Sir John Tenniel
Self-portrait of John Tenniel, c. 1889
|Born||28 February 1820|
Bayswater, United Kingdom
|Died||25 February 1914 (aged 93)|
London, United Kingdom
|Known for||Illustration, Children's literature, Political cartoons|
Sir John Tenniel (28 February 1820 – 25 February 1914) was an English illustrator, graphic humorist, and political cartoonist prominent in the second half of the 19th century. He was knighted for his artistic achievements in 1893. Tenniel is remembered especially as the principal political cartoonist for Punch magazine for over 50 years, and for his illustrations to Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871).
Tenniel was born in Bayswater, West London, to John Baptist Tenniel, a fencing and dancing master of Huguenot descent, and Eliza Maria Tenniel. Tenniel had five siblings; two brothers and three sisters. One sister, Mary, was later to marry Thomas Goodwin Green, owner of the pottery that produced Cornishware. Tenniel was a quiet and introverted person, both as a boy and as an adult. He was content to remain firmly out of the limelight and seemed unaffected by competition or change. His biographer Rodney Engen wrote that Tenniel's "life and career was that of the supreme gentlemanly outside, living on the edge of respectability."
In 1840, Tenniel, while practising fencing with his father, received a serious eye wound from his father's foil, which had accidentally lost its protective tip. Over the years, Tenniel gradually lost sight in his right eye; he never told his father of the severity of the wound, as he did not wish to upset his father further.
In spite of his tendency towards high art, Tenniel was already known and appreciated as a humorist and his early companionship with Charles Keene fostered and developed his talent for scholarly caricature.
Tenniel became a student of the Royal Academy of Arts in 1842 by probation – he was admitted because he had made enough copies of classical sculptures to fill the necessary admission portfolio. So it was here that Tenniel returned to his earlier independent education.
While Tenniel's more formal training at the Royal Academy and at other institutions was beneficial in nurturing his artistic ambitions, it failed in Tenniel's mind because he disagreed with the school's teaching methods, and as a result set about educating himself for his career. Tenniel studied classical sculptures through painting. However, he was frustrated in this because he had never received instruction in drawing. Tenniel would draw the classical statues at the London's Townley Gallery, copy illustrations from books of costumes and armour in the British Museum, and draw animals from the zoo in Regent's Park, as well as actors from London theatres, which he drew from the pits. These studies taught Tenniel to love detail. However, he became impatient in his work and was happiest when he could draw from memory. Though Tenniel was blessed with a photographic memory, it undermined his early formal training and restricted his artistic ambitions.
Another "formal" means of training was Tenniel's participation in an artists' group, free from the rules of the Academy that were stifling Tenniel. In the mid-1840s Tenniel joined the Artist's Society or Clipstone Street Life Academy, and it could be said here that Tenniel first emerged as a satirical draughtsman.
Tenniel's first book illustration was for Samuel Carter Hall's The Book of British Ballads, in 1842. While engaged with his first book illustrations, various contests were taking place in London, as a way in which the government could combat the growing Germanic Nazarenes style and promote a truly national English school of art. Tenniel planned to enter the 1845 House of Lords competition amongst artists to win the opportunity to design the mural decoration of the new Palace of Westminster. Despite missing the deadline, he submitted a 16-foot (4.9 m) cartoon, An Allegory of Justice, to a competition for designs for the mural decoration of the new Palace of Westminster. For this he received a £200 premium and a commission to paint a fresco in the Upper Waiting Hall (or Hall of Poets) in the House of Lords.
As the influential result of his position as the chief cartoon artist for Punch (published 1841–1992, 1996–2002), John Tenniel remained through satirical, often radical and at times vitriolic images of the world Britain's steadfast witness to sweeping changes in political and social reform. At Christmas 1850 he was invited by Mark Lemon to fill the position of joint cartoonist (with John Leech) on Punch, having been selected on the strength of recent illustrations to Aesop's Fables. He contributed his first drawing in the initial letter appearing on p. 224, vol. xix. This was entitled Lord Jack the Giant Killer and showed Lord John Russell assailing Cardinal Wiseman.
