John of Kronstadt

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John of Kronstadt
Johannes von Kronstadt 2.jpg
BornIvan Ilyich Sergiyev
31 October [O.S. 19 October] 1829
Sura, Pinezhsky Uyezd, Arkhangelsk Governorate, Russian Empire
Died2 January 1909 [O.S. 20 December 1908]
Kronstadt, Saint Petersburg Governorate, Russian Empire
Venerated inEastern Orthodox Church
Canonized1964 and 1990 by Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia and Russian Orthodox Church, respectively
Major shrineIoannovsky Convent, Saint Petersburg, Russia
InfluencedJohn of Shanghai and San Francisco

John of Kronstadt or John Iliytch Sergieff[1] (pre-reform Russian: Іоаннъ Кронштадтскій; post-reform Russian: Иоа́нн Кроншта́дтский; 31 October [O.S. 19 October] 1829[a] – 2 January 1909 [O.S. 20 December 1908]) was a Russian Orthodox archpriest and a member of the Most Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church. He was known for his mass confessions, numerous miracles,[2] charitable work, anti-communism, monarchism, chauvinism[clarification needed], and antisemitism.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

John is a saint of the Eastern Orthodox Church and is known with the epithet "Righteous".

Early life[edit]

The future Saint was born as Ivan Ilyich Sergiyev (pre-reform Russian: Иванъ Ильичъ Сергіевъ; post-reform Russian: Иван Ильич Сергиев) on 31 October [O.S. 19 October] 1829 in the northern village of Sura, near the White Sea, in the Russian Empire. He came from a hereditary corporation of village clergymen, and his father was a poor dyachok in the local church. The little that is known about his early life is mainly from late memories. In his autobiography, he claims that his parents gave him to a parish school but that the study was too difficult for him. However, he prayed earnestly and received inspiration. He became the top student in the school and then in the seminary, which enabled him to enter the Theological Academy in Saint Petersburg, the Russian capital. He became the 35th out of 39 students who graduated from the academy in 1855.[13]

"Kronstadt Father"[edit]

From 1855, he worked as a priest in Saint Andrew's Cathedral in Kronstadt, the naval base near St. Petersburg. He married the 26-year-old daughter of the archpriest of the cathedral. Benjamin (Fedchenkov) (1880—1961) writes that after the marriage, he surprisingly refused to have sexual relations with his wife, despite her complaints to the church authorities.[14] Their niece Rufina lived with John and Elizabeth.

The young priest behaved unusually:

  • He walked along the street and constantly prayed and crossed his arms on his chest.
  • He tried to serve the liturgy every day.
  • During the service, he behaved very expressively, deviated from the usual text and turned his back to the altar.
  • He introduced the practice of frequent Confession and Holy Communion although once or twice a year was then usual.
  • He allowed the easing from some requirements for the Communicant (in particular, he allowed women during menstruation to communicate, which was usually forbidden).

Not everyone perceived his innovations positively, especially church authorities. His biographer Nadieszda Kizenko notes that some aspects of John's behaviour were reminiscent of the practices of Protestants and others of the Khlysts, sectarians. Nevertheless, his distinctive style attracted attention to the young priest and allowed him to show his charisma.[15]

Gradually, around him formed a circle of persistent admirers, who aspired to confess and to receive communion exclusively from him. Almost all were women. Some of the admirers of John formed a sect of Ioannites. The head of the sect was the spiritual daughter of John, Matryona Ivanovna Kiseleva, who received in the sect the name of Porfiriia or the ″Theotokos″. The Ioannites believed that the world as they knew it was about to end, probably after the revolution, and that they could find salvation only by going to God in the person of Father John. Some taught that John was Prophet Elijah, others Jesus Christ, others God of Sabaoth. The Ioannites spread stories about the "miracles" performed by John, sold the objects related to him and Holy Water, which was sanctified by John himself.[16]

John established a special relief organization. It was called the "House of the Industry" and opened in Kronstadt in 1882. It had its own church, an elementary school for boys and girls, an orphanage, a hospital for anyone who came there, a boarding house, a free public library, shelter for the homeless that accommodated 40,000 people each year, a variety of workshops in which the impoverished could earn some money, a cheap public canteen that served about 800 free dinners on holidays and a hostel for the travelers.

