John Williamson (economist)

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John Williamson (born June 7, 1937, Hereford, England) is an English economist who coined the term Washington Consensus. He is a critic of capital liberalization and the bipolar exchange rate.[1]

Williamson has been a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics since 1981. He was the project director for the United Nations High-Level Panel on Financing for Development (the Zedillo Report) in 2001. He was also on leave as chief economist for South Asia at the World Bank during 1996–99. He was an adviser to the International Monetary Fund from 1972 to 1974 and economic consultant to the UK Treasury from 1968 to 1970.

Williamson has been an economics professor at Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro (1978–81), University of Warwick (1970–77), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1967, 1980), University of York (1963–68) and Princeton University (1962–63).

Williamson is the author or editor of numerous studies on international monetary and developing-world debt issues.


  • Reference Rates and the International Monetary System, Curbing the Boom-Bust Cycle: Stabilizing Capital Flows to Emerging Markets (2005)
  • Dollar Adjustment: How Far? Against What? (2004)
  • After the Washington Consensus: Restarting Growth and Reform in Latin America (2003)
  • Delivering on Debt Relief: From IMF Gold to a New Aid Architecture (2002)
  • Exchange Rate Regimes for Emerging Markets: Reviving the Intermediate Option (2000)
  • The Crawling Band as an Exchange Rate Regime (1996)
  • What Role for Currency Boards? (1995)
  • Estimating Equilibrium Exchange Rates (1994)
  • The Political Economy of Policy Reform (1993)
  • Economic Consequences of Soviet Disintegration (1993)
  • Trade and Payments After Soviet Disintegration (1992)
  • From Soviet Disunion to Eastern Economic Community? with Oleh Havrylyshyn (1991)
  • Currency Convertibility in Eastern Europe (1991)
  • Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? (1990)
  • Globalization: The Concept, Causes, and Consequences (1989)
  • Targets and Indicators: A Blueprint for the International Coordination of Economic Policy with Marcus Miller (1987)
  • The Lending Policies of the International Monetary Fund, Policy Analyses in International Economics 1, Washington D.C., Peterson Institute for International Economics. (August 1982). ISBN 0-88132-000-5


  1. ^ Fischer, Stanley, "Exchange Rate Regimes: Is the Bipolar View Correct?", International Monetary Fund, Distinguished Lecture on Economics in Government, American Economic Association and the Society of Government Economists. Delivered at the Meetings of the American Economic Association, New Orleans, January 6, 2001

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