John C Tsang
|Financial Secretary of Hong Kong|
1 July 2007 – 16 January 2017
|Chief Executive||Donald Tsang
|Preceded by||Henry Tang|
|Succeeded by||Paul Chan|
|Director of the Chief Executive's Office|
24 January 2006 – 30 June 2007
|Chief Executive||Donald Tsang|
|Preceded by||Lam Woon-kwong|
|Succeeded by||Norman Chan|
|2nd Secretary for Commerce, Industry and Technology|
4 August 2003 – 24 January 2006
|Chief Executive||Tung Chee-hwa
|Preceded by||Henry Tang|
|Succeeded by||Joseph Wong|
21 April 1951
Kowloon, Hong Kong
|Nationality||American (until 1998)
Hong Kong Chinese
|Children||Terence · Prudence|
|Alma mater||La Salle College
Stuyvesant High School
MIT School of Architecture and Planning
Boston State College
John F. Kennedy School of Government
John Tsang Chun-wah, GBM, JP (Chinese: 曾俊華; born 21 April 1951) is a Hong Kong former senior civil servant and government official who was the longest-serving Financial Secretary in the Special Administrative Region period to date.
Born in Hong Kong and raised and educated in the United States, Tsang worked in the Hong Kong government for more than thirty years. He was the private secretary to the last colonial governor Chris Patten and was promoted to Secretary for Commerce, Industry and Technology in 2003. He worked as director of the Office of the Chief Executive under Donald Tsang administration from 2006 to 2007.
In July 2007, he was appointed Financial Secretary by Donald Tsang. He proposed the Scheme $6,000 tax rebate to all Hong Kong residents in his 2011 Budget. He continued to serve in the Leung Chun-ying administration until January 2017, when he resigned to run in the 2017 Chief Executive election. Despite his lead in the opinion poll by large margin throughout the campaign, he lost the bid to Carrie Lam, who had the support from the Beijing authorities.
Early life and education
Tsang's great grandfather was from Taishan, Guangdong. He made his fortune as a labourer in San Francisco. His grandfather was a well-off Chinese physician-turned-businessman. His father, Tsang Chuek-ho, was the eldest child of eight siblings. Graduated from normal schools, Tsang Chuek-ho and his wife Li Pik-sheung planned to move to the United States, where his sister was living, through Hong Kong in the 1940s.
While waiting for the immigration process, the family settled in Hong Kong and had four children. Tsang Cheuk-ho and his children adapted the surname Mui when he was adopted by a relative in Hong Kong; they reverted to their original surname after emigrating to the United States. John Tsang, the eldest child, was born as Mui Chun-wah in Hong Kong on 21 April 1951 and lived in Sai Yeung Choi Street in his childhood.
Tsang was a primary and secondary school student at La Salle College in Hong Kong. When he was 13 in 1965, Tsang and his family moved to the United States. He first resided on the 8th Street in Lower East Side, Manhattan, New York City. He was enrolled to the Stuyvesant High School in the following year, from which he graduated in 1969. Eric Holder, the first African-American Attorney General of the United States, was his classmate. During his early life in the United States, he was involved in defend the Diaoyu Islands movement in the early 1970s.
He then studied architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He also holds a master's degree in bilingual education from Boston State College and a MPA from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.
Civil service career
Through his teens and twenties, Tsang lived in the United States and worked as an architect. In November 1982 he returned to Hong Kong after working with the Boston Public Schools Board as a special advisor, at the midst of the Sino-British negotiation over Hong Kong sovereignty, and joined the civil service under the encouragement of Donald Tsang, with whom he became friends when they were at Harvard together. He started his civil service as an Administrative Officer, in which first position was a two-year stint as Assistant District Officer for Shatin, serving under Donald Tsang, the District Officer. He went on to positions in the former Finance Branch, Monetary Affairs Branch and the former Trade Department. From 1987 to 1992, he was first Administrative Assistant to then Financial Secretary, Sir Piers Jacobs.
He was Assistant Director-General of Trade from 1992 to 1995 and Private Secretary to the Governor, Chris Patten, from March 1995 to June 1997. In July 1997, Tsang was appointed Director-General of the Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office in London. In 1999 he returned from London and assumed the office of Commissioner of Customs and Excise, appointed by then Chief Executive Tung Chee-hwa. Tsang was Secretary for Planning and Lands from 2001 to 2002. After the Principal Officials Accountability System was introduced in July 2002, his title was changed to the Permanent Secretary for Housing, Planning and Lands (Planning and Lands), Permanent Secretary having become the highest ranking in the Hong Kong Civil Service.