In 1861, Tenniel was offered John Leech's position at Punch, as political cartoonist, but Tenniel still maintained a sense of decorum and restraint in the heated social and political issues of the day.
His task was to follow the willful choices of his Punch editors, who probably took their cue from The Times and would have felt the suggestions of political tensions from Parliament as well. Tenniel's work could be scathing in effect. The restlessness in the issues of working-class radicalism, labor, war, economy, and other national themes were the targets of Punch, which in turn settled the nature of Tenniel's subjects. His cartoons of the 1860s popularized a portrait of the Irishman as a sub-human being, wanton in his appetites and resembling an orangutan in facial features and posture. Many of Tenniel's political cartoons expressed strong hostility to Irish Nationalism, with Fenians and Land leagues depicted as monstrous, ape-like brutes, while "Hibernia" – the personification of Ireland – was depicted as a beautiful, helpless girl threatened by such "monsters" and turning for protection to an "elder sister" in the shape of a powerful armoured Britannia.
"An Unequal Match", his drawing published in Punch on 8 October 1881, depicted a police officer fighting a criminal with only a 'baton' for protection, trying to put a point across to the public that policing methods needed to be changed.
When examined separately from the book illustrations he did over time, Tenniel's work at Punch alone, expressing decades of editorial viewpoints, often controversial and socially sensitive, was created to echo the voices of the British public. Tenniel drew 2,165 cartoons for Punch, a liberal and politically active publication that mirrored the Victorian public's mood for liberal social changes; thus Tenniel, in his cartoons, represented for years the conscience of the British majority.
In his career Tenniel contributed around 2,300 cartoons, innumerable minor drawings, many double-page cartoons for Punch's Almanac and other special numbers, and 250 designs for Punch's Pocket-books. By 1866 he was "able to command ten to fifteen guineas for the reworking of a single Punch cartoon as a pencil sketch", alongside his "comfortable" Punch salary "of about £800 a year". According to the Bank of England inflation calculator, £800 in 1866 would buy goods and services worth over £85,000 in 2015 (with inflation averaged at 3.1% a year).
Despite the thousands of political cartoons and hundreds of illustrative works attributed to him, much of Tenniel's fame stems from his illustrations for Alice. Tenniel drew ninety-two drawings for Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (London: Macmillan, 1865) and Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There (London: Macmillan, 1871).
Lewis Carroll originally illustrated Wonderland himself, but his artistic abilities were limited. Engraver Orlando Jewitt, who had worked for Carroll in 1859 and had reviewed Carroll's drawings for Wonderland, suggested that he employ a professional illustrator. Carroll was a regular reader of Punch and was therefore familiar with Tenniel. In 1865 Tenniel, after long talks with Carroll, illustrated the first edition of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
The first print run of 2,000 was sold in the United States, rather than England, because Tenniel objected to the print quality. A new edition was released in December 1865, carrying an 1866 date, and became an instant best-seller, increasing Tenniel's fame. His drawings for both books have become some of the most famous literary illustrations. After 1872, when the Carroll projects were finished, Tenniel largely abandoned literary illustration. Carroll did later approach Tenniel to undertake another project for him. To this Tenniel replied:
It is a curious fact that with "Looking-Glass" the faculty of making drawings for book illustrations departed from me, and ... I have done nothing in that direction since.
Tenniel's illustrations for the Alice books were engraved onto blocks of deal wood by the Brothers Dalziel. These engravings were then used as masters for making the electrotype copies for the actual printing of the books. The original wood blocks are held in the collection of the Bodleian Library in Oxford. They are not usually on public display, but were exhibited in 2003.
Influence of German Nazarenes
The style associated with the Nazarene movement of the 19th century influenced many later artists, including Tenniel. It can be characterized as "shaded outlines", where the lines on the side of figures or objects are given extra thickness or drawn double to suggest shading or volume. Furthermore, this style is extremely precise, with the artist making a hard clear outline for its figures, dignifying them and the compositions, while giving restraint in expression and paleness of tone. Though Tenniel's early illustrations in the Nazarene style were not well received, his encounter with the style pointed him in a good direction.
