Wayne in a 1965 publicity photo
|Born||Marion Robert Morrison
May 26, 1907
Winterset, Iowa, U.S.
|Died||June 11, 1979
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Cause of death||Stomach cancer|
|Other names||Marion Michael Morrison
|Education||Glendale High School|
|Alma mater||University of Southern California|
|Occupation||Actor, director, producer|
|Home town||Glendale, California|
|Religion||Presbyterianism (Converted to Roman Catholicism later in life)|
Marion Mitchell Morrison (born Marion Robert Morrison; May 26, 1907 – June 11, 1979), known by his stage name John Wayne, was an American film actor, director, and producer. An Academy Award-winner for True Grit (1969), Wayne was among the top box office draws for three decades. An enduring American icon, for several generations of Americans he epitomized rugged masculinity and is famous for his demeanor, including his distinctive calm voice, walk, and height.
Originally from Iowa, Wayne grew up in Southern California. He found work at local film studios when he lost his football scholarship to USC as a result of a bodysurfing accident.:63–64 Initially working for the Fox Film Corporation, he mostly appeared in small bit parts. His first leading role came in Raoul Walsh's lavish widescreen epic The Big Trail (1930), which led to leading roles in numerous B movies throughout the 1930s, many of them in the western genre.
Wayne's career took off in 1939, with John Ford's Stagecoach making him an instant mainstream star. Wayne would go on to star in 142 pictures. Biographer Ronald Davis says: "John Wayne personified for millions the nation's frontier heritage. Eighty-three of his movies were Westerns, and in them he played cowboys, cavalrymen, and unconquerable loners extracted from the Republic's central creation myth."
In addition to True Grit and Stagecoach, among his best-known westerns are Red River (1948), as a cattleman driving his herd north on the Chisholm Trail, The Searchers (1956), playing a Civil War veteran whose young niece is abducted by a tribe of Comanches, and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962), as a troubled rancher competing with an Eastern lawyer for a woman's hand in marriage. Wayne is also remembered for his roles in The Quiet Man (1952), Rio Bravo (1959), and The Longest Day (1962). In his final screen performance, he starred as an aging gunfighter battling cancer in The Shootist (1976). He appeared with many important Hollywood stars of his era, including Maureen O'Hara, James Stewart, Dean Martin, and Natalie Wood.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Film career
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Legacy
- 5 Filmography
- 6 Missed roles
- 7 Awards and nominations
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
John Wayne was born Marion Robert Morrison on May 26, 1907 at 224 South Second Street in Winterset, Iowa. The local paper, Winterset Madisonian reported on page 4 of the May 30, 1907 edition, that Wayne weighed thirteen pounds at birth. His middle name was soon changed from Robert to Mitchell when his parents decided to name their next son Robert.:8–9 Wayne's father, Clyde Leonard Morrison (1884–1937), was the son of American Civil War veteran Marion Mitchell Morrison (1845–1915). Wayne's mother, the former Mary "Molly" Alberta Brown (1885–1970), was from Lancaster County, Nebraska. Wayne's ancestry included Scottish, Scots-Irish, Irish, and English. He was brought up as a Presbyterian.
Wayne's family moved to Palmdale, California, and then in 1916 to Glendale, California, where his father worked as a pharmacist. A local fireman at the station on his route to school in Glendale started calling him "Little Duke" because he never went anywhere without his huge Airedale Terrier, Duke.:37 He preferred "Duke" to "Marion", and the name stuck for the rest of his life.
Wayne attended Wilson Middle School in Glendale. As a teen, he worked in an ice cream shop for a man who shod horses for Hollywood studios. He was also active as a member of the Order of DeMolay, a youth organization associated with the Freemasons. He played football for the 1924 league champion Glendale High School team.
Wayne applied to the U.S. Naval Academy, but was not accepted. He instead attended the University of Southern California (USC), majoring in pre-law. He was a member of the Trojan Knights and Sigma Chi fraternities.:30 Wayne also played on the USC football team under coach Howard Jones. A broken collarbone injury curtailed his athletic career; Wayne later noted he was too terrified of Jones's reaction to reveal the actual cause of his injury, a bodysurfing accident. He lost his athletic scholarship and, without funds, had to leave the university.
As a favor to Southern Cal football coach Howard Jones, who had given silent western film star Tom Mix tickets to University of Southern California games, director John Ford and Mix hired Wayne as a prop boy and extra. Wayne later credited his walk, talk and persona to his acquaintance with Wyatt Earp, who was good friends with Mix. Wayne soon moved on to bit parts, establishing a longtime friendship with the director who provided most of those roles, John Ford. Early in this period he had a minor, uncredited role as a guard in the 1926 film Bardelys the Magnificent. Wayne also appeared with his USC teammates playing football in Brown of Harvard (1926), The Dropkick (1927), and Salute (1929) and Columbia's Maker of Men (filmed in 1930, released in 1931).
Early career and breakthrough
While working for Fox Film Corporation in bit roles, Wayne was given on-screen credit as "Duke Morrison" only once, in Words and Music (1929). In 1930, director Raoul Walsh saw him moving studio furniture while working as a prop boy and cast him in his first starring role in The Big Trail (1930). For his screen name, Walsh suggested "Anthony Wayne", after Revolutionary War general "Mad" Anthony Wayne. The Fox Studios chief Winfield Sheehan rejected it as sounding "too Italian". Walsh then suggested "John Wayne". Sheehan agreed, and the name was set. Wayne was not even present for the discussion.:84 His pay was raised to $105 a week (worth $1,482 today).