From August 2003 Tsang was Secretary for Commerce, Industry and Technology. In this role he was also Chair of the Sixth Ministerial Conference (MC6) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) held in Hong Kong from 13 to 18 December 2005. For his outstanding performance in the WTO, he even earned praise from Chinese President Hu Jintao.
In 2007 Tsang became Financial Secretary of Hong Kong when Donald Tsang began his second term. In 2012 he was re-appointed as the territory's financial chief by Leung Chun-ying. Although Hong Kong's economy generally grew at a stably under Tsang and the government recorded surpluses every year, Tsang was criticised for his drastic miscalculations of the government surpluses and his fiscal conservative philosophy.
After seven consecutive years of budget surplus, Tsang's 2011 annual budget came under heavy fire from the Legislative Council. His original proposal of putting HK$6,000 directly into workers' Mandatory Provident Fund (MPF) accounts was condemned. About 10,000 protesters showed up at Central to demonstrate. The mismanagement of the funds opened a number of controversies. Tsang eventually backed down and carried out the Scheme $6,000, to give HK$6,000 cash handout all adult holders of a Hong Kong permanent identity card. In the same budget, Tsang also initiated iBond, a Hong Kong dollar retail inflation-indexed bond to further develop the local bonds market, attracting 155,835 applications in 2011, which rose to 525,359 by 2013.
In January 2011 the government's IT chief information officer Jeremy Godfrey stepped down from his job for "personal reasons". On 10, May 2011 in a letter to the Legislative Council, he said those personal reasons were not real, and that the real reason he quit was related to Permanent Secretary for Permanent Secretary for Commerce and Economic Development Elizabeth Tse and John Tsang. It turns out there were arguments over the implementation of the Internet Learning Support Program (ILSP). It was revealed that Tse and Tsang forced the HK$220 million contract to be awarded to a company called Internet Professional Association (iProA). The company turned out to be founded by Elizabeth Quat, a member of the pro-Beijing Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB). Tsang responded that the accusations were ridiculous and absurd. Godfrey then stated that Quat herself had nothing to do with the ILSP controversy, but said the IT decision was politicised.
In the 2013 budget, Tsang said he understood the people's concern as himself was also a middle class. By supporting his claim, he said that the middle class are those who drink coffee and like French films. He was ridiculed by the public for the remarks, as he earned a basic monthly salary of HK$302,205 and lived in a luxury government residence.
On 7 December 2013, Tsang was hit on the head by an egg thrown by a League of Social Democrats (LSD) protester Derek Chan Tak-cheung when he attended a government forum. Tsang joked about the incident, saying that a doctor had advised him not to eat too many eggs. "Luckily I'm not wearing a good suit today. I appear to have foreseen the incident."
To distance himself from the Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying who took the hardline stance against localism in Hong Kong, Tsang expressed his affection for local culture, especially showing his support to the Hong Kong national football team against China during the World Cup football qualifiers. He also wrote in his blog that localism could become a "strong and constructive force" that binds society together. His popularity rating had been over 60 out of 100 in 2015 and 2016, according to tracking polls by the University of Hong Kong public opinion programme, being the most popular principal official in the government.
Tsang resigned as Financial Secretary on 12 December after months long speculation of him running in the 2017 Chief Executive election in which he had topped the opinion polls against incumbent Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying. His resignation was approved by Beijing's central authorities on 16 January 2017, the same day on which his rival Carrie Lam left her office of Chief Secretary for Administration. The unusual month-long gap between his resignation and Beijing's approval has caused critics to speculate Beijing's reluctance to allow him to join the race.
2017 Chief Executive bid
Tsang officially declared his candidacy on 19 January with a slogan of "Trust, Unity, Hope", after more than a month-long pending of his resignation by the central government which put his campaign in limbo. There were reports that central government officials had given "red light" to John Tsang running in the election and had allegedly asked John Tsang not to run for more than ten times, including rumours of him being offered the deputy governor post at the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in return for not joining the race. Tsang refuted such claims, only saying that there were "friends" who supported him and some who did not. To contrast his archrival former Chief Secretary Carrie Lam who was perceived to follow Leung Chun-ying's hardline and divisive policies, Tsang described himself as a good listener who accepted different views, appealing to "all 7.35 million Hongkongers so that together we can make Hong Kong a better place." Tsang also launched his election Facebook page, which drew more than 100,000 likes in a day.
Tsang unveiled his 75-page election platform entitled "Convergence of Hearts, Proactive Enablement" on 6 February, with the promise of revisiting the possibility of the Article 23 national security legislation with the possibility of relaunching political reform without mentioning the "831 framework". Other policies included introducing a progressive profit tax, developing New Territories North and East Lantau and abolishing all Territory-wide System Assessment (TSA) and Basic Competency Assessment (BCA) tests, among others.