By the early 1890s, John had become well known, and people from all over Russia came to him every day in thousands. He practiced mass confessions during which thousands of people wiped out their sins and went into a frenzy, which was often accompanied by hysterics and tears.[17] Even Tsar Alexander III of Russia in 1894 summoned Father John to Livadia Palace, in the Crimea, as Alexander lay dying of kidney disease.[18] John claimed later that he had raised the dead but failed to heal the Tsar by his prayers.[17]

John came to a wide prominence after the publication of an open letter in the newspaper Novoe Vremya (literally New Time) in 1883.[19] The publication was also a turning point in the relationship between John and his church authorities. In the open letter, 16 people told about their healing thanks to the prayers of Father John and swore, "Now live according to God's truth and go to Holy Communion as often as possible". Such a publication in a secular newspaper violated the rules under which the religious censor had to preapprove the article, and it was perceived by the church hierarchy as interference into its affairs and a violation of subordination by John. The church did not know what to do with a person who suddenly claimed to be a living wonderworker with healing power (only relics were thought to have that power). The situation was discussed by the highest church organ, the Most Holy Synod, whose hierarchs were in disarray, and especially the metropolitan, Isidore, the direct supervisor of Father John, who was dissatisfied. However, they could do nothing although only after the invitation to the bed of the dying tsar in 1894 that John became immune to its criticism although he did not make any of the expected miracles there.[20]

John was widely venerated as a saint even during his lifetime because of his fame as a powerful prayer, healer, and visionary. The Ioannites sect even stated that John was a god himself, a home for Father, Son, and Holy Spirit at the same time.[21]

In the fall of 1907, John was appointed by Tsar Nicholas II as a member of the Holy Synod, but John did not participate in any meeting of the Holy Synod because of his serious illness.[22]

Support for Russian far right[edit]

The escape of John of Kronstadt, who is met by Mikhail Krivoshlyk in St. Petersburg. Magazine «Pulemet» № 1. (1905), caricature. New York Public Library, signature above the image:,[23] signature under the image:[24]

John at first condemned the participants in the Kishinev pogrom but changed his mind. He apologized to its organisers and accused the Jews themselves of the pogroms.[25] After the Russian Revolution of 1905, he became an ally of Russian far-right radicals,[26] also known as the Black Hundreds, who fought against left-wing activists, liberals and Jews.[6] He was a honorary member of the Union of the Russian People and several other right-wing organizations.[26] He became one of the most celebrated clerics of the Russian Orthodox Church who supported the creator of the Union, Alexander Dubrovin.[27] When Dubrovin invited the hierarchs of Moscow, St. Petersburg and Kiev as well as John to a mass meeting in November 1906, only John attended. Moreover, Metropolitan Anthonii of St. Petersburg sent Dubrovin a sharp rebuke and called his organization terrorist. John publicly consecrated the banners of the Union, thus inspiring its leaders.[28]

John was the only priest of St. Andrew's Cathedral to flee from Kronstadt during the uprising in 1905. The rest of the priests of St. Andrew's Cathedral held a procession to the rebels and urged them to stop the uprising. The press accused John of cowardice after that act, and journals published caricatures of him.

Nikolai Leskov and Maxim Gorky were very critical of John. Gorky called him an "actor of the Imperial Churches".[13] Leskov ridiculed John in his work Polunochniki ("Night Owls") and in a variety of letters.[29] John was also known for his fierce attacks on Leo Tolstoy, whom he considered the devil.[citation needed] John wrote to Tolstoy, "You ought to have stone hung around your neck and be lowered with it into the depths of the sea". In 1902, a collection of such diatribes was published, and Tolstoy did not pay attention to them.[30]

His support of far-right movements and such aggressive attacks on Tolstoy led to the fact that the attitude of the "progressives" in society towards John became negative, and his figure became the personification of "Reactionary" forces.[31]

Death, canonization, and legacy[edit]

Icon of Saint John of Kronstadt.