Eye for detail
After the 1850s, Tenniel's style modernized to incorporate more detail in backgrounds and in figures. The inclusion of background details corrected the previously weak Germanic staging of his illustrations. Tenniel's more precisely-designed illustrations depicted specific moments of time, locale, and individual character instead of just generalized scenes.
In addition to a change in specificity of background, Tenniel developed a new interest in human types, expressions, and individualized representation, something that would carry over into Tenniel's illustrations of Wonderland. Referred to by many as theatricalism, this hallmark of Tenniel's style probably stemmed from his earlier interest in caricature. In Tenniel's first years on Punch he developed this caricaturist's interest in the uniqueness of persons and things, almost giving a human like personality to the objects in the environment. For example, in a comparison to one of John Everett Millais's illustration of a girl in a chair with Tenniel's illustration of Alice in a chair, one can see how where Millais's chair is just a prop, Tenniel's chair possesses a menacing and towering presence.
Another change in style was his shaded lines. These transformed from mechanical horizontal lines to vigorously hand-drawn hatching that greatly intensified darker areas.
Tenniel's "grotesqueness" was one reason why Lewis Carroll wanted Tenniel as his illustrator for the Alice books. The grotesque is an abnormality that imparts a disturbing sense that the real world may have ceased to be reliable. Tenniel's style was characteristically grotesque through dark, atmospheric compositions of exaggerated fantasy creatures carefully drawn in outline. Often the mechanism was to use animal heads on recognizable human bodies or vice versa, as Grandville had done in the Parisian satirical journal Charivari. In Tenniel's illustrations, the grotesque is found also in mergers of beings and things, deformities in and violence to the human body (e. g. when Alice drinks the potion and grows huge), and a proclivity to deal with ordinary things of this world while presenting such phenomena. The most noticeably grotesque is Tenniel's famous Jabberwock drawing in Alice.
The Alice illustrations combine fantasy and reality. Scholars such as Morris trace Tenniel's stylistic change to the late 1850s trend towards realism. For the grotesque to operate, "it is our world which has to be transformed and not some fantasy realm." The illustrations constantly but subtly remind us of the real world, as do some of Tenniel's scenes derived from a medieval town, the portico of a Georgian town, or the checked jacket on the White Rabbit. Additionally, Tenniel closely follows Carroll's text, so that see the similitude between the written text and the illustrations. These touches of realism help to convince readers that all these seemingly grotesque inhabitants of Wonderland are simply themselves, simply real, not just performing.
Image and text in Alice
One unusual aspect of the Alice books is the placing of Tenniel's illustrations on the pages. This physical relation of illustrations to text meshes them together. Carroll and Tenniel expressed this in various ways. One was bracketing: two relevant sentences would bracket an image as a way of imparting the moment that Tenniel was trying to illustrate. This bracketing of Tenniel's pictures by the text adds to their "dramatic immediacy." However, other, less frequent illustrations work with the texts as captions.
Another link between illustration and text is the use of broader and narrower illustrations. Broader ones are meant to be centred on the page, narrower ones to be "let in" or run flush to the margin, alongside a narrow column of continuing text. Still, words run in parallel with the depiction of those things. For example, when Alice says, "Oh, my poor little feet!", it not only occurs at the foot of the page but is right next to her feet in the illustration. Some of these narrower illustrations are "L"-shaped, and of great importance as some of his most memorable work. The top or base of the illustrations runs the full width of the page. but the other end leaves room on one side for the text.