Amid the alleged pressure from the Liaison Office which actively lobbied for Carrie Lam and speculations that he was not Beijing's favoured candidate, Tsang struggled to seek nominations from the pro-Beijing electors and had to heavily rely on the pro-democrats. He received a few pro-Beijing electors' support, including Liberal Party honorary chairman James Tien who was the most outspoken supporter of Tsang since the early stage of the campaign, as well as the party's honorary chairwoman Selina Chow and leader Felix Chung. He also received a nomination from Thomas Wu, son of real estate tycoon Gordon Wu of the Hopewell Holdings, the only tycoon to nominate Tsang. 123 of his total number of 160 nominations came from pro-democracy camp, of which majority of them were from the professional sector, including the Democratic Party which made it the first time a pro-democratic party to nominate an establishment candidate. On 25 February, he became the first candidate to submit his nominations. He was criticised by pro-Beijing media and politicians for taking pro-democrats' support, Tam Yiu-chung said that Tsang now clearly represented the pan-democrats while Ta Kung Pao editorials attacked Tsang for "making deal with the devils".
Tsang performed well in the election debates. In a two-hour televised debate co-organised by seven electronic media outlets on 14 March, Tsang quoted Lam's nickname "CY 2.0", which meant the second version of the divisive incumbent Leung Chun-ying, saying that people fear society will suffer "split 2.0" if Lam wins. Former candidate Regina Ip and political scientist Ma Ngok said that Tsang won the debate. According to a poll conducted by the University of Hong Kong Public Opinion Programme (HKUPOP) after a forum co-organised by a group of Election Committee members on 19 March, 62 per cent out of the 717 respondents said they would vote for Tsang if eligible, against 24 per cent for Lam and seven per cent for Woo.
Ahead of 26 March election, Tsang held a rally on 24 March evening in Edinburgh Place, Central, the final stop on his half-day bus parade on Hong Kong Island. Around 3,500 showed support at the rally, with some 449,000 people watched the rally on his Facebook page and more than 18,700 comments were left on the page. Film director Johnnie To, Tsang’s wife Lynn and his former political assistant Julian Law Wing-chung were among the six guests who spoke at the rally. In Tsang's speech, he said: "We are here to show our love for this city of ours ... I hope the Election Committee members, who have the power to vote, would heed our call and heal the rift, and make Hong Kong the home we imagined it should be." He also made a reference to the 2014 Occupy protests, saying: "Here we stand near Lung Wo Road and Connaught Road, Occupy happened near this place in more than two years ago, but I hope our rally today can give a new meaning to this place. I hope you will remembered that on 24 March 2017, we gathered here for the unity of Hong Kong."
On 26 March, Tsang received 365 votes in the 1,194-member Election Committee, losing to Carrie Lam who received 777 votes. His votes came from 98 percent of the 325-member "Democrats 300+" coalition, who voted as masse for the candidate leading in opinion polls, as well as a few pro-Beijing electors. Tsang fought back tears as he implored supporters to carry on the dream for democracy and not to give up on Hong Kong in his concession speech. "I believe this dream to turn Hong Kong more democratic ... has made every Hongkonger willing to dream on – till our dream comes true one day."
Tsang is married to Lynn Tsang (曾黃蓮華; née Wong) who he met as a nurse while doing volunteer work in the United States in 1975. The couple has a son Terence Tiu-lung (雕龍; literally "carving of dragons") and a daughter Prudence Man-sum (文心; literally "literary mind"); the combination of the siblings' names alludes to The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons, a Chinese classic on literary aesthetics. The family remained a low profile despite Tsang's senior political position.
Tsang is a practicing Roman Catholic and a martial arts and fencing enthusiast. He learned Hung Kuen with martial arts master Kwong Tit-fu during his life in the United States and got to know Tai Chi master Bow-sim Mark and her son Donnie Yen. He has been voluntarily coaching the fencing team of his alma mater La Salle College since 1985, Sammy Leung was among his students. He also cameoed as a fencing coach in a government's tourism promotion video. He is also nicknamed "Mr Potato Chips" and "Uncle Pringles" for a moustache similar to one worn by a character on a potato crisp brand's packaging. He has a pet dog Shiba Inu named Oliver, in which he gave to his daughter as a Christmas present in 2008. Oliver is often featured in Tsang's greeting cards.
In 2009, Tsang suffered a health scare on his return from a G-20 summit in Pittsburgh. On 27 September he was admitted to Queen Mary Hospital with a coronary artery blockage and underwent an angioplasty operation. He recovered and was discharged from hospital on 3 October, assuring the media that the operation would not affect his work.
