twenty of them. The letters are dated between 1914 and 1918. The accession number in the Manuscripts Collection is 148.
The .38-caliber Colt Police Positive Special revolver that Schrank used to shoot Roosevelt
- "Died". Time. September 27, 1943. Retrieved January 19, 2009.
John Flammang Schrank, 67, Bavarian-born ex-barkeep who shot and wounded Theodore" Roosevelt in Milwaukee in 1912; of bronchial pneumonia; in the Waupun, Wis. hospital where he spent 29 of his 31 mailless, visitorless years in state custody, after being judged a paranoiac. Schrank regarded Teddy's 1912 Bull Moosing as a bid for a third term, decided to shoot him. Schrank's single shot was parried by manuscripts and a spectacle case in T.R.'s pockets. Despite his wound, Teddy made a speech that night, a fortnight later again felt perfectly bully.
- Remey, Oliver E.; Cochems, Henry F.; Bloodgood, Wheeler P. (1912). The Attempted Assassination of Ex-President Theodore Roosevelt. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: The Progressive Publishing Company. p. 192.
- Donovan, p. 104.
- "Schrank, John Flammang" Theodore Roosevelt Center. Retrieved 2017-02-07.
- Donovan, p. 111–114.
- It is alleged that a chicago baker named Frank Bukovsky pushed Shank's arm The Milwaukee Journal March 5,1951
- "The Bull Moose and related media". Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
- "Medical History of American Presidents". Doctor Zebra. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- "Excerpt", Detroit Free Press, History buff.
- "It Takes More Than That to Kill a Bull Moose: The Leader and The Cause". Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
- "Roosevelt Timeline". Theodore Roosevelt. Retrieved September 14, 2010.
- Timeline of Theodore Roosevelt's Life by the Theodore Roosevelt Association at www.theodoreroosevelt.org
- Donavan, p. 119
- "Daily TWiP - Theodore Roosevelt delivers campaign speech after being shot today in 1912". Nashua Telegraph. October 14, 2010. Archived from the original on September 19, 2015. Retrieved November 9, 2010.
- Donovan, p. 115.
- "Insane Man Had No Visitors in 31 Years in Wisconsin Asylums". The New York Times. Associated Press. September 17, 1943. Retrieved January 19, 2009.
John Flammang Schrank, 67, who attempted to kill Theodore Roosevelt in Milwaukee in 1912, died at the Central State Hospital here last night.
- Donovan, Robert J. (1962). "The First Pillar". The Assassins. New York: Popular Library. pp. 101–117.
- Gores, Stan (Summer 1970). "The Attempted Assassination of Teddy Roosevelt". The Wisconsin Magazine of History. 53 (4): 269–277.
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