Johnnie Carr

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Johnnie Rebecca Daniels Carr (January 26, 1911 – February 22, 2008) was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from 1955 until her death.

Johnnie Carr
Johnnie Rebecca Daniels Carr

(1911-01-26)January 26, 1911
DiedFebruary 22, 2008(2008-02-22) (aged 97)
OccupationCivil Rights
Years active1955–2008

In 1967, Carr became President of the Montgomery Improvement Association, succeeding Martin Luther King, Jr. Carr held this office until she died.

Carr was a childhood friend of Rosa Parks and is considered, along with Parks, King, E. D. Nixon and others to be an important face in the Civil Rights Movement in Montgomery, Alabama. According to Morris Dees, one of three founders of Montgomery's Southern Poverty Law Center, "Johnnie Carr is one of the three major icons of the Civil Rights Movement: Dr. King, Rosa Parks and Johnnie Carr. I think ultimately, when the final history books are written, she'll be one of the few people remembered for that terrific movement."

Civil rights pioneer and U.S. Representative John Lewis, D-Ga., said, "Mrs. Carr must be looked on as one of the founders of a new America because she was there with Rosa Parks, E. D. Nixon, Martin Luther King Jr. and so many others."[1]

In 1944, Carr, along with her husband Arlam Carr, Rosa Parks and Raymond Parks, E.D. Nixon, E. G. Jackson, and Irene West organized to defend a black woman near Montgomery who was gang raped by six white men. This core of activists, who canvassed neighborhoods, raised money, and sent petitions and postcards to the governor and attorney general of Alabama, later became part of the movement that supported Martin Luther King, Jr.[2]

Carr died of a stroke at the age of 97.[1]


  1. ^ a b "Rights icon 'a fighter to the end'".[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ McGuire, Danielle (2010). At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance–A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power. Knopf.

Further reading[edit]

  • Houck, Davis W.; Dixon, David E. (2010). Women and the civil rights movement, 1954-1965. Jackson: University of Mississippi press. ISBN 9781604731071.
  • Smith, Jessie Carney (2009). Freedom facts and firsts : 400 years of the African American civil rights experience. Canton: Visible Ink Press. ISBN 9781578591923.

External links[edit]