Purleigh, Essex, England
|Died||1677 (aged 45–46)
Washington Parish, Westmoreland County, Virginia, British America
|Occupation||Planter and politician|
|Spouse(s)||Anne Pope (1st), Anne Gerrard (2nd), Frances Gerrard (3rd),|
|Children||Lawrence, John II and Anne.|
|Parent(s)||Lawrence Washington, Amphillis Twigden.|
Early life and family
John Washington was born in 1633 in Purleigh, Essex, England, the son of Amphilis (Twigden) and Lawrence Washington. Prior to Lawrence Washington's marriage, he had been a don at the University of Oxford.
When John was eight his father enrolled him in Charterhouse School in London to begin preparing for an academic career. In the wake of the English Civil War, however, the royalist Lawrence Washington was stripped of his clerical 'don' post and became an Anglican rector who ministered to an impoverished parish in Essex. During this time, his sons were barred from entering Oxford. John Washington, his mother and siblings were given shelter by his relative Sir Edwin Sandys.
John Washington found an apprenticeship with a London merchant through his Sandys relatives, which provided a valuable education in colonial trade.
In 1656 Washington invested in a merchant ship engaged in transporting tobacco to European markets and left his home in Tring for the Colony of Virginia. Washington was the ship's second officer. In 1657, the ship foundered in the Potomac River. Although the vessel was repaired, Washington elected to remain in the colony.
Colony of Virginia
After his marriage to Anne Pope and the wedding gift from Anne's father of 700 acres (2.8 km2) on Mattox Creek in Westmoreland County of the Northern Neck, Washington became a successful planter. He depended on the labor of slaves and indentured servants to cultivate tobacco and kitchen crops. He was selected for the Virginia House of Burgesses and became a politician in the colony.
During the events leading to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, Washington was appointed a colonel in the Virginia militia. He led a company to back a group of Marylanders during a planned parley with the opposition and American Indian leaders. The militia killed six chiefs of various tribes, and their peoples retaliated for the massacre in later raids and attacks against the colonists. Governor William Berkeley strongly criticized Washington for the murders of the American Indian chiefs, but colonists supported Washington in the massacre. Relations between the Indians and colonists deteriorated.
Marriage and family
He married Anne Pope in 1658.
They had three children together:
- Lawrence Washington (1659–1698),
- John Washington II, (b.c.1661–1698)
- Anne Washington, (b.c. 1662–1697)
After Anne Pope's death, Washington married Anne Gerrard. When his second wife died, as well, John Washington married Anne's younger sister, Frances Gerrard.
Washington and his first wife Anne are buried at what is now called the George Washington Birthplace National Monument, in present-day Colonial Beach, Virginia. His vault is the largest in the small family burial plot.
Legacy and honors
- "John Washington and His Descendants", The George Washington Foundation
- Randall, p. 10.
- Murray Neil. "The Washingtons of Tring". Hertfordshire Genealogy. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- Haas, Irvin (1992). Historic Homes of the American Presidents. Courier Dover Publications. p. 7. ISBN 0-486-26751-2.
- Marquis, A.N. Company. Who's Who In America, vol. 1:Historical Volume (1607-1896), revised ed., Marquis, A.N. Company., 1967.
- Richardson, Abby Sage (1875). The History of Our Country: From Its Discovery by Columbus to the Celebration of the Centennial Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. H. O. Houghton and Company. p. [page needed].
- Lodge, Henry Cabot (1917). George Washington. Houghton Mifflin. p. 36.
- Randall, Willard Sterne (1997). George Washington: A Life. New York: Holt & Co.