The Big Trail was to be the first big-budget outdoor spectacle of the sound era, made at a staggering cost of over $2 million, using hundreds of extras and wide vistas of the American southwest, still largely unpopulated at the time. To take advantage of the breathtaking scenery, it was filmed in two versions, a standard 35-mm version and another in the new 70 mm Grandeur film process, using an innovative camera and lenses. Many in the audience who saw it in Grandeur stood and cheered. Unfortunately, only a handful of theaters were equipped to show the film in its widescreen process, and the effort was largely wasted. Despite being highly regarded by modern critics, the film was considered a huge box office flop at the time.
After the commercial failure of The Big Trail, Wayne was relegated to small roles in A-pictures, including Columbia's The Deceiver (1931), in which he played a corpse. He appeared in the serial The Three Musketeers (1933), an updated version of the Alexandre Dumas novel in which the protagonists were soldiers in the French Foreign Legion in then-contemporary North Africa. He played the lead, with his name over the title, in many low-budget "Poverty Row" westerns, mostly at Monogram Pictures and serials for Mascot Pictures Corporation. By Wayne's own estimation, he appeared in about 80 of these horse operas from 1930 to 1939. In Riders of Destiny (1933), he became one of the first singing cowboys of film, albeit via dubbing. Wayne also appeared in some of the Three Mesquiteers westerns, whose title was a play on the Dumas classic. He was mentored by stuntmen in riding and other western skills. He and famed stuntman Yakima Canutt developed and perfected stunts and onscreen fisticuffs techniques still used today.
Wayne's breakthrough role came with director John Ford's classic Stagecoach (1939). Because of Wayne's B-movie status and track record in low-budget westerns throughout the 1930s, Ford had difficulty getting financing for what was to be an A-budget film. After rejection by all the top studios, Ford struck a deal with independent producer Walter Wanger in which Claire Trevor—a much bigger star at the time—received top billing. Stagecoach was a huge critical and financial success, and Wayne became a mainstream star. Cast member Louise Platt credits Ford as saying at the time that Wayne would become the biggest star ever because of his appeal as the archetypal "everyman".
America's entry into World War II resulted in a deluge of support for the war effort from all sectors of society, and Hollywood was no exception. Wayne was exempted from service due to his age (34 at the time of Pearl Harbor) and family status, classified as 3-A (family deferment). He repeatedly wrote John Ford saying he wanted to enlist, on one occasion inquiring whether he could get into Ford's military unit, but consistently kept postponing it until after "he finished just one or two pictures".:212 Wayne did not attempt to prevent his reclassification as 1-A (draft eligible), but Republic Studios was emphatically resistant to losing him; Herbert J. Yates, President of Republic, threatened Wayne with a lawsuit if he walked away from his contract,:220 and Republic Pictures intervened in the Selective Service process, requesting Wayne's further deferment.:213
Wayne toured U.S. bases and hospitals in the South Pacific for three months in 1943 and 1944.:253 with the USO By many accounts, Wayne's failure to serve in the military was the most painful experience of his life.:212 His widow later suggested that his patriotism in later decades sprang from guilt, writing: "He would become a 'superpatriot' for the rest of his life trying to atone for staying home."
U.S. National Archives records indicate that Wayne had, in fact, made an application  to serve in the OSS, today's equivalent of the CIA, and had been accepted within the U.S. Army's allotted billet to the OSS. William Donovan, OSS Commander, wrote Wayne a letter informing him of his acceptance in to the Field Photographic Unit, but the letter went to his estranged wife Josephine's home. She never told him about it. Donovan also issued an OSS Certificate of Service to Wayne.
Wayne's first color film was Shepherd of the Hills (1941), in which he co-starred with his longtime friend Harry Carey. The following year, he appeared in his only film directed by Cecil B. DeMille, the Technicolor epic Reap the Wild Wind (1942), in which he co-starred with Ray Milland and Paulette Goddard; it was one of the rare times he played a character with questionable values. He would appear in more than twenty of John Ford's films throughout the next two decades, including She Wore a Yellow Ribbon (1949), The Quiet Man (1952), The Searchers (1956), The Wings of Eagles (1957), and The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962) with James Stewart: the first movie in which he called someone "Pilgrim".
In 1949, director Robert Rossen offered the starring role of All the King's Men to Wayne. Wayne refused, believing the script to be un-American in many ways. Broderick Crawford, who eventually got the role, won the 1949 Oscar for best male actor, ironically beating out Wayne, who had been nominated for Sands of Iwo Jima.
He lost the leading role in The Gunfighter (1950) to Gregory Peck due to his refusal to work for Columbia Pictures because its chief, Harry Cohn, had mistreated him years before when he was a young contract player. Cohn had bought the project for Wayne, but Wayne's grudge was too deep, and Cohn sold the script to Twentieth Century Fox, which cast Peck in the role Wayne badly wanted but for which he refused to bend.
One of Wayne's most popular roles was in The High and the Mighty (1954), directed by William Wellman, and based on a novel by Ernest K. Gann. His portrayal of a heroic copilot won widespread acclaim. Wayne also portrayed aviators in Flying Tigers (1942), Flying Leathernecks (1951), Island in the Sky (1953), The Wings of Eagles (1957), and Jet Pilot (1957).
The Searchers (1956) continues to be widely regarded as arguably Wayne's finest and most complex performance. In 2006, Premiere Magazine ran an industry poll in which Wayne's portrayal of Ethan Edwards was rated the 87th greatest performance in film history. He named his youngest son Ethan after the character.