John died in his home in Kronstadt on 2 January [O.S. 20 December 1908] 1909. The coffin with the body was transported through St. Petersburg with pompous ceremonies and buried in the Ioannovsky Convent. According to his last will, the convent also got all of his things, which brought great benefits to it and aroused suspicions of forgery.[32]

In 1909, Tsar Nicholas II wrote an order[33] to establish the commemoration of St. John in the Church. Subsequently, the Holy Synod issued an edict to commemorate him annually on the day of his death.

His grave became a place of pilgrimage. After the October Revolution, the Soviet authorities decided to eliminate it. In 1923 to 1926, when the Ioannovsky Convent began to be closed, the option of reburial in one of the cemeteries was discussed, but the idea met resistance from Soviet authorities, who feared that the new grave would become another place of veneration. Also discussed the option of bricking up the crypt and later burying the remains more deeply, along with concreting the floor of the crypt. It is known that the crypt was indeed bricked up, but there is no information on reburial.[34] The book of the Soviet historian of religion Nikolai Yudin[35] claimed that a coffin with the bones of John was taken far out of city and burned.[36][37] After 1990, the Church-necropolis (Russian: Церковь-усыпальница) of John was consecrated in the crypt of the Cathedral of the Twelve Apostles of the Ioannovsky Convent; inside the Church necropolis, where the coffin of John used to be, a new empty coffin on the floor (sarcophagus) was built.[38] The official website of the John Convent claims that the relics continue to be in the crypt, but there have been no excavations that could prove it.[39] The Orthodox Encyclopedia:' states that the tombstone (sarcophagus) is located above John's relics.[40]

St. John of Kronstadt Memorial Church, in Utica, NY. Dedicated in 1964 as the first church in the world to St. John of Kronstadt.

In 1964, he was canonized by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR). It was the first such canonization independent from Moscow Patriarchate. St. John Maximovitch of San Francisco played an active role in preparing his canonization.[41] A well-known conservative ideologist of the ROCOR, Archimandrite Constantine (Zaitsev) believed that the most powerful heavenly patrons of Russia were John and Nicholas II with his family.[42]

In 1990, after the beginning of perestroika and the liberalization of church life in the Soviet Union, John was canonized by the Moscow Patriarchate. Also, after 1990, the rehabilitation of the sectarian Ioannites started, and even the Ioannite leaders who had been condemned by the Synod were incorporated into the mainstream Orthodoxy in Russia.[43]

From 1990 to 2016, more than 60 new churches or altars in Russia alone were dedicated to him. his flat in Kronstadt was partly restored and officially registered as a memorial museum. His biography was published in the most respected Russian series of biographical books, Lives of Remarkable People.[44] The John Apartment Museum is located in Kronstadt, at 21 Posadskaya Street. Monuments to John have been placed in Kronstadt, Irkutsk and Moscow.

Ioannovsky Convent, the second-largest monastic community in Saint Petersburg, is closely connected with his name. It was established by John, and during his life, he spiritually nourished the convent.

In 2014, Vitaly Milonov proposed to establish 14 June as a memorial day for John in Saint Petersburg. But the Federation of Jewish Communities of the CIS was absolutely opposed and made an official statement: "John of Kronstadt was a member of the odious Black-Hundred organization Union of the Russian People, known for its terrible anti-Semitism and moral support for Jewish pogroms in pre-revolutionary Russia"[45][46]

Iconography and commemoration[edit]

Icons of John most commonly portray him holding a Communion chalice because he reawakened the Russian Orthodox Church to the apostolic tradition of receiving Holy Communion every Divine Liturgy.

