John Thach

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John Thach
ADM Thach, John.jpg
Official Navy portrait of Admiral John S. Thach
Born(1905-04-19)April 19, 1905
Pine Bluff, Arkansas
DiedApril 15, 1981(1981-04-15) (aged 75)
Coronado, California
AllegianceUnited States
Service/branchUnited States Navy
Years of service1927–1967
Commands heldUnited States Naval Forces Europe
Valley Forge (CVS-45)
Franklin D. Roosevelt (CVA-42)
Sicily (CVE-118)
Battles/warsWorld War II
Korean War
AwardsNavy Cross (2)
Navy Distinguished Service Medal (2)
Silver Star
Legion of Merit (2)
Bronze Star Medal

John Smith "Jimmy" Thach (April 19, 1905 – April 15, 1981) was a World War II Naval Aviator, air combat tactician, and United States Navy admiral. Thach developed the Thach Weave, a combat flight formation that could counter enemy fighters of superior performance, and later the big blue blanket, an aerial defense against kamikaze attacks.

Early career[edit]

John S. Thach was born in Pine Bluff, Arkansas, on April 19, 1905. He graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1927 and spent two years serving in battleships, before becoming a Naval Aviator in early 1930.[1] Thach spent the next decade serving as a test pilot and instructor and establishing a reputation as an expert in aerial gunnery.[1]

World War II[edit]

LCDR John S. Thach wearing M-450 helmet, AN6530 goggles and inflatable life vest, 1942.
LCDR Thach with kill markings on his F4F

In early 1940, Thach was placed in command of Fighting Squadron Three (VF-3). There he met a young ensign just out of flight school, Edward O'Hare, later a Medal of Honor recipient. Thach made O'Hare his wingman and taught him everything he knew. At the United States Navy fleet gunnery competition at the end of 1940, eight of the 16 VF-3 pilots qualified for the gunnery "E" award ("excellence").

Later Thach developed a fighter combat tactic known as the Thach Weave.[1] This tactic enabled American fighter aircraft to hold their own against the more maneuverable Mitsubishi A6M Zero, the primary Imperial Japanese Navy fighter.

Lieutenant Commander Thach and VF-3 flew from USS Lexington in the early part of World War II, and was assigned to USS Yorktown during the Battle of Midway in June 1942.[2] On the morning of June 4, Thach led a six-plane sortie from VF-3, escorting twelve Douglas TBD Devastators of VT-3 led by Lieutenant Commander Lance Massey from Yorktown, when they discovered the main Japanese carrier fleet. They were immediately attacked by 15 to 20 Japanese fighters. Thach decided to use his namesake maneuver, marking its first combat usage. Although outnumbered and outmaneuvered, Thach managed to shoot down three Zeros and a wingman accounted for another, at the cost of one Grumman F4F Wildcat.[3][4]

Thach (right) teaches new pilots.

After Midway, Thach was assigned to instruct other pilots in combat tactics. The United States Navy pulled its best combat pilots out of action to train newer pilots, while the Japanese kept their best pilots in combat. As the war progressed, the Japanese Navy lost their experienced pilots due to attrition and had no well-trained replacements, while the United States was able to improve the general fighting ability of their own personnel. When the Japanese resorted to the feared Kamikaze suicide attacks, Thach developed the "big blue blanket" system to provide an adequate defense.

Later in the war, Commander Thach became operations officer to Vice Admiral John S. McCain Sr., commander of the Fast Carrier Task Force.[1] Thach was also present at the formal Japanese surrender aboard USS Missouri on September 2, 1945, in Tokyo Bay.

Thach was a flying ace, credited with shooting down six enemy aircraft during World War II.[5]

Post–World War II[edit]

Captain John S. Thach (right) as commanding officer of the escort aircraft carrier USS Sicily (CVE-118) during the Korean War, discussing a mission with two United States Marine Corps pilots, Major Robert P. Keller (center) and First lieutenant Roland B. Heilman (left), from his ship while aboard Sicily off the Korean Peninsula.

Thach commanded USS Sicily during the Korean War and USS Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1953–54.[1] He was promoted to rear admiral in 1955.

In 1958 and 1959, Thach was placed in command of an antisubmarine development unit, "Task Group Alpha", with the aircraft carrier Valley Forge (CVS-45) serving as his flagship.[1] He subsequently appeared on the cover of Time magazine on September 1, 1958, for his contributions to anti-submarine warfare (ASW),[6] which was a primary focus at the time in the ongoing Cold War. An annual award was later established in his name for presentation to the top ASW squadron in the navy.

Thach was promoted to vice admiral in 1960[5] and served as the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Air in the Pentagon,[7] where he presided over development of the A-7 Corsair II, among other naval aviation programs. As Commander in Chief, United States Naval Forces Europe, starting in 1965, he pinned on his fourth star as a full admiral, retiring from the navy in May 1967 from that position.[8]

The Arkansas Aviation Historical Society inducted Thach into the Arkansas Aviation Hall of Fame in 1981.

Thach died on April 15, 1981, in Coronado, California, four days before his 76th birthday, and was buried at Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery in San Diego.[9]

The frigate Thach (FFG-43) was named in his honor.[1]

Personal life[edit]

Thach and his wife Madalynn had four children.[9]


Gold star
Gold star
Gold star
Bronze star
Bronze star
"A" Device
Silver star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Bronze star
Badge Naval Aviator insignia
1st Row Navy Cross
w/one gold award star[10]
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
w/gold star
Silver Star
2nd Row Legion of Merit
w/gold star and "V" device
Bronze Star Medal
w/"V" device
Navy Commendation Medal
w/"V" device
3rd Row Navy Presidential Unit Citation
w/two stars
Navy Unit Commendation American Defense Service Medal
w/Atlantic device
4th Row American Campaign Medal Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal
w/one silver and four bronze service stars
World War II Victory Medal
5th Row Navy Occupation Service Medal National Defense Service Medal
w/one service star
Korean Service Medal
w/three service stars
6th Row Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation Philippine Liberation Medal
w/two stars
United Nations Korea Medal



  1. ^ a b c d e f g "USS Thach: Named for Admiral John Smith Thach". United States Navy.
  2. ^ "Navy.togetherweserved: Thach, John, ADM"
  3. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 224.
  4. ^ 80-G-66154 Grumman F4F-4 "Wildcat" Fighter
  5. ^ a b "Carrier Pilot and Crew Bios – Fighting Three – John S. Thach". Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
  6. ^ "TIME Magazine Cover: Rear Adm. John Thach". TIME. 1 September 1958. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
  7. ^ "John Smith Thach (1905–1981) – Encyclopedia of Arkansas". Retrieved 15 November 2010.
  8. ^ "Admiral John Smith Thach, USN, (1905–1981)". Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
  9. ^ a b William M. Smith, Jr., "Thach, John S." in Nancy A. Williams & Jeannie M. Whayne, Arkansas Biography, p. 285
  10. ^ "Military Times Hall of Valor: Awards for John Smith Thach". Retrieved 15 November 2010.

External links[edit]