John Wayne won a Best Actor Oscar for True Grit (1969). This came 17 years after his only other nomination. Wayne was also nominated as the producer of Best Picture for The Alamo (1960), one of two films he directed. The other was The Green Berets (1968), the only major film made during the Vietnam War to support the war. During the filming of Green Berets, the Degar or Montagnard people of Vietnam's Central Highlands, fierce fighters against communism, bestowed on Wayne a brass bracelet that he wore in the film and all subsequent films.
In an attempt to capitalize on the popularity of Dirty Harry, Wayne took on the role of gritty detective McQ in the 1974 crime drama. His last film was The Shootist (1976), whose main character, J. B. Books, was dying of cancer—the illness to which Wayne himself succumbed three years later. According to the Internet Movie Database, Wayne played the lead in 142 of his film appearances.
Batjac, the production company co-founded by Wayne, was named after the fictional shipping company Batjak in Wake of the Red Witch (1948), a film based on the novel by Garland Roark. (A spelling error by Wayne's secretary was allowed to stand, accounting for the variation.) Batjac (and its predecessor, Wayne-Fellows Productions) was the arm through which Wayne produced many films for himself and other stars. Its best-known non-Wayne production was Seven Men From Now (1956), which started the classic collaboration between director Budd Boetticher and star Randolph Scott.
In the Motion Picture Herald Top Ten Money-Making Western Stars poll, Wayne was listed in 1936 and 1939. He appeared in the similar Box Office poll in 1939 and 1940. While these two polls are really an indication only of the popularity of series stars, Wayne also appeared in the Top Ten Money Makers Poll of all films from 1949 to 1957 and 1958 to 1974, taking first place in 1950, 1951, 1954 and 1971. With a total of 25 years on the list, Wayne has more appearances than any other star, beating Clint Eastwood (21) into second place.
In later years, Wayne was recognized as a sort of American natural resource, and his various critics, of his performances and his politics, viewed him with more respect. Abbie Hoffman, the radical of the 1960s, paid tribute to Wayne's singularity, saying, "I like Wayne's wholeness, his style. As for his politics, well—I suppose even cavemen felt a little admiration for the dinosaurs that were trying to gobble them up." Reviewing The Cowboys (1972), Vincent Canby of the New York Times, who did not particularly care for the film, wrote: "Wayne is, of course, marvelously indestructible, and he has become an almost perfect father figure."
Wayne was married three times and divorced twice. He was fluent in Spanish and his three wives, each of Hispanic descent, were Josephine Alicia Saenz, Esperanza Baur, and Pilar Pallete. He had four children with Josephine: Michael Wayne (November 23, 1934 – April 2, 2003), Mary Antonia "Toni" Wayne LaCava (February 25, 1936 – December 6, 2000), Patrick Wayne (born July 15, 1939), and Melinda Wayne Munoz (born December 3, 1940). He had three more children with Pilar: Aissa Wayne (born March 31, 1956), John Ethan Wayne (born February 22, 1962), and Marisa Wayne (born February 22, 1966).
Several of Wayne's children entered the film and television industry; Wayne's son Ethan was billed as John Ethan Wayne in a few films, and played one of the leads in the 1990s update of the Adam-12 television series.
His stormiest divorce was from Esperanza Baur, a former Mexican actress. She convinced herself that Wayne and co-star Gail Russell were having an affair, a claim which both Wayne and Russell denied. The night the film Angel and the Badman (1947) wrapped, there was the usual party for cast and crew, and Wayne came home very late. Esperanza was in a drunken rage by the time he arrived, and she attempted to shoot him as he walked through the front door.
Wayne had several high-profile affairs, including one with Marlene Dietrich that lasted for three years and one with Merle Oberon that lasted from 1938 to 1947.:195–197 After his separation from his wife, Pilar, in 1973, Wayne became romantically involved and lived with his former secretary Pat Stacy (1941–1995) until his death in 1979. She published a biography of her life with him in 1983, titled Duke: A Love Story.
Wayne's hair began thinning in the 1940s, and he started wearing a hairpiece by the end of that decade. He was occasionally seen in public without the hairpiece (notably, according to Life magazine, at Gary Cooper's funeral). During a widely noted appearance at Harvard University, Wayne was asked by a student "Where did you get that phony hair?" He responded: "It's not phony. It's real hair. Of course, it's not mine, but it's real."
A close friend of Wayne's, California Congressman Alphonzo Bell, wrote of him, "Duke's personality and sense of humor were very close to what the general public saw on the big screen. It is perhaps best shown in these words he had engraved on a plaque: 'Each of us is a mixture of some good and some not so good qualities. In considering one's fellow man it's important to remember the good things ... We should refrain from making judgments just because a fella happens to be a dirty, rotten SOB.'"
Wayne biographer Michael Munn chronicled Wayne's drinking habits. According to Sam O'Steen's memoir, Cut to the Chase, studio directors knew to shoot Wayne's scenes before noon, because by afternoon he "was a mean drunk". He had been a chain-smoker of cigarettes since young adulthood and was diagnosed with lung cancer in 1964. He underwent successful surgery to remove his entire left lung and four ribs. Despite efforts by his business associates to prevent him from going public with his illness for fear that it would cost him work, Wayne announced he had cancer and called on the public to get preventive examinations. Five years later, Wayne was declared cancer-free. Wayne has been credited with coining the term The Big C as a euphemism for cancer.