His life and work are commemorated on the feast days of 20 December Old Style (2 January New Style)[47][48] and October 19 Old Style (1 November New Style).[49]

Works in translation[edit]

  • Predigt am Tage der Einführung der Allgepriesenen Jungfrau Maria in den Tempel translated by Karl Christian Felmy (in German)
  • Predigt über die Kommunion der heiligen Geheimnisse translated by Karl Christian Felmy (in German)
  • Mein Leben in Christo. Aus dem Tagebuch, Übers. v. S. H. Kurio, München 2008, ISBN 978-3-935217-33-0.
  • Blessed Father John of Kronstadt on Prayer (1966 Jordanville)
  • Counsels on the Christian Priesthood, tr. W. J. Grisbrooke (1994 Crestwood)
  • Spiritual Counsels of Father John of Kronstadt, tr. E. E. Goulaev (1967 London)
  • My Life In Christ Or Moments of Spiritual Serenity ... Extracts From The Diary Of ... John Ilyich Sergieff ... Cronstadt ... Translated ... By E. E. Goulaeff (1897) [1]
  • My Life in Christ at
  • Sorrow and Joy: A Homily on the Day of the Nativity of the Most Holy Mother of God at


  1. ^
    His date of birth using Old Style dates is 19 October 1829.
  2. ^
    His date of death using Old Style dates is 20 December 1908.