A selected list:
Entirely by Tenniel
- Juvenile Verse and Picture Book (1846)
- Undine (1846)
- Aesop's Fables (1848)
- Blair's Grave (1858)
- Shirley Brooks' The Gordian Knot (1860)
- Shirley Brooks' The Silver Cord (1861)
- Moore's Lalla Rookh (1861), 69 drawings
- Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1866)
- The Mirage of Life (1867)
- Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass (1870)
- Lewis Carroll's The Nursery "Alice" (1890)
Tenniel's different collaborations:[clarification needed]
- Thomas Ingoldsby's The Ingoldsby Legends
- Pollok's Course of Time (1857)
- The Poets of the Nineteenth Century (1858)
- Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven," in The Poetical Works of Edgar Allan Poe (1858)
- Home Affections (1858) 
- Cholmondeley Pennell's Puck on Pegasus (1863)
- The Arabian Nights (1863)
- L. B. White, English Sacred Poetry of the Olden Time (1864) 
- Legends and Lyrics (1865)
- Martin Farquhar Tupper's Proverbial Philosophy
- Barry Cornwall's Dramatic Scenes: With other poems (1857)
Retirement and death
An ultimate tribute came to an elderly Tenniel as he was knighted for his public service in 1893 by Queen Victoria. It was the first such honour ever bestowed on an illustrator or cartoonist, and his fellows saw his knighting as gratitude for "raising what had been a fairly lowly profession to an unprecedented level of respectability". With knighthood, Tenniel elevated the social status of the black and white illustrator, and sparked a new sense of recognition of his profession. When he retired in January 1901, Tenniel was honoured with a farewell banquet (12 June), at which AJ Balfour, then Leader of the House of Commons, presided.
Tenniel died on 25 February 1914, aged 93.
Punch historian M. H. Spielmann, who knew Tenniel, wrote that the political clout contained in his Punch cartoons was capable of "swaying parties and people, too... (the cartoons) exercised great influence" on the ideas of popular reform skirting throughout the British public. Two days after his death, The Daily Graphic recalled Tenniel: "He had an influence on the political feeling of this time which is hardly measurable ... While Tenniel was drawing them (his subjects), we always looked to the Punch cartoon to crystallize the national and international situation, and the popular feeling about it—and never looked in vain."[page needed] This condition of social influence resulted from the weekly publishing over a fifty-year span of his political cartoons, whereby Tenniel's fame allowed for a want and need for his particular illustrative work, away from the newspaper. Tenniel became not only one of Victorian Britain's most published illustrators, but as a Punch cartoonist he became one of the "supreme social observers" of British society, and an integral component of a powerful journalistic force. Also in 1914, the New-York Tribune journalist George W. Smalley referred to John Tenniel as "one of the greatest intellectual forces of his time, (who) understood social laws and political energies."
Public exhibitions of Sir John Tenniel's work were held in 1895 and in 1900. Sir John Tenniel is also the author of one of the mosaics, Leonardo da Vinci, in the South Court in the Victoria and Albert Museum; while his highly stippled watercolour drawings appeared from time to time in the exhibitions of the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, of which he had been elected a member in 1874.
"Davy Jones' Locker", 1892 Punch cartoon
"The Nemesis of Neglect", 1888 Punch cartoon commenting on the Jack the Ripper murders
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- The complex history surrounding the decoration is best summarized by T. S. R. Boase, The Decorations of the New Palace of Westminster 1841-1863, in: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 17:1954, pp. 319–358.
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- "Inflation Calculator". Bank of England. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- Gladstone and Elwyn-Jones, 1998, pages 253–255.
- See Michael Hancher's essay, "Carroll and Tenniel in Collaboration", The Tenniel Illustrations to the Alice Books: 105
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- Morris, Frankie (2005). Artist of Wonderland: The Life, Political Cartoons, and Illustrations of Tenniel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. p. 37.
- Morris, Frankie (2005). Artist of Wonderland: The Life, Political Cartoons, and Illustrations of Tenniel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. p. 120.
- Engen, Rodney (1991). Sir John Tenniel: Alice's White Knight. Brookfield, VT: Scolar Press. p. 21.
- Morris, Frankie (2005). Artist of Wonderland: The Life, Political Cartoons, and Illustrations of Tenniel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. p. 122.
- Morris, Frankie (2005). Artist of Wonderland: The Life, Political Cartoons, and Illustrations of Tenniel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. p. 123.
- Morris, Frankie (2005). Artist of Wonderland: The Life, Political Cartoons, and Illustrations of Tenniel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. p. 182.
- Engen, Rodney (1991). Sir John Tenniel: Alice's White Knight. Brookfield, VT: Scolar Press. p. 69.