Wayne's height has been perennially described as at least 6 ft 4 in (193 cm).:47,54 He was a Freemason, a Master Mason in Marion McDaniel Lodge No. 56 F&AM, in Tucson, Arizona. He became a 32nd Degree Scottish Rite Mason and later joined the Al Malaikah Shrine Temple in Los Angeles. He became a member of the York Rite. During the early 1960s, John Wayne traveled extensively to Panama, during which he purchased the island of Taborcillo off the main coast. It was sold by his estate at his death and changed hands many times before being opened as a tourist attraction.
Wayne was a prominent Republican in Hollywood, supporting anti-communist positions. Throughout most of his life, Wayne was a vocally prominent conservative Republican. Initially a self-described socialist during his college years, he voted for Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election and expressed admiration for Roosevelt's successor, fellow Democratic President Harry S. Truman. He took part in creating the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals in February 1944 and was elected president of that organization in 1949. An ardent anti-communist and vocal supporter of the House Un-American Activities Committee, in 1952 he made Big Jim McLain to show his support for the anti-communist cause. Recently declassified Soviet documents reveal that, despite being a fan of Wayne's movies, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin contemplated Wayne's assassination as a result of his frequently espoused anti-communist politics.
Wayne supported Vice President Richard Nixon in the presidential election of 1960, but expressed his vision of patriotism when John F. Kennedy won the election: "I didn't vote for him but he's my president, and I hope he does a good job." He used his iconic star power to support conservative causes, including rallying support for the Vietnam War by producing, co-directing, and starring in the critically panned The Green Berets in 1968.
Due to his enormous popularity and his status as the most famous Republican star in Hollywood, wealthy Texas Republican Party backers asked Wayne to run for national office in 1968, as had his friend and fellow actor Senator George Murphy. He declined, joking that he did not believe the public would seriously consider an actor in the White House. Instead, he supported his friend Ronald Reagan's runs for Governor of California in 1966 and 1970. He was asked to be the running mate for Democratic Alabama Governor George Wallace in 1968, but he rejected the offer and actively campaigned for Richard Nixon; Wayne addressed the Republican National Convention on its opening day in August 1968. For a while, he was also a member of the anti-communist John Birch Society.
Wayne openly differed with the Republican Party over the issue of the Panama Canal, as he supported the Panama Canal Treaty in the mid-1970s; conservatives had wanted the U.S. to retain full control of the canal, but Wayne believed that the Panamanians had the right to the canal and sided with President Jimmy Carter and the Democrats. Wayne was a close friend of the late Panamanian leader Omar Torrijos Herrera, and Wayne's first wife, Josephine, was a native of Panama. His support of the treaty brought him hate mail for the first time in his life.
In May 1971, Playboy magazine published an interview with Wayne which resulted in a firestorm of controversy. Wayne expressed his support for the Vietnam War,:580 and made headlines for his resolute opinions about social issues and race relations in the United States:
I believe in white supremacy, until the blacks are educated to a point of responsibility. I don't believe giving authority and positions of leadership and judgment to irresponsible people ... I don't feel we did wrong in taking this great country away from [the Native Americans] ... Our so-called stealing of this country from them was just a matter of survival. There were great numbers of people who needed new land, and the Indians were selfishly trying to keep it for themselves.:289
I know all about that. In the late Twenties, when I was a sophomore at USC, I was a socialist myself—but not when I left. The average college kid idealistically wishes everybody could have ice cream and cake for every meal. But as he gets older and gives more thought to his and his fellow man's responsibilities, he finds that it can't work out that way—that some people just won't carry their load ... I believe in welfare—a welfare work program. I don't think a fella should be able to sit on his backside and receive welfare. I'd like to know why well-educated idiots keep apologizing for lazy and complaining people who think the world owes them a living. I'd like to know why they make excuses for cowards who spit in the faces of the police and then run behind the judicial sob sisters. I can't understand these people who carry placards to save the life of some criminal, yet have no thought for the innocent victim.:580
Although he enrolled in a cancer vaccine study in an attempt to ward off the disease, Wayne died of stomach cancer on June 11, 1979, at the UCLA Medical Center, and was interred in the Pacific View Memorial Park cemetery in Corona del Mar, Newport Beach. According to his son Patrick and his grandson Matthew Muñoz, a priest in the California Diocese of Orange, he converted to Roman Catholicism shortly before his death. He requested that his tombstone read "Feo, Fuerte y Formal", a Spanish epitaph Wayne described as meaning "ugly, strong, and dignified". The grave, which went unmarked for 20 years, is now marked with a quotation from his controversial 1971 Playboy interview: "Tomorrow is the most important thing in life. Comes into us at midnight very clean. It's perfect when it arrives and it puts itself in our hands. It hopes we've learned something from yesterday."
Among the cast and crew who filmed the 1956 film The Conqueror on location near St. George, Utah, 91 developed some form of cancer at various times, including stars Wayne, Susan Hayward, and Agnes Moorehead, and director Dick Powell. The film was shot in southwestern Utah, east of and generally downwind from the site of recent U.S. Government nuclear weapons tests in southeastern Nevada. Many contend that radioactive fallout from these tests contaminated the film location and poisoned the film crew working there. Despite the suggestion that Wayne's 1964 lung cancer and his 1979 stomach cancer resulted from nuclear contamination, he believed his lung cancer to have been a result of his six-packs-a-day cigarette habit.
