Tring, Hertfordshire, England
1677 (aged 46)|
Washington Parish, Westmoreland County, Colony of Virginia, English America
|Occupation||Planter, Soldier, Politician|
|Spouse(s)||Anne Pope (1st), Anne Brett (widow, 2nd), Frances Gerard Appleton (widow, 3rd).|
|Children||Lawrence, John II, and Anne.|
|Parent(s)||Lawrence Washington, Amphillis Twigden.|
John Washington (1631–1677) was an English planter, soldier, and politician in colonial Virginia in North America. He was a lieutenant colonel in the local militia. Born in Hertfordshire, he settled in Westmoreland County, Virginia. He was the immigrant paternal English ancestor and great-grandfather of George Washington, general of the Continental Army and first president of the United States of America.
Early life and family
John Washington was born in 1631 in Tring, Hertfordshire, England, the son of Amphillis Twigden and Rev. Lawrence Washington (1602-1653). At the time of his marriage, Lawrence Washington was a don at the University of Oxford.
When John was eight his father enrolled him in Charterhouse School in London to begin preparing for an academic career, but the boy never attended the school. In 1633 the senior Washington had left Oxford when called as the Rector of Purleigh, Essex. During the English Civil War, in 1643 the royalist Washington was stripped of his clerical position by the Parliamentary Puritans. He was reduced to serving as a Vicar of an impoverished parish in Little Braxted, Essex. His wife and family returned to her parents' family home in Tring, Hertfordshire.
John Washington was apprenticed with a London merchant through the help of his Sandys relatives. He gained a valuable education in colonial trade, as England had colonies in the Caribbean and North America.
In 1656 John Washington invested in a merchant ship engaged in transporting tobacco from North America to European markets; he sailed it from England for the Colony of Virginia. Washington served as the ship's second officer. In 1657, the ship foundered in the Potomac River. Although the vessel was repaired, Washington elected to remain in the colony. He was accompanied to Virginia by his cousin, James Washington, the son of Robert Washington (1616 - 1674), who worked in the London-Rotterdam trade of the Merchant Adventurers. James subsequently returned to England.
Colony of Virginia
After his marriage to Anne Pope, the couple received a wedding gift from Anne's father of 700 acres (2.8 km2) on Mattox Creek in Westmoreland County of the Northern Neck. Washington became a successful planter, depending on the labor of African slaves and British indentured servants to cultivate tobacco as a commodity crop and the necessary kitchen crops to support the household and workers. He was selected for the Virginia House of Burgesses and became a politician in the colony.
In 1674, he received a 5,000-acre land grant, adding to his estate and power. (See image)
During the events leading to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, Washington was appointed a colonel in the Virginia militia. He led a company to back a group of Marylanders during a planned parley with the disgruntled opposition and their allied American Indian leaders. The militia killed six chiefs of various tribes. Outraged, their peoples later retaliated, conducting raids and attacks against the colonists. Governor William Berkeley strongly criticized Washington for the murders of the American Indian chiefs, but colonists supported him. Relations between the Indians and colonists deteriorated.
Marriage and family
As noted, Washington married Anne Pope in 1658. They had three children together:
- Lawrence Washington (1659–1698),
- John Washington II (1661–23 Feb 1698)
- Anne Washington (b.c. 1662–1697)
After Anne Pope's death, Washington married Anne Brett, a widow (maiden name Gerard). She was the daughter of Thomas Gerard and had been married first to Walter Broadhurst and secondly to Henry Brett, who both died.
After Anne Brett's death, John Washington married Frances Gerard Appleton (another daughter of Thomas Gerard, and widow of Thomas Speke, Valentine Peyton, and John Appleton). This third marriage occurred about May 10, 1676 when a "joynture" was recorded between Mrs. Frances Appleton and John Washington in Westmoreland County, Virginia.
Washington and his first wife Anne Pope are buried in present-day Colonial Beach, Virginia, at what is now called the George Washington Birthplace National Monument. His vault is the largest in the small family burial plot.
Legacy and honors
- Randall, Willard Sterne (1997). George Washington: A Life. New York: Holt & Co.
- "John Washington and His Descendants", The George Washington Foundation
- Murray Neil. "The Washingtons of Tring". Hertfordshire Genealogy. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
- Haas, Irvin (1992). Historic Homes of the American Presidents. Courier Dover Publications. p. 7. ISBN 0-486-26751-2.
- "a veteran diplomat" (3 September 1916). "Baron George Washington Fighting for Austria; Collateral Descendant of the First President of U.S., an Officer of the Austrian Lancers, May Make New Yorker His Heir". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
- Clay, J. W. (1899). Dugdale’s Visitation of Yorkshire, With Additions, Vol. I. William Pollard and Co., Exeter. pp. 234–235.
- Marquis, A.N. Company. Who's Who In America, vol. 1: Historical Volume (1607-1896), revised ed., Marquis, A.N. Company., 1967.
- Richardson, Abby Sage (1875). The History of Our Country: From Its Discovery by Columbus to the Celebration of the Centennial Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. H. O. Houghton and Company. p. 135.
- Lodge, Henry Cabot (1917). George Washington. Houghton Mifflin. p. 36.
- Washington of Adwick; Origin of the Washington family, Rotherhamweb.co.uk
- John Washington on ThePeerage.com
- George Washington artifacts