- Jones, Elwyn (1998). The Alice Companion: A Guide to Lewis Carroll's Alice Books. New York: New York University Press. p. 251.
- Morris, Frankie (2005). Artist of Wonderland: The Life, Political Cartoons, and Illustrations of Tenniel. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. p. 189.
- Hancher, Michael (1985). The Tenniel Illustrations to the Alice Books. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. p. 120.
- Hancher, Michael (1985). The Tenniel Illustrations to the Alice Books. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. p. 125.
- Hancher, Michael (1985). The Tenniel Illustrations to the Alice Books. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. p. 127.
- British Library catalogue search results. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
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- "he Project Gutenberg EBook of Puck on Pegasus, by H. Cholmondeley Pennell". Gutenberg.org. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
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- "Name of article??", The Daily Graphic, 27 February 1914, p. ?
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- Curtis, L. Perry. Review of book. Drawing Conclusions: A Cartoon History of Anglo-Irish Relations, 1798-1998 by Roy Douglas, et al. Victorian Studies. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2001. 520-22. JSTOR recovered 21 November 2010.
- Dalziel, Edward D. and George Dalziel. The Brothers Dalziel: A Record of Fifty Years' Work. London: Methuen, 1901.
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- Gladstone, J. Francis, and Elwyn-Jones, Jo. The Alice Companion. Palgrave Macmillan, 1998. ISBN 9780333673492.
- Goldman, Paul. Victorian Illustrators. Aldershot, UK: Scolar Press, 1996.
- Hancher, Michael. The Tenniel Illustrations to the Alice Books. Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1985.
- Mespoulet, Marguerite. Creators of Wonderland. New York: Arrow Editions, 1934.
- Levin, Harry. Wonderland Revisited. The Kenyon Review. Vol. 27, no. 4. Kenyon College: 1965. 591-616. JSTOR recovered 3 December 2010.
- Morris, Frankie. Artist of Wonderland: The Life, Political Cartoons, and Illustrations of Tenniel. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P, 2005.
- Morris, Frankie. John Tenniel, Cartoonist: A Critical and Sociocultural Study in the Art of the Victorian Political Cartoon. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia: U of Missouri, 1985.
- Monkhouse, William Cosmo. The Life and Works of Sir John Tenniel. London: ArtJournal Easter Annual, 1901.
- Ovenden, Graham and John Davis. The Illustrators of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. New York: St Martin's Press, 1972.
- Reid, Forrest. Illustrators of the Eighteen Sixties: An Illustrated Survey of the Work of 58 British Artists. New York: Dover Publications, 1975.
- Sarzano, Frances. Sir John Tenniel. London: Pellegrini & Cudahy, 1948.
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- Stead, William Thomas (ed). The Review of Reviews. Vol. 23, p. 406. London: Horace Marshall & Son, 1901.
- Spielmann, M. H. The History of Punch. London: Cassell, 1895.
- Stoker, G. P. Sir John Tenniel A study of his development as an artist, with particular reference to the Book Illustrations and Political Cartoons, U of London PhD thesis, 1994.
- Susina, Jan. The Place of Lewis Carroll in Children's Literature. New York: Routledge, 2010.
- Susina, Jan. Review of book. Artist of Wonderland: The Life, Political Cartoons and Illustrations of Tenniel. Children's Literature Association Quarterly. vol. 31, no. 2, pages 202–205. The Johns Hopkins UP, 2006.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Tenniel.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: John Tenniel|
|Wikisource has the text of a 1921 Collier's Encyclopedia article about John Tenniel.|
- Wakeling, Edward (March 2008). "JOHN TENNIEL (1820-1914)". Retrieved 14 September 2009.
- Works by John Tenniel at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about John Tenniel at Internet Archive
- Tenniel Illustrations for Alice in Wonderland by Sir John Tenniel at Project Gutenberg
- John Tenniel's illustrations for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass
- More about John Tenniel and the making of the illustrations for the Alice's Adventures in Wonderland books
- A collection of Tenniel's American Civil War-era illustrations
- "Tenniel, Sir John". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- Works by John Tenniel at HeidICON