Awards, celebrations, and landmarks
John Wayne's enduring status as an iconic American was formally recognized by the U.S. government by awarding him the two highest civilian decorations. He was recognized by the United States Congress on May 26, 1979, when he was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal. Hollywood figures and American leaders from across the political spectrum, including Maureen O'Hara, Elizabeth Taylor, Frank Sinatra, Mike Frankovich, Katharine Hepburn, General and Mrs. Omar Bradley, Gregory Peck, Robert Stack, James Arness, and Kirk Douglas, testified to Congress of the merit and deservedness of this award. Most notable was the testimony of Robert Aldrich, then president of the Directors Guild of America, who said:
It is important for you to know that I am a registered Democrat and, to my knowledge, share none of the political views espoused by Duke. However, whether he is ill disposed or healthy, John Wayne is far beyond the normal political sharpshooting in this community. Because of his courage, his dignity, his integrity, and because of his talents as an actor, his strength as a leader, his warmth as a human being throughout his illustrious career, he is entitled to a unique spot in our hearts and minds. In this industry, we often judge people, sometimes unfairly, by asking whether they have paid their dues. John Wayne has paid his dues over and over, and I'm proud to consider him a friend and am very much in favor of my government recognizing in some important fashion the contribution that Mr. Wayne has made.
On June 9, 1980, Wayne was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Jimmy Carter, at whose inaugural ball Wayne had appeared "as a member of the loyal opposition", as Wayne described it in his speech to the gathering.
In 1998, Wayne was posthumously awarded the Naval Heritage Award by the US Navy Memorial Foundation for his support of the Navy and military during his film career.
Various public locations are named in honor of Wayne, including the John Wayne Airport in Orange County, California, where a nine-foot bronze statue of him stands at the entrance; the John Wayne Marina for which Wayne bequeathed the land, near Sequim, Washington; John Wayne Elementary School (P.S. 380) in Brooklyn, New York, which boasts a 38-foot mosaic mural commission by New York artist Knox Martin entitled "John Wayne and the American Frontier"; and a 100-plus-mile trail named the "John Wayne Pioneer Trail" in Washington's Iron Horse State Park. A larger than life-size bronze statue of Wayne atop a horse was erected at the corner of La Cienega Boulevard and Wilshire Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California, at the former offices of the Great Western Savings and Loan Corporation, for which Wayne had made a number of commercials. In the city of Maricopa, Arizona, part of Arizona State Route 347 is named John Wayne Parkway, which runs through the center of town.
In 2006, friends of Wayne's and his former Arizona business partner, Louis Johnson, inaugurated the "Louie and the Duke Classics" events benefiting the John Wayne Cancer Foundation and the American Cancer Society. The weekend-long event each fall in Casa Grande, Arizona, includes a golf tournament, an auction of John Wayne memorabilia, and a team roping competition.
Several celebrations took place on May 26, 2007, the centennial of Wayne's birth. A celebration at the John Wayne birthplace in Winterset, Iowa, included chuck-wagon suppers, concerts by Michael Martin Murphey and Riders in the Sky, a Wild West Revue in the style of Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, and a Cowboy Symposium with Wayne's co-stars, producers, and costumer. Wayne's films ran repetitively at the local theater. Ground was broken for the New John Wayne Birthplace Museum and Learning Center at a ceremony consisting of over 30 of Wayne's family members, including Melinda Wayne Muñoz, Aissa, Ethan, and Marisa Wayne. Later that year, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Wayne into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.
Cultural image as an American icon
Wayne rose beyond the typical recognition for a famous actor to that of an enduring icon who symbolized and communicated American values and ideals. By the middle of his career, Wayne had developed a larger-than-life image, and as his career progressed, he selected roles that would not compromise his off-screen image. At a party in 1957, Wayne confronted actor Kirk Douglas about the latter's decision to play the role of Vincent van Gogh in the film Lust for Life, saying: "Christ, Kirk, how can you play a part like that? There's so goddamn few of us left. We got to play strong, tough characters. Not these weak queers." By the time of his last film The Shootist (1976), Wayne refused to allow his character to shoot a man in the back as was originally scripted, demanding "I've made over 250 pictures and have never shot a guy in the back. Change it."
Wayne's rise to being the quintessential movie war hero began to take shape four years after World War II, when Sands of Iwo Jima (1949) was released. His footprints at Grauman's Chinese theater in Hollywood were laid in concrete that contained sand from Iwo Jima. His status grew so large and legendary that when Japanese Emperor Hirohito visited the United States in 1975, he asked to meet John Wayne, the symbolic representation of his country's former enemy.
Wayne is the only actor to appear in every edition of the annual Harris Poll of Most Popular Film Actors, and the only actor to appear on the list after his death. Wayne has been in the top ten in this poll for 19 consecutive years, starting in 1994, 15 years after his death.
John Wayne Cancer Foundation
The John Wayne Cancer Foundation was founded in 1985 in honor of John Wayne, after his family granted the use of his name for the continued fight against cancer. The foundation's mission is to "bring courage, strength and grit to the fight against cancer". The foundation provides funds for innovative programs that improve cancer patient care, including research, education, awareness, and support.
