John le Carré
John le Carré
Le Carré in 2008
|Born||David John Moore Cornwell|
19 October 1931
Poole, Dorset, England
|Died||12 December 2020 (aged 89)|
Truro, Cornwall, England
David John Moore Cornwell (19 October 1931 – 12 December 2020), better known by his pen name John le Carré (//), was a British author of espionage novels. During the 1950s and 1960s, he worked for both the Security Service (MI5) and the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6). His third novel, The Spy Who Came In from the Cold (1963), became an international best-seller and remains one of his best-known works.
Following the success of this novel, he left MI6 to become a full-time author. His books include The Looking Glass War (1965), Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy (1974), Smiley's People (1979), The Little Drummer Girl (1983), The Night Manager (1993), The Tailor of Panama (1996), The Constant Gardener (2001), A Most Wanted Man (2008), and Our Kind of Traitor (2010), all of which have been adapted for film or television.
David John Moore Cornwell was born on 19 October 1931 in Poole, Dorset, England. His father was Ronald Thomas Archibald (Ronnie) Cornwell (1905–75), and his mother was Olive Moore Cornwell (née Glassey, b. 1906). His older brother, Tony (1929–2017), was an advertising executive and county cricketer (for Dorset), who lived in the U.S. His younger half-sister was the actress Charlotte Cornwell (1949–2021), and his younger half-brother, Rupert Cornwell (1946-2017), was a former Washington bureau chief for the newspaper The Independent. His uncle was Liberal MP Alec Glassey. Cornwell said he did not know his mother, who abandoned him when he was five years old, until their reacquaintance when he was 21 years old. His father had been jailed for insurance fraud, was an associate of the Kray twins, and was continually in debt. The father–son relationship was difficult. Rick Pym, Magnus Pym's father, a scheming con man in A Perfect Spy, was based on Ronnie. When his father died in 1975, Cornwell paid for a memorial funeral service but did not attend it.
Cornwell's schooling began at St Andrew's Preparatory School, near Pangbourne, Berkshire, and continued at Sherborne School. He grew unhappy with the typically harsh English public school régime of the time and disliked his disciplinarian housemaster, Thomas. He left early to study foreign languages at the University of Bern in Switzerland, from 1948 to 1949. In 1950, he joined the Intelligence Corps of the British Army garrisoned in Allied-occupied Austria, working as a German language interrogator of people who crossed the Iron Curtain to the West. In 1952, he returned to England to study at Lincoln College, Oxford, where he worked covertly for the British Security Service, MI5, spying on far-left groups for information about possible Soviet agents. During his studies, he was a member of a college dining society known as The Goblin Club.
When his father was declared bankrupt in 1954, Cornwell left Oxford to teach at Millfield Preparatory School; however, a year later he returned to Oxford, and graduated in 1956 with a first class degree in modern languages. He then taught French and German at Eton College for two years, becoming an MI5 officer in 1958. He ran agents, conducted interrogations, tapped telephone lines, and effected break-ins. Encouraged by Lord Clanmorris (who wrote crime novels as "John Bingham"), and whilst being an active MI5 officer, Cornwell began writing his first novel, Call for the Dead (1961). Cornwell identified Lord Clanmorris as one of two models for George Smiley, the spymaster of the Circus, the other being Vivian H. H. Green. As a schoolboy, Cornwell first met the latter when Green was the Chaplain and Assistant Master at Sherborne School (1942–51). The friendship continued after Green's move to Lincoln College, where he tutored Cornwell.
In 1960, Cornwell transferred to MI6, the foreign-intelligence service, and worked under the cover of Second Secretary at the British Embassy in Bonn; he was later transferred to Hamburg as a political consul. There, he wrote the detective story A Murder of Quality (1962) and The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (1963), as "John le Carré" (le Carré is French for "the square")—a pseudonym required because Foreign Office officers were forbidden to publish in their own names.
In 1964, le Carré's career as an intelligence officer came to an end as the result of the betrayal of British agents' covers to the KGB by Kim Philby, the infamous British double agent (one of the Cambridge Five). Le Carré depicted and analysed Philby as the upper-class traitor, codenamed "Gerald" by the KGB, the mole hunted by George Smiley in Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy (1974).