  1. ^ My life in Christ, or Moments of spiritual serenity and contemplation, of reverent feeling, of earnest self-amendment, and of peace in God ... Extracts from the diary of the Most Reverend John Iliytch Sergieff
  2. ^ Kizenko N. A Prodigal Saint: Father John of Kronstadt and the Russian People. — P. 238.
  3. ^ Иоанн Кронштадтский // БСЭ. — 1-е изд. — Т. 29. — 1935. — Стлб. 74.: «известный черносотенный русский церковный деятель… Проповеди Иоанна Кронштадтского носили явно черносотенный и антисемитский характер, особенно характерны его выступления против социализма»
  4. ^ «<…> автор погромных проповедей и статей, активный поборник контрреволюции, участник церковной травли Л. Н. Толстого. Культ Иоанна Кронштадтского используется реакционными кругами рус. церк. эмиграции в антикоммунистической пропаганде.» — Иоанн Кронштадтский. // Атеистический словарь. / под ред. М. П. Новикова. — М.: Политиздат, 1985. — С. 177.
  5. ^ «Именно контрреволюционностью, приверженностью монархизму, шовинизму и антисемитизму объясняется благословение Иоанном Кронштадтским "Союза русского народа" и других погромных, черносотенных промонархистских организаций. Вот что сказал на панихиде по И. Сергиеву известный московский черносотенец протоиерей И. Восторгов: "Он призывал Божие благословение на патриотические союзы и содружества и сам состоял даже их членом". Поэтому и нет ничего неожиданного в том. что в связи со смертью кронштадтского протоиерея Святейший Синод получил телеграмму соболезнования от председателя "Союза русского народа" Дубровина. А и некрологе сообщалось, что при продвижении погребальной процессии от Балтийского вокзала до Иоанновского монастыря "впереди его гроба несли освященное им знамя Союза русского народа"» (Гордиенко Н. С. Кто такой Иоанн Кронштадтский. СПб.: Ленингр. орг. о-ва «Знание» РСФСР, 1991/ С. 9; цитата по книге История государства Российского : Жизнеописания. XX век / Рос. нац. б-ка; Авт.-сост. С. Н. Синегубов и др. - М. : Кн. палата, Том 5. XIX век. М., 1998. /С. 170)
  6. ^ a b Walter Laqueur. Black Hundreds: The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia, New York : HarperCollins, 1993[page needed]
  7. ^ Степанов А. Д. Иоанн Кронштадтский// Чёрная сотня. Историческая энциклопедия / Сост. А. Д. Степанов, А. А. Иванов. Отв. ред. О. А. Платонов. — М.: Институт русской цивилизации, 2008. — С. 229. — 680 с. — ISBN 978-5-93675-139-4.
  8. ^ "Своей репутацией «святого», своей проповедью и своим влиянием на царя верно служил Cоюзу [русского народа] Иоанн Кронштадтский, избранный почетным членом союза, — живой «бог» принял участие в погромной борьбе против революции." – Никольский Н. М. «История русской церкви» / Москва, Издательство АСТ, Мидгард 2004 / ISBN 5-17-023114-8 / С. 499]
  9. ^ McLean, Hugh (1953). "Leskov and Ioann of Kronstadt: On the Origins of Polunoscniki". The American Slavic and East European Review. 12 (1): 93–108. doi:10.2307/3004258. JSTOR 3004258. After the turn of the century the figure of Father Joann took on new dimensions as chief prophet and spiritual chaplain to the extreme Right in Russian politics. He "consecrated the first banner" of the Union of the Russian People, a band of anti-Semites and pogrom-organizers, and during the Revolution of 1905 stood firm by the scepter of absolutism in the radical press he was caricatured training a cannon on the insurgent masses.
  10. ^ „Иоанн Кронштадтский, монах Илиодор, Пуришкевич, Дубровин и другие монархисты-погромщики.”– Бутинова, Мария Сидоровна; Красников, Николай Петрович. «Музей истории религии и атеизма: Справочник-путеводитель» / М. С. Бутинова, Н. П. Красников ; Акад. наук СССР. М-во культуры РСФСР. Музей истории религии и атеизма. - Москва ; Ленинград : Наука. [Ленингр. отд-ние], 1965. - 195 с. / С. 162
  11. ^ „Мракобес-монархист Иоанн Кронштадтский был одним из организаторов Союза русского народа, призывал правительство и верующих к кровавой расправе с революционерами,” – «Из истории художественной культуры Екатеринбурга-Свердловска: К 250-летию города» / Редколлегия:... Б. В. Павловский (отв. ред.) [и др.] ; МВ и ССО РСФСР. Уральск. гос. ун-т им. А. М. Горького. - Свердловск : [б. и.], 1974. - 91 с. : ил.;/ С. 65