Legal problems with Duke University
Newport Beach, California-based John Wayne Enterprises sells products such as Kentucky straight bourbon using Wayne's picture. When the company tried to trademark the image appearing on one of the bottles, Duke University in Durham, North Carolina filed a notice of opposition. According to court documents, Duke has tried three times since 2005 to stop the company from trademarking the name. The company wants a federal judge in Orange County, California, to declare that both brands can be allowed. The company's complaint filed in federal court says the university "does not own the word 'Duke' in all contexts for all purposes." The university's official position is not to object if Wayne's image is used, but if the company wants to use the Duke name without Wayne, the university says, "we are also committed to protecting the integrity of Duke University's trademarks." Richard Howell, an attorney for John Wayne Enterprises, said the company supports a co-use agreement, though he believed the name "Duke" would be more likely associated with Wayne than with the university.
On September 30, 2014, federal judge David Carter dismissed the suit against Duke University, saying the jurisdiction was incorrect.
Between 1926 and 1976, Wayne appeared in over 170 motion pictures, and became one of America's biggest box office stars. Only Clark Gable sold more tickets than Wayne, although the ticket prices were not commensurate since, although both actors started their careers at the same time, Gable's career height preceded Wayne's by approximately fifteen years.
- In 1948 Wayne was offered the role of Jimmy Ringo in The Gunfighter, a script that Columbia Pictures had purchased specifically for him. Wayne turned it down, despite having expressed a strong desire to play the part, because of his longstanding feud with Columbia's president, Harry Cohn. Columbia sold the rights to Twentieth Century Fox, where the role went to Gregory Peck. Wayne's final film, The Shootist (1976), is often compared to The Gunfighter and contains numerous plot similarities.
- Wayne rebuffed the lead role in the 1952 film High Noon because he felt the film's story was an allegory against blacklisting, which he actively supported. In his Playboy interview from May 1971, Wayne stated he considered High Noon "the most un-American thing I've ever seen in my whole life", and that he would "never regret having helped run [screenwriter Carl Foreman, who was later blacklisted] out of the country".:142
- An urban legend has it that Wayne turned down the role of Matt Dillon in the long-running television series Gunsmoke and recommended James Arness instead. While he did suggest Arness for the part, and introduced him in a prologue to the first episode, no film star of Wayne's stature would have considered a television series at the time.
- Mel Brooks offered Wayne a cameo appearance in Blazing Saddles. After reading the script Wayne declined, fearing the dialogue was "too dirty" for his family image, but told Brooks that he would be "first in line" to see the movie.
- Wayne initially accepted the role of Major Reisman in The Dirty Dozen, and asked Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for some script changes, but eventually withdrew from the project to make The Green Berets. He was replaced by Lee Marvin.
- Though Wayne actively campaigned for the lead in Dirty Harry in 1971, Warner Bros. decided that at age 63 he was too old, and cast Clint Eastwood.
Awards and nominations
The category's nominees for each year in which Wayne was nominated are shown, with that year's winner highlighted in yellow.
|- 1960 -|
|Bernard Smith||Elmer Gantry|
|Jerry Wald||Sons and Lovers|
|John Wayne||The Alamo|
|Billy Wilder||The Apartment|
|Fred Zinnemann||The Sundowners|
The Golden Globe Awards are presented annually by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA) to recognize outstanding achievements in the entertainment industry, both domestic and foreign, and to focus wide public attention upon the best in motion pictures and television. In 1953, Wayne was awarded the Henrietta Award (a now retired award) for being World Film Favorite: Male.
The Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in motion pictures is an annual award given by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association at the Golden Globe Award ceremonies in Hollywood. It was named in honor of Cecil B. DeMille (1881–1959), one of the industry's most successful filmmakers; John Wayne won the award in 1966.
In 1970, Wayne won a Golden Globe Award for his performance in True Grit.
Brass Balls Award
In 1973, The Harvard Lampoon, a satirical paper run by Harvard University students, invited Wayne to receive The Brass Balls Award, created in his "honor", after calling him "the biggest fraud in history". Harvard Square had become a hot bed of leftist intellectualism and protest throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Wayne accepted the invitation as a chance to promote the recently released film McQ, and a Fort Devens Army convoy offered to drive him into the square on an armored personnel carrier. The ceremony was held on January 15, 1974, at the Harvard Square Theater and the award was officially presented in honor of Wayne's "outstanding machismo and penchant for punching people". Although the convoy was met with protests by members of the American Indian Movement and others, some of whom threw snowballs, Wayne received a standing ovation from the audience when he walked onto the stage. An internal investigation was launched into the Army's involvement in the day.
- Kehr, Dave. "John Wayne News". The New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- "John Wayne". The Numbers. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
- "Quigley's Annual List of Box-Office Champions, 1932–1970". Reel Classics. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- Roberts, Randy; Olson, James S. (1995). John Wayne: American. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-02-923837-0.
- Ronald L. Davis (2012). Duke: The Life and Image of John Wayne. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 6.
- Madison County, Iowa, birth certificate.
- Jim Beaver, "John Wayne". Films in Review, Volume 28, Number 5, May 1977, pp. 265–284.
- (Years later, after Wayne became an actor, a publicist's error referred to his "real" name as Marion Michael Morrison instead of the correct Marion Mitchell Morrison. This error infected virtually every biography of Wayne until Roberts and Olson uncovered the facts in their biography John Wayne: American, drawing on the draft of Wayne's unfinished autobiography, among other sources.)
- Wayne, John, My Kingdom, unfinished draft autobiography, University of Texas Library.
- John Wayne: a tribute, by Norm Goldstein, p. 12, Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1979
- "John Wayne: American". WashingtonPost.com. May 13, 1997. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- "Ancestry of John Wayne: Fifth Generation". Genealogy.com. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Munn, Michael (2003). John Wayne: The Man Behind the Myth. London: Robson Books. p. 7. ISBN 0-451-21244-4.