- "【特首跑馬仔】曾俊華原名「梅俊華」？！ 原來有段古" [[Chief Executive Race] John Tsang's Original Name is "Mui Chun-wah"?! There is a Story Behind it.]. Ming Pao (in Chinese). 19 January 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- "Three HK officials named to new posts". English.gov.cn. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- Tsang, John (10 April 2016). "奇遇" [Adventure]. Financial Secretary's Office (in Chinese).
- "Mr John Tsang Chun-wah, GBM, JP, Financial Secretary". GovHK. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "Hong Kong Customs and Excise Department – Issue 6 (1999 June)". Customs.gov.hk. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "John Tsang will get WTO reward with new posting". The Standard. Hong Kong. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "Civil Service Newsletter Issue 60". Csb.gov.hk. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "The remaking of financial chief John Tsang into 'local Hong Kong boy'". South China Morning Post. 12 December 2016.
- Legco.gov.hk. "Legco.gov.hk." Legco finance committee to scrutinize the 2011–12 budget next week. Retrieved on 27 March 2011.
- "HK Citizens Protest Against Government's $6000 Giveaway | AX3 | Global Asian Lifestyle + Pop Culture Webzine". Ax3battery.com. 6 March 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "Record iBond subscription means many Hong Kong investors will face allocation limit". South China Morning Post. 5 August 2015.
- "Former top official warned in net row". The Standard. Hong Kong. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "Whistle-blower tells of HK$220m deal pressure". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- Godfrey, Jeremy. "ILSP selection: No complaint about Elizabeth Quat". Ilsp.blogspot.com. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- "Bitter Starbucks lesson for Hong Kong". Market Watch. 3 March 2013.
- "Finance chief John Tsang comes out of his shell at 'egg-throwing' trial". South China Morning Post. 7 November 2014.
- "Hong Kong financial secretary resigns, expected to seek top job". Reuters. 12 December 2016.
- "John Tsang remains coy about entering CE race, despite Beijing's nod to him and Carrie Lam". South China Morning Post. 16 January 2017.
- "Unity trust hope – Tsang enters CE race with three-word message to fix 'torn-apart' HK". The Standard. 20 January 2017.
- "John Tsang to officially announce chief executive bid despite no clear nod from Beijing". South China Morning Post. 19 January 2017.
- "John Tsang walks thin line as he promises both political reform and revisiting of Article 23 in election manifesto". South China Morning Post. 6 February 2017.
- "【特首選戰】胡文新堅守承諾 提名曾俊華入閘". Apple Daily. 25 February 2017.
- "【特首選戰】民主黨all-in曾俊華：若不能入閘全港市民失望". Apple Daily. 16 February 2017.
- "John Tsang not pan-dems candidate: Tsang Yok-sing". RTHK. 27 February 2017.
- "【特首選戰拆局】胡官真入閘 或攤分曾俊華民望". Apple Daily. 27 February 2017.
- "Who won the big Hong Kong chief executive debate?". South China Morning Post. 14 March 2017.
- "特首民投僅6.5萬人投票 鬍鬚獲八成七支持淨值 林鄭負九成四". CitizenNews. 20 March 2017.
- "Thousands show support for John Tsang at campaign rally". South China Morning Post. 24 March 2017.
- "Beijing ‘doesn’t trust John Tsang because he ignored its warning not to run’ in Hong Kong chief executive election". South China Morning Post. 24 March 2017.
- "‘Don’t give up on Hong Kong’: John Tsang appeals to supporters to continue dream for democracy". South China Morning Post. 26 March 2017.
- "Registration of Financial and Other Interests" (PDF). Office of Financial Secretary. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2016. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "John Tsang praises wife's quick thinking after heart attack". South China Morning Post. 5 October 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "曾俊華少時習拳 跟甄子丹「因武結緣」". Hong Kong Headline. 29 January 2009.
- "「幾打得」曾俊華劍擊學打逆境波 森美：Keep Running". 20 January 2017.
- "Statement by Government Spokesman Issued at HKT 01:11". Press Releases. 28 September 2009. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
- "John Tsang recovers, leaves hospital". news.gov.hk. Information Services Department, HKSAR. 3 October 2009. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
- 財政司司長會見傳媒談話內容（只有中文）（附短片）. 香港特區政府新聞公報 (in Chinese). 3 October 2009. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 4 October 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Tsang.|
|Commissioner of Customs and Excise
|Secretary for Planning and Lands
as Secretary for Housing, Planning and Lands
|New office||Permanent Secretary for Housing, Planning and Lands
(Planning and Lands)
|Director of the Chief Executive's Office
|Secretary for Commerce, Industry and Technology
|Financial Secretary of Hong Kong
|Order of precedence|
Recipient of the Grand Bauhinia Medal
|Hong Kong order of precedence
Recipient of the Grand Bauhinia Medal
Recipient of the Grand Bauhinia Medal