  12. ^ „В дни первой русской революции 1905 г. он [Иоанн Кронштадтский] вступил в ряды черносотенной организации "Союза русского народа", и призывал потопить в крови революционное движение.” – Белов А. В. «Правда о православных "святых".» — М.: Наука, 1968. — 168 с./ С. 163 (Научно-популярная серия/ АН СССР).
  13. ^ a b Фирсов, Сергей (1 December 2004). Герой веры или "артист императорских церквей" [Hero of the Faith or "Actor of the Imperial Churches"]. Независимая газета (in Russian). Retrieved 12 September 2019.
  14. ^ Митрополит Вениамин (Федченков). «Божьи люди: Мои духовные встречи» : Сборник; (Вступительная статья А. Светозарского). - М. : Отчий дом, 1997. - 414,(1) с., (44) л. ил. : ил.; 22 см. (В пер.) / С. 194: „Не так легко восприняла безбрачие в браке молодая жена. Предание свидетельствует, что она даже подавала жалобу на мужа епархиальному архиерею. Но молодой священник уговаривал ее добровольно согласиться с ним: – Лиза! Счастливых семей и без нас с тобою довольно. А мы отдадим себя всецело Богу и ближним. И она наконец согласилась.“; ISBN 5-7676-0079-1
  15. ^ Kizenko 2000, Part 2:Liturgical Innovations.
  16. ^ Kizenko 2000, Part 6: The "Ioannites" and the Limits of Veneration.
  17. ^ a b I. K. Surskiy. St. Father John of Kronstadt (in Russian)
  18. ^ John Perry & Constantine Pleshakov The Flight of the Romanovs: a Family Saga (Basic Books, 1999) pg. 62
  19. ^ It was an influential conservative pro-government newspaper that was strongly anti-Semitic. For example, such as during the Dreyfus Affair, it took the position of the prosecution and attacked Émile Zola.
  20. ^ Kizenko 2000, pp. 152, 191, 241.
  21. ^ Булгаков С. В. Хлысты-киселевцы // Расколы. Ереси. Секты. Противные христианству и православию учения. Западные христианские вероисповедания. Соборы Западной Церкви. — М., 1913
  22. ^ Церковные ведомости, издаваемые при Святейшем Правительствующем Синоде. 1909. № 1 / С. 30
  23. ^ Исход из Кронштадта - The Exodus from Kronstadt
  24. ^ "Во время оно случися смутъ велiй во граде некоемъ Кронштадтомъ именуемомъ. Матроси и иніи мужи мнози скокаху по стогнамъ градскимъ и убиваху другъ друга и резаху женъ со чады и домочадцы, тщася власти придержащiи испразднити. Оныя же власти предрожащiи Остелецкiй и Беляевъ во мундирiе облачении подъ кроватями нетленни, Господа Бога славословя, обретошася. Друзiи же власти офицерстiи во ризы и исподники женстiи и хулиганстiи облекошася, и сице животъ свой соблюдоша. Всечестнейшему же отцу Iоанну во Кронштедте сущу, се поликіи многочитіи чины притекоша: Отче всеблагіи, всетерпеливый, многомилостивый, чесо ради медлиши? Ты еси блудницу Порфирію во Богородицу хейротанисавый, ты еси піяницу горчайшего во Архангела Михаила претворивый, сътвори чудо: утиши брань и смутъ велій и скрежетъ зубовный, да бы и мы многогрешніи от него не пострадавша. Отвещав честный старецъ рече: Вас ли стонящихъ и мятущихся зрю? Не вкупе ли с вами азъ многогрешніи неисчестно с высоты амвонной ко сотне черной вопихъ, взывахъ и глаголахъ! Не матроси се, а любезные чада наша хулиганстіи мятутся! Духъ мой зело взыграяся ибо чуетъ избиеніе богомерзской интелдигенціи. Потеку на осляти ко чаду моему любезному во Питеръ градъ; "Кривошлыче, сладчайшій, возликуй со мной въ твоихъ Ведомостяхъ Градоначальства церкви и отечеству на пользу. Аминь" - Once in Kronstadt there was a mutiny. Sailors and other people ran around city streets and killed each other, and cut women with children and households, trying to overthrow the government. Representatives of the authorities: Osteletsky and Belyaev remained unscathed, as they lay under the beds in their uniforms and prayed to God. Other government officers dressed in women's clothes, or dressed like hooligans and thus saved their lives. Numerous people came to John, who was in