- "A Pictorial History of Glendale High School". Glendale High School. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
- Ronald L. Davis (1 May 2001). Duke: The Life and Image of John Wayne. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3329-4.
- Travers, Steven (2010). USC Trojans: College Football's All-Time Greatest Dynasty. Lanham, Maryland: Taylor Trade Publishing. p. 29. ISBN 978-1589795686.
- Shephard, Richard. Biography. JWayne.com. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- Jewell, Rick (August 1, 2008). "John Wayne, an American Icon". Trojan Family Magazine (University of Southern California). Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- Hughes, Johnny (2012). Famous gamblers, poker history, and texas stories. Iuniverse. ISBN 978-1475942156.
- Scott Eyman. John Wayne: The Life and Legend. 2014, pp. 33-34.
- Biography of John Wayne. Think Quest: Library.
- Clooney, Nick (November 2002). The Movies That Changed Us: Reflections on the Screen. New York: Atria Books, a trademark of Simon & Schuster. p. 195. ISBN 0-7434-1043-2.
- Clooney, p. 196.
- Peterson, Richard A. (1997). Creating Country Music: Fabricating Authenticity. University of Chicago Press. pp. 84–86. ISBN 0-226-66284-5.
- Canutt, Yakima, with Oliver Drake, Stuntman. University of Oklahoma Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8061-2927-1.
- Letter, Louise Platt to Ned Scott Archive, July 7, 2002 pp: 40:
- "John Wayne, in Australia during WWII". ozatwar.com. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- "John Wayne spends Christmas in Brisbane - John Oxley Library". slq.qld.gov.au. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- "John Wayne, World War II and the Draft". jwayne.com. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- Wayne, Pilar, John Wayne, pp. 43–47.
- "Press Kits: American Originals Traveling Exhibit". archives.gov. October 25, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- "John Wayne, World War II and the Draft". Breitbart News Network. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- "Photo Gallery - Category: Military Life". sunsetters38bg.com. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- Phil Hardy The Encyclopedia of Western Movies, London, Octopus, 1985, ISBN 0-7064-2555-3
- Chuck Anderson. "Motion Picture Herald and Boxoffice Polls". B-westerns.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "Top Ten Money Making Stars - Poll Results". quigleypublishing.com. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- Time magazine, August 8, 1969.
- "Duke: a love story: an intimate memoir of John Wayne's last years". WorldCat. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
- "Famous Actors Who've Worn a Hair Piece". Click4hair Informational Blog. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
- "John Wayne and wife arriving at church for funeral service for actor Gary Cooper". Images.google.com. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Munn, Michael (2005). John Wayne: The Man Behind the Myth. New York: New American Library. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-451-21414-0. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
- Alphonzo Bell, with Marc L. Weber, The Bel-Air Kid: An Autobiography, Trafford Publishing, 2002, ISBN 978-1-55369-378-9.
- "Cut to the Chase" by Sam O'Steen. Los Angeles: Michael Wiese Productions (February 2002) ISBN 0-941188-37-X, p. 11.
- Rochman, Sue (Fall 2008). "The Duke's Final Showdown". CR (American Association for Cancer Research). Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Graystone, Andrew (November 19, 2013). "Viewpoint: Did Richard Nixon change the way people describe cancer?". BBC News. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
- "John Wayne". Freemasonry.bcy.ca. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "John Wayne's beloved yacht gets historical protection". The Los Angeles Times. August 11, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
- "Interview: John Wayne". Playboy. Archived from the original on July 18, 2010. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- Montefiore, Sebag (2003). Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar. London: George Weidenfeld & Nicholson. ISBN 1-84212-726-8.
- "Why Stalin loved Tarzan and wanted John Wayne shot". Daily Telegraph, April 6, 2004.
- McCarthy, Todd. Howard Hawks: The Grey Fox of Hollywood. p. 583.
- Judis, John. — "Kevin Phillips, Ex-Populist: Elite Model". — The New Republic. — (c/o Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) — May 22, 2006.
- "John Wayne, Man and Myth". Washingtonpost.com. September 25, 1995. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Warner, Edwin. — "That Troublesome Panama Canal Treaty". — TIME. — October 31, 1977.
- "Reagan Angered John Wayne — New York Times". Nytimes.com. March 16, 1987. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Glad, Betty (2009) An Outsider in the White House, Cornell University Press
- Anatol Lieven (27 September 2012). America Right Or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism NEW EDITION. Oxford University Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-19-966025-4.
- "The religion of John Wayne, actor". Adherents.com. Retrieved October 20, 2008.
- Kerr, David (October 4, 2011). "My granddaddy John Wayne". California Catholic Daily. Retrieved October 4, 2011.
- Candelaria, Nash. "John Wayne, Person and Personal The love affairs of an American legend" in Hopscotch: A Cultural Review, Volume 2, Number 4, 2001, pp. 2–13, Duke University Press.
- "John Wayne gravesite". 101bananas.com. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- Gary Wayne. "Pacific View cemetery: Stars' Graves". Seeing-stars.com. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "Actor John Wayne". Apex.net.au. Retrieved March 25, 2012.
- "The Conqueror and Other Bombs". Mother Jones. June 9, 1998. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Sparks, Preston (March 16, 2009). "Blast's ties to cancer unclear". Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Bacon, James (June 27, 1978). "John Wayne: The Last Cowboy". Us Magazine.