Le Carré's first two novels, Call for the Dead (1961) and A Murder of Quality (1962), are mystery fiction. Each features a retired spy, George Smiley, investigating a death; in the first book, the apparent suicide of a suspected communist, and in the second volume, a murder at a boy's public school. Although Call for the Dead evolves into an espionage story, Smiley's motives are more personal than political. Le Carré's third novel, The Spy Who Came In from the Cold (1963), became an international best-seller and remains one of his best-known works; following its publication, he left MI6 to become a full-time writer. Although le Carré had intended The Spy Who Came in from the Cold as an indictment of espionage as morally compromised, audiences widely viewed its protagonist, Alec Leamas, as a tragic hero. In response, le Carré's next book, The Looking Glass War, was a satire about an increasingly deadly espionage mission which ultimately proves pointless.
Most of le Carré's books are spy stories set during the Cold War (1945–91) and portray British Intelligence agents as unheroic political functionaries aware of the moral ambiguity of their work and engaged more in psychological than physical drama. The novels emphasise the fallibility of Western democracy and of the secret services protecting it, often implying the possibility of east–west moral equivalence. They experience little of the violence typically encountered in action thrillers and have very little recourse to gadgets. Much of the conflict is internal, rather than external and visible. The recurring character George Smiley, who plays a central role in five novels and appears as a supporting character in four more, was written as an "antidote" to James Bond, a character le Carré called "an international gangster" rather than a spy and whom he felt should be excluded from the canon of espionage literature. In contrast, he intended Smiley, who is an overweight, bespectacled bureaucrat who uses cunning and manipulation to achieve his ends, as an accurate depiction of a spy.
Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, The Honourable Schoolboy, and Smiley's People (the Karla trilogy) brought Smiley back as the central figure in a sprawling espionage saga depicting his efforts first to root out a mole in the Circus and then to entrap his Soviet rival and counterpart, code-named Karla. The trilogy was originally meant to be a long-running series that would find Smiley dispatching agents after Karla all around the world. Smiley's People marked the last time Smiley featured as the central character in a le Carré story, although he brought the character back in The Secret Pilgrim and A Legacy of Spies.
A Perfect Spy (1986), which chronicles the boyhood moral education of Magnus Pym and how it leads to his becoming a spy, is the author's most autobiographical espionage novel, reflecting the boy's very close relationship with his con man father. Biographer LynnDianne Beene describes the novelist's own father, Ronnie Cornwell, as "an epic con man of little education, immense charm, extravagant tastes, but no social values". Le Carré reflected that "writing A Perfect Spy is probably what a very wise shrink would have advised". He also wrote a semi-autobiographical work, The Naïve and Sentimental Lover (1971), as the story of a man's midlife existential crisis.
With the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989, le Carré's writing shifted to portrayal of the new multilateral world. His first completely post-Cold War novel, The Night Manager (1993), deals with drug and arms smuggling in the murky world of Latin American drug lords, shady Caribbean banking entities, and western officials who look the other way.
As a journalist, le Carré wrote The Unbearable Peace (1991), a nonfiction account of Brigadier Jean-Louis Jeanmaire (1911–1992), the Swiss Army officer who spied for the Soviet Union from 1962 until 1975.
Credited under his pen name, le Carré appears as an extra in the 2011 film version of Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, among the guests at the Christmas party in several flashback scenes. He allegedly coined the espionage terms "mole" and "honey trap" (the latter referring to the use of female agents by both sides to blackmail male civil servants). Le Carre records a number of incidents from his period as a diplomat in his autobiographical work, The Pigeon Tunnel. Stories from My Life (2016), which include escorting six visiting German parliamentarians to a London brothel and translating at a meeting between a senior German politician and Harold Macmillan.
In January 2003, two months prior to the invasion, The Times published le Carré's essay "The United States Has Gone Mad" criticising the buildup to the Iraq War and President George W. Bush's response to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, calling it "worse than McCarthyism, worse than the Bay of Pigs and in the long term potentially more disastrous than the Vietnam War" and "beyond anything Osama bin Laden could have hoped for in his nastiest dreams". Le Carré participated in the London protests against the Iraq War. He said the war resulted from the "politicisation of intelligence to fit the political intentions" of governments and "How Bush and his junta succeeded in deflecting America's anger from bin Laden to Saddam Hussein is one of the great public relations conjuring tricks of history".