Kronstadt, and addressed him with the words: "You are a father full of goodness, full of patience and always ready to promote the well-being of others. Why do you hesitate? You ordained harlot-Porfiria in Mother of God. You ordained bitter drunkard in Michael the Archangel. Make a miracle, calm down the war and a big rebellion, and a dental screech, so that we will not suffer". Honest elder answered: "Do not I see you groaning and restless? I am a sinner. I called out, yelled and addressed uncountable to the Black Hundred from the pulpit with you, is not it? These are not sailors, and our beloved children bully commit mutiny! My soul is indignant and feels that there will be a beating of the wicked intellectuals! I will run on donkey to my beloved son in St. Petersburg, where I'll tell him: "Krivoshlyk, sweetest, rejoice with me in your newspaper «Vedomosti of the St. Petersburg City Government and the Metropolitan Police» of the church and the fatherland for good. Amen.
  25. ^ Laqueur, Walter (1993). Black Hundreds: The Rise of the Extreme Right in Russia. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 50–51.
  26. ^ a b Kizenko, Nadieszda (1998). "Ioann of Kronstadt and the Reception of Sanctity, 1850-1988". The Russian Review. 57 (3): 327. doi:10.1111/1467-9434.00027.
  27. ^ „Иоанн Кронштадтский... – настоятель Андреевского собора в Кронштадте, выступавший с конца 19 - начала 20 века с позиции крайнего обскурантизма. Ярый монархист, один из основателей черносотенного «Союза русского народа», непримиримый противник революционных движений, призывавший к жестокой расправе над «смутьянами»“. – «Православие: Словарь атеиста» / Под ред. Н. С. Гордиенко. — М.: Политиздат, 1988. — 270[2] с.; 17 см.; ISBN 5-250-00079-7 : / Стр. 94 - 95
  28. ^ Rawson, Donald C.; Richards, David (1995). Russian Rightists and the Revolution of 1905. Cambridge University Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 9780521483865.
  29. ^ Kizenko 2000, p. 188.
  30. ^ Bartlett, Rosamund (2011). Tolstoy: A Russian Life. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 392–398. ISBN 978-0-15-101438-5.
  31. ^ Kizenko 2000, pp. 258–259, 284.
  32. ^ Kizenko 2000, pp. 262–263.
  33. ^ «Церковный вестник», 1909, № 4 (22 января), стб. 97.
  34. ^ Берташ, Александр. "История захоронения св.пр. Иоанна Кронштадтского в 1920–1940 г.г." Церковно-Научный центр "Православная энциклопедия". Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  35. ^ Сотрудники РНБ — деятели науки и культуры /Биографический словарь, т. 1-4 / Юдин Николай Иванович
  36. ^ Юдин, Николай (1962). Правда о петербургских "святынях" (in Russian). Ленинград: Лениздат. p. 61. Гроб с костями царского прихвостня и черносотенца [Иоанна Кронштадтского] вывезли далеко за город и сожгли
  37. ^ Равинский, Дмитрий (2014). "Тайные памятники" Петербурга - Ленинграда (PDF). Телескоп: журнал социологических и маркетинговых исследований (in Russian). 3: 28–30. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  38. ^ Храм-усыпальница св. прав. Иоанна Кронштадтского
  39. ^ Иоанновский ставропигиальный женский монастырь
  40. ^ Православная энциклопедия. Т. 24, С. 353-382
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  42. ^ Культ императора Николая II в традициях российского православия XX – начала XXI вв.
  43. ^ Kizenko 2000, p. 278.
  44. ^ Kizenko, Nadiеszda (2016). "The Lives and Afterlives of St. John of Kronstadt" (PDF). The Wheel. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  45. ^ Федерация еврейских общин России нашла в выступлении Милонова признаки антисемитизма
  46. ^ Putin ally accused of pushing Jews-killed-Jesus trope, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, April 2, 2014.
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  48. ^ December 20/January 2 Archived 16 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).
  49. ^ October 19/November 1 Archived 6 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Orthodox Calendar (PRAVOSLAVIE.RU).

Further reading[edit]

  • Алабовский М., священник. Великий пастырь русского народа. (Блаженной памяти о. Иоанна Кронштадтского). Киев, 1909;
  • Свящ. А. Семенов-Тян-Шанский. Отец Иоанн Кронштадтский. — Изд-во им. Чехова, Нью-Йорк, 1955.
  • Игумения Таисия. Записки. Беседы с отцом Иоанном Кронштадтским. СПб, 2002.
  • Митрополит Вениамин (Федченков). Святой праведный Иоанн Кронштадтский. СПб, 2005.
  • Санакина Т. А., сост. (ГААО), «Из родословной семьи Сергиевых: Иоанн Ильич Сергиев (Кронштадтский) и его семья», Наш храм, 2002, № 2, 2-3.
  • В.В. Антонов, А.В. Кобак. Святыни Санкт-Петербурга. Историко-церковная энциклопедия в трех томах. СПб.: Издательство Чернышева, Т.1, 1994. - 288 с., Т.2, 1996. - 328 с., Т.3, 1996. - 392 с., ил.
  • Walter Laqueur: Der Schoß ist fruchtbar noch. Der militante Nationalismus der russischen Rechten; München 1995; S. 76–83.
  • Alla Selawry: Johannes von Kronstadt: Starez Rußlands; Dornach: Pforte, 1989; ISBN 978-3-85636-064-1
  • Karl Christian Felmy: Predigt im orthodoxen Russland. Untersuchungen zu Inhalt und Eigenart der russischen Predigt in der 2. Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts, Göttingen 1972, Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, ISBN 3-525-56428-7
  • Aksenov, R., „Pasi ovzy Moja“. Utschenie o pastyrstwe swjatogo Ioanna Kronschtadtskogo, W pomoschtsch pastyrju, Klin 2002.
  • Akwilonow, E. P., Mysli o. Ioanna Kronschtadtskago o wospitatelnom snatschenii slowa Boschija, St. Petersburg 1909.
  • Bishop Alexander (Mileant). Saint John of Kronstadt
  • Большаков Н. И. Источник живой воды. — СПб., 1910.
  • Duchonina, E. W., Is moich wospominanij ob o. Ioanne Kronschtadtskom, St. Petersburg 1907.
  • Felmy, K. C., La teologia eucaristica di Ioann di Kronstadt, trans. by E. Cosentino, in: La Grande Vigilia, ed. A. Mainardi, Spiritualità orientale, Bose 1998, 225-242.
  • Ioann (Samojlow), Pastyr – sowerschitel Bogosluschenija. Po sotschinenijam swjatogo prawednogo Ioanna Kronschtadtskogo, Sergiew Posad 2007, ISBN 978-5-9900983-1-2.
  • Kizenko, Nadieszda (2000). A Prodigal Saint: Father John of Kronstadt and the Russian People. Penn State University Press. ISBN 978-0-271-01976-5.
  • Knechten, H. M., Licht in der Finsternis – Johannes von Kronstadt, Studien zur russischen Spiritualität VII, Kamen 2010, ISBN 978-3-89991-109-1.
  • Konstantin (Sajzew), Duchownyj oblik protoiereja o. Ioanna Kronschtadtskago, Jordanville 1952.
  • Michail (Semenow), Otez Ioann Kronschtadtski. (Polnaja biografija s illjustrazijami), St. Petersburg 1903.
  • Ornatski, I. N., Schitie i trudy prisnopamjatnogo protoiereja prawednika o. Ioanna Kronschtadtskogo, Moskau 1916.
  • Parfeni (Kotow), Spasenie w Zerkwi. Po tworenijam swjatogo prawednogo Ioanna Kronschtadtskogo, Moskau 2004, ISBN 5-85134-063-0.
  • Romuschin, W., Swjatoj Ioann Kronschtadtski w Krymu, Simferopol 2005, ISBN 966-8111-61-3.
  • Schenskaja Surskaja obitel, O. Ioann Kronschtadtski. (Polnaja biografija s illjustrazijami), Archangelsk 2004, ISBN 5-85879-165-4.
  • Smirnowa, E. S., ed., Kronschtadtski pastyr, Zerkowno-istoritscheski almanach, Bd. 1, Moskau 2002, ISBN 5-86809-016-0.
  • Sokolowa, T. A., ed., Swjatoj prawednyj Ioann Kronschtadtski. 1829-1908. Sbornik, Rossijskie sudby 11, Moskau 1998.
  • К характеристике о. Иоанна Сергиева (Кронштадского). // Старообрядец : журнал. — 1906. — № 2. — С. 217—221.
  • Strischew, A. N., ed., Swjatoj prawednyj Ioann Kronschtadtski w wospominanijach samowidzew, Moskau 1997.
  • Surski, I. K., Otez Ioann Kronschtadtski, Moskau 2008, ISBN 5-85280-135-6.
  • Tereschtschenko, T. N., Simfonija po tworenijam swjatogo prawednogo Ioanna Kronschtadtskogo, Moskau 2007, ISBN 978-5-485-00141-4.
  • Weniamin (Fedtschenkow), Otez Ioann Kronschtadtski, St. Petersburg 32005, ISBN 5-88335-053-4.
  • Werchowzewa, W. T., Wospominanija ob otze Ioanne Kronschtadtskom jego duchownoj dotscheri, Sergiew Posad 1916.
  • Whyte, A. D., Father John of the Greek Church. An Appreciation, with some characteristic passages of his mystical and spiritual autobiography ("My Life in Christ"), Edinburgh, London u. New York 1898.
  • Зимина Н. П. Православная Энциклопедия/ Т. 25, С. 127-139/ Иоанниты

External links[edit]