- Whitehead, John W. (June 6, 2011). "John Wayne Was True Grit". The Rutherford Institute. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- "John Wayne Marina". Portofpa.com. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- www.esensedesigns.com (September 21, 2008). "Exhibitions". Knoxmartin.com. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- "John Wayne, Knox Martin — Public Art for Public Schools". Schools.nyc.gov. May 21, 2009. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- "John Wayne Cancer Foundation". Jwcf.org. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Olson, Jim. — "Louie and the Duke Classics 2006". — Grande Living. — October 2006. — (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document).
- "News and Events: 2006 Archive". Jwcf.org. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- Wayne inducted into California Hall of Fame, California Museum. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- Richard McGhee. John Wayne: Actor, Artist, Hero (1999), p. 135.
- Levy, Emanuel. "John Wayne: Choosing Roles". http://emanuellevy.com/. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Scott Eyman. John Wayne: The Life and Legend. (2014), p. 293.
- Trivia — The Shootist (1976) — IMDb.
- Endres, Stacey and Robert Cushman. Hollywood at Your Feet. Beverly Hills: Pomegranate Press, 1993 ISBN 0-938817-08-6.
- "The Nation: Hirohito Winds Up His Grand U.S. Tour". Time.com. October 20, 1975. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
- "Denzel Washington Flies to Number One and is America's Favorite Movie Star". Harris Interactive. January 23, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013.
- "John Wayne Cancer Foundation: Mission". John Wayne. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
- Cowan, Jill (July 11, 2014). "John Wayne heirs Duke it out with university". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
- "John Wayne's heirs lose 'Duke' legal brawl". News and Observer. Associated Press. October 1, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
- Hyams, J. The Life and Times of the Western Movie. Gallery Books (1984), pp. 109-12. ISBN 0831755458
- Gunsmoke — Snopes.com, August 6, 2007.
- Interview: Mel Brooks. Blazing Saddles (DVD). Burbank, California: Warner Brothers Pictures/Warner Home Video, 2004. ISBN 0-7907-5735-4.
- Eyman, S. John Wayne: The Life and Legend. Simon & Schuster (2014), p.78. ISBN 1439199582
- Eyman (2014), p. 143.
- John Wayne (I) – Awards
- "The Cecil B. DeMille Award". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Retrieved October 26, 2012.
- Reed, Phillip, Jr. (January 16, 1974). "John Wayne handles Harvard challenge well". The Bryan Times. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- Lotman, Mo (2009). Harvard Square: An Illustrated History Since 1950. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-58479-747-0.
- Zegarac, Nick. "John Wayne – American". The Hollywood Art. Retrieved June 24, 2013.
- Baur, Andreas; Bitterli, Konrad (2007). "Brave Lonesome Cowboy. Der Mythos des Westerns in der Gegenwartskunst oder: John Wayne zum 100". Verlag für moderne Kunst Nürnberg (Geburstag, Nuremberg). ISBN 978-3-939738-15-2.
- Beaver, Jim (5 May 1977). "John Wayne". Films in Review 28.
- Campbell, James T. (September 2000). "Print the Legend: John Wayne and Postwar American Culture". Reviews in American History 28 (3).
- Carey, Harry Jr. (1994). A Company of Heroes: My Life as an Actor in the John Ford Stock Company. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-2865-0.
- Clark, Donald; Anderson, Christopher (1995). John Wayne's The Alamo: The Making of the Epic Film. New York: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1625-9.
- Davis, Ronald L (2001). Duke: The Life and Times of John Wayne. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3329-5.
- Eyman, Scott (1999). Print the Legend: The Life and Times of John Ford. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-81161-8.
- Eyman, Scott (2014). John Wayne: The Life and Legend. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1439199582. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- Landesman, Fred (2004). The John Wayne Filmography. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 978-0786432523.
- McCarthy, Todd (1997). Howard Hawks: The Grey Fox of Hollywood. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-1598-5.
- McGhee, Richard D. (1999). John Wayne: Actor, Artist, Hero. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 0786407522. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
- McGivern, Carolyn (2000). John Wayne: A Giant Shadow. Bracknell, England: Sammon. ISBN 0-9540031-0-1.
- Munn, Michael (2004). John Wayne: The Man Behind the Myth. Robson. ISBN 978-1-86105-722-8.
- Raab, Markus (2007). "Beautiful Hearts, Laughers at the World, Bowlers. Worldviews of the Late Western". Baur/Bitterli: Brave Lonesome Cowboy. Der Myhos des Westerns in der Gegenwartskunst oder: John Wayne zum 100 (Geburtstag, Nuremberg). ISBN 978-3-939738-15-2.
- Shepherd, Donald; Slatzer, Robert; Grayson, Dave (1985). Duke: The Life and Times of John Wayne. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-17893-X.
- Wills, Garry (1997). John Wayne's America: The Politics of Celebrity. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80823-4.
- Maurice Zolotow (1974). Shooting Star: A Biography of John Wayne. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-82969-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John Wayne.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: John Wayne|
- Official website
- John Wayne Cancer Foundation
- John Wayne Cancer Institute
- FBI file on John Wayne
- Birthplace of John Wayne official website
- John Wayne at the Internet Movie Database
- John Wayne at the TCM Movie Database
- John Wayne at AllMovie
- "On the Set of The Alamo": Behind-the-scenes footage from the production of the film, from the Texas Archive of the Moving Image
- The short film STAFF FILM REPORT 66-28A (1966) is available for free download at the Internet Archive
- John Wayne at Find a Grave