He was critical of Tony Blair's role in taking Britain into the Iraq War, saying "I can't understand that Blair has an afterlife at all. It seems to me that any politician who takes his country to war under false pretences has committed the ultimate sin. I think that a war in which we refuse to accept the body count of those that we kill is also a war of which we should be ashamed".
Le Carré was critical of Western governments' policies towards Iran. He believed Iran's actions are a response to being "encircled by nuclear powers" and by the way in which "we ousted Mosaddeq through the CIA and the Secret Service here across the way and installed the Shah and trained his ghastly secret police force in all the black arts, the SAVAK".
In 2017, le Carré expressed concerns over the future of liberal democracy, saying "I think of all things that were happening across Europe in the 1930s, in Spain, in Japan, obviously in Germany. To me, these are absolutely comparable signs of the rise of fascism and it's contagious, it's infectious. Fascism is up and running in Poland and Hungary. There's an encouragement about". He later wrote that the end of the Cold War had left the West without a coherent ideology, in contrast to the "notion of individual freedom, of inclusiveness, of tolerance – all of that we called anti-communism" prevailing during that time.
Le Carré opposed both U.S. President Donald Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin, arguing that their desire to seek or maintain their countries' superpower status caused an impulse "for oligarchy, the dismissal of the truth, the contempt, actually, for the electorate and for the democratic system". Le Carré compared Trump's tendency to dismiss the media as "fake news" to the Nazi book burnings, and wrote that the United States is "heading straight down the road to institutional racism and neo-fascism".
Le Carré was an outspoken advocate of European integration and sharply criticised Brexit. Le Carré criticised Conservative politicians such as Boris Johnson (whom he referred to as a "mob orator"), Dominic Cummings, and Nigel Farage in interviews, claiming that their "task is to fire up the people with nostalgia [and] with anger". He further opined in interviews that "What really scares me about nostalgia is that it's become a political weapon. Politicians are creating a nostalgia for an England that never existed, and selling it, really, as something we could return to", noting that with "the demise of the working class we saw also the demise of an established social order, based on the stability of ancient class structures". On the other hand, he said that in the Labour Party "they have this Leninist element and they have this huge appetite to level society."
Speaking to The Guardian in 2019, he commented "I've always believed, though ironically it's not the way I've voted, that it's compassionate conservatism that in the end could, for example, integrate the private schooling system. If you do it from the left you will seem to be acting out of resentment; do it from the right and it looks like good social organisation." Le Carré also said that "I think my own ties to England were hugely loosened over the last few years. And it's a kind of liberation, if a sad kind."
In Le Carré's final novel Agent Running in the Field, one of the novel's characters refers to Trump as "Putin's shithouse cleaner" who "does everything for little Vladi that little Vladi can't do for himself". The novel's narrator describes Boris Johnson as "a pig-ignorant foreign secretary". He says Russia is moving "backwards into her dark, delusional past", with Britain following a short way behind. Le Carré later said that he believed the novel's plotline, involving the U.S. and British intelligence services colluding to subvert the European Union, to be "horribly possible."
In 1954, Cornwell married Alison Ann Veronica Sharp. They had three sons: Simon, Stephen, and Timothy—and divorced in 1971. In 1972, Cornwell married Valérie Jane Eustace, a book editor with Hodder & Stoughton; they had a son, Nicholas, who writes as Nick Harkaway. Le Carré lived in St Buryan, Cornwall, for more than 40 years; he owned a mile of cliff near Land's End.
- Call for the Dead (1961), OCLC 751303381
- A Murder of Quality (1962), OCLC 777015390
- The Spy Who Came In from the Cold (1963), OCLC 561198531
- The Looking Glass War (1965), OCLC 752987890
- Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy (1974), ISBN 0-143-12093-X
- The Honourable Schoolboy (1977), ISBN 0-143-11973-7
- Smiley's People (1979), ISBN 0-340-99439-8
- The Russia House (1989), ISBN 0-743-46466-4
- The Secret Pilgrim (1990), ISBN 0-345-50442-9
- The Night Manager (1993), ISBN 0-345-38576-4
- A Legacy of Spies (2017), ISBN 978-0-735-22511-4
George Smiley collections
- The Incongruous Spy (1964), containing Call for the Dead and A Murder of Quality, OCLC 851437951
- The Quest for Karla (1982), containing Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, The Honourable Schoolboy and Smiley's People (republished in 1995 as Smiley Versus Karla in the UK; and John Le Carré: Three Complete Novels in the U.S.), ISBN 0-394-52848-4
- A Small Town in Germany (1968), ISBN 0-143-12260-6
- The Little Drummer Girl (1983), ISBN 0-143-11974-5
- Our Game (1995), ISBN 0-345-40000-3
- The Tailor of Panama (1996), ISBN 0-345-42043-8
- Single & Single (1999), ISBN 0-743-45806-0
- The Constant Gardener (2001), ISBN 0-743-28720-7
- Absolute Friends (2003), ISBN 0-670-04489-X
- The Mission Song (2006), ISBN 0-340-92199-4
- A Most Wanted Man (2008), ISBN 1-416-59609-7
- Our Kind of Traitor (2010), ISBN 0-143-11972-9
- A Delicate Truth (2013), ISBN 0-143-12531-1
- Agent Running in the Field (2019), ISBN 1984878875
In 2010, le Carré donated his literary archive to the Bodleian Library, Oxford. The initial 85 boxes of material deposited included handwritten drafts of Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy and The Constant Gardener. The library hosted a public display of these and other items to mark World Book Day in March 2011.
In 1998, he was awarded an honorary Doctor of Letters by the University of Bath. In 2008 he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Bern. In 2012, he was awarded the Degree of Doctor of Letters, honoris causa, by the University of Oxford.
Awards and honours
- 1963, British Crime Writers Association Gold Dagger for The Spy Who Came in from the Cold
- 1964, Somerset Maugham Award for The Spy Who Came in from the Cold
- 1965, Mystery Writers of America Edgar Award for The Spy Who Came in from the Cold
- 1977, British Crime Writers Association Gold Dagger for The Honourable Schoolboy
- 1977, James Tait Black Memorial Prize Fiction Award for The Honourable Schoolboy
- 1983, Japan Adventure Fiction Association Prize for The Little Drummer Girl
- 1984, Honorary Fellow Lincoln College, Oxford
- 1984, Mystery Writers of America Edgar Grand Master
- 1988, Crime Writers Association Diamond Dagger Lifetime Achievement Award
- 1988, The Malaparte Prize, Italy
- 1990, Honorary degree, University of Exeter
- 1990, Helmerich Award of the Tulsa Library Trust.
- 1996, Honorary degree, University of St. Andrews
- 1997, Honorary degree, University of Southampton
- 1998, Honorary degree, University of Bath
- 2005, Crime Writers Association Dagger of Daggers for The Spy Who Came in from the Cold
- 2005, Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters, France
- 2008, honorary doctorate, University of Bern
- 2011, Goethe Medal of the Goethe Institute
- 20 June 2012 awarded the Honorary degree of Doctor of Letters (D.Litt) from the University of Oxford
- 2019, Olof Palme Prize
- "Say How: L". National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. Archived from the original on 19 September 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- Kerridge, Jake (14 December 2020). "How John le Carré's early miseries led to the great masterpieces". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
- "Obituary: John le Carré". BBC News. 13 December 2020. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- Homberger, Eric (14 December 2020). "John le Carré obituary". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- GRO Register of Births: DEC 1905 5a 231 Poole - Ronald Thomas A. Cornwell
- Lelyveld, Joseph (16 March 1986). "Le Carré's Toughest Case". The New York Times Magazine. Archived from the original on 28 October 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
- Gwinn, Mary Ann (25 March 1999). "Scoundrels and Sons – Author John Le Carre Digs Deep in His Own Past for the Themes of His Work". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
- "Rupert Cornwell". The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- "Espionage: The Perfect Spy Story". Time. 25 September 1989. Retrieved 14 December 2020. (subscription required)
- "Scholar, linguist, story-teller, spy..." The Guardian. 17 July 1993. Archived from the original on 9 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
- Brennan, Zoe (2 April 2011). "What Does John Le Carré Have to Hide?". The Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. OCLC 49632006. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- Anthony, Andrew (1 November 2009). "Observer Profile: John le Carré: A Man of Great Intelligence". The Observer. Archived from the original on 18 August 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- Ash, Timothy Garton (8 March 1999). "The Real le Carré". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- "The Reverend Vivian Green". The Daily Telegraph. 26 January 2005. ISSN 0307-1235. OCLC 49632006. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- Singh, Anita (24 February 2011). "John le Carré: The Real George Smiley Revealed". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2016.
- "John le Carré: Espionage writer dies aged 89". BBC News. 14 December 2020. Archived from the original on 13 December 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- Plimpton, George (1997). "John le Carré, The Art of Fiction No. 149". The Paris Review. 143. Archived from the original on 15 May 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- Morrison, Blake (11 April 1986). "Then and Now: John le Carre". Times Literary Supplement. ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- Tayler, Christopher (25 January 2007). "Belgravia Cockney". London Review of Books. 29 (2): 13–14. ISSN 0260-9592. Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- Manning 2018, pp. 78, 90.
- Duns, Jeremy (17 February 2020). "The Looking Glass War review by John le Carré — a classic for our deceitful times". The Times. p. 17. ISSN 0140-0460. ProQuest 2359955748. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- Holcombe, Garan (2006). "Contemporary Writers". British Council. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- Singh, Anita (17 August 2010). "James Bond was a neo-fascist gangster, says John Le Carré". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 4 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- Parker, James (26 October 2011). "The Anti–James Bond". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
- Manning 2018, p. 183.
- Manning 2018, pp. 4–5.
- Garner, Dwight (18 April 2013). "John le Carré Has Not Mellowed With Age (Published 2013)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 13 December 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- Beene 1992, p. 2.
- Agence France-Presse. "John Le Carre Novels: A Selection". Barron's. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- Cobbs 1998, p. 83.
- Petski, Denise (5 March 2015). "Olivia Colman, Tom Hollander, Elizabeth Debicki Join AMC's 'The Night Manager'". Deadline. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- "The Night Manager: le Carré's 'unexpected miracle'". The Telegraph. 19 February 2016. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- Rausing, Sigrid. "The Unbearable Peace". Granta. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 4 March 2010.
- le Carré, John (2016). "Official visit". The Pigeon Tunnel. Stories from My Life. ISBN 978-0-241-97687-6.
- le Carré, John (2016). "Fingers on the trigger". The Pigeon Tunnel. Stories from My Life. ISBN 978-0-241-97687-6. Archived from the original on 14 December 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- "The spy who came in from the cold". The Economist. 30 October 2015. Archived from the original on 30 October 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
- Meier, Andrew (January 2017). "Coming in from the Cold". Bookforum. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- le Carré, John (15 January 2003). "Opinion: The United States of America has gone mad". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- "Exclusive: British Novelist John le Carré on the Iraq War, Corporate Power, the Exploitation of Africa and His New Novel, "Our Kind of Traitor"". Democracy Now!. 11 October 2010. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
- "John le Carré, Iraq War Critic and Legendary Author of Spy Novels, Dies at 89". Democracy Now!. 14 December 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2020.
- Brown, Mark (7 September 2017). "John le Carré on Trump: 'Something seriously bad is happening'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
- "Novelist John Le Carré Reflects On His Own 'Legacy' Of Spying". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 18 September 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- Scott, Simon (19 October 2019). "John Le Carré Fears For The Future In 'Agent Running In The Field'". NPR. Archived from the original on 1 July 2020. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
- "John le Carré on Trump: 'Something seriously bad is happening'". The Guardian. 7 September 2017. Archived from the original on 6 December 2020. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
- Banville, John; le Carré, John (11 October 2019). "'My ties to England have loosened': John le Carré on Britain, Boris and Brexit". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 December 2020. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
- Carré, John le (1 February 2020). "John le Carré on Brexit: 'It's breaking my heart'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 5 February 2020.
