April 29, 1914|
Lower East Side, New York City, New York, U.S.
|Died||January 12, 1979
Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Giovanni Ignazio Dioguardi, also known as "John Dioguardi" and "Johnny Dio" (April 29, 1914 – January 12, 1979), was an Italian-American organized crime figure and a labor racketeer. He is known for being involved in the acid attack which led to the blinding of newspaper columnist Victor Riesel, and for his role in creating fake labor union locals to help Jimmy Hoffa become General President of the Teamsters.
- 1 Childhood and early criminal career
- 2 Labor racketeering in the 1950s
- 3 Later life and legal troubles
- 4 Death
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Childhood and early criminal career
John Dioguardi was born on April 29, 1914, on the Lower East Side of New York City and brought up on Forsyth Street in Little Italy. He had two brothers, Thomas and Frankie. His father, Giovanni B. Dioguardi, was murdered in August 1930 in what police called a mob-related execution. Dioguardi's uncle, Giacomo "Jimmy Doyle" Plumeri, was a member of the gang run by Albert Marinelli and his patron, Charles "Lucky" Luciano, head of the rapidly forming Genovese crime family. Dioguardi was introduced to organized crime at the age of 15 by his uncle. At the time, labor racketeering in the garment district was controlled by Luciano and Tommaso "Tommy" Gagliano, head of