- "John le Carré: 'Politicians love chaos – it gives them authority'". BBC News. 14 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 November 2020. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
- Gilbert, Sophie (26 October 2019). "John le Carré's Scathing Tale of Brexit Britain". The Atlantic. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- Sefton, Daniel, ed. (2007). Debrett's People of Today. Debrett's. p. 973. ISBN 978-1-870520-95-9. OCLC 764415351.
- Walker, Tim (5 June 2009). Eden, Richard (ed.). "Le Carré pays tribute to his first love". The Daily Telegraph.
- Herbert, Ian (6 June 2007). "Written in his stars: son of Le Carré gets £300,000 for first novel". The Independent. ProQuest 311318983.
- Gibbs, Geoffrey (24 July 1999). "Spy writer fights for clifftop paradise". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- Lea, Richard; Cain, Sian (13 December 2020). "John le Carré, author of Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, dies aged 89". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 December 2020. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
- "John le Carré: Cold War novelist dies aged 89". BBC News. 13 December 2020. Archived from the original on 13 December 2020. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
- Kean, Danuta (7 March 2017). "George Smiley to return in new John le Carré novel, A Legacy of Spies". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017. Retrieved 8 March 2017.
- Sellgren, Katherine (24 February 2011). "John le Carre donates archive to Bodleian Library". BBC News. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- Higgins, Charlotte (23 February 2011). "John le Carre gives his literary archive to Oxford's Bodleian Library". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
- "Honorary Graduates 1989 to Present". bath.ac.uk. University of Bath. Archived from the original on 19 December 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- "Oxford announces honorary degrees for 2012". University of Oxford. 19 January 2012. Archived from the original on 26 April 2013. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "Society of Authors' Awards". Society of Authors. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
- "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". The Times. 5 January 2008. Archived from the original on 10 June 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- Flood, Alison (21 June 2011). "Germany honours Le Carré with Goethe Medal". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 August 2020. Retrieved 13 December 2020.
- Flood, Alison; Cain, Sian (10 January 2020). "John le Carré wins $100,000 prize for 'contribution to democracy'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 June 2020. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
- "The CWA Gold Dagger". Crime Writers Association. 5 July 2012. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
- "The Somerset Maugham Award – Past Winners". Society of Authors. Archived from the original on 26 June 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "The Edgar Database". Mystery Writers of America. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
- "Fiction winners". The University of Edinburgh. Archived from the original on 4 November 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- "日本冒険小説協会大賞リスト" [Japan Adventure Fiction Association Grand Prize List]. www.jade.dti.ne.jp (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 28 May 2017. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- "The Cartier Diamond Dagger". Crime Writers Association. 5 July 2012. Archived from the original on 3 December 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
- "Previous honorary graduates". University of Exeter. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "Peggy V. Helmerich Distinguished Author Award". Tulsa Library Trust. 1990. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
- "Honorary Graduates". St Andrews University. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "Honorary Graduates of Earlier Years". University of Southampton. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "John le Carrie Wins the Dagger of Daggers". Crime Writers' Association. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "Bern University Honours John le Carre". Swiss Broadcasting Corporation. 6 December 2008. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "The Goethe Medal – Award Recipients 1955–2012". Goethe Institute. Archived from the original on 26 December 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- "Oxford Announces Honorary Degrees for 2012". University of Oxford. 19 January 2012. Archived from the original on 26 April 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013.
- "2019 – David Cornwell/John le Carré". The Olof Palme Memorial Fund. 10 January 2020. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
- Beene, Lynn Dianne (1992). John le Carré. New York: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 9780805770131.
- Cobbs, John L. (1998). Understanding John Le Carré. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-57003-168-7.
- Manning, Toby (25 January 2018). John le Carré and the Cold War. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-350-03640-6.
- Aronoff, Myron J. (1998). The Spy Novels of John le Carré: Balancing Ethics and Politics. Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9780312299453. ISBN 9780312214821.
- Bruccoli, Matthew J.; Baughman, Judith S., eds. (2004). Conversations with John le Carré. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 978-1-57806-669-8.
- Sisman, Adam (2015). John le Carré: The Biography. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9781408827932.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to John le Carré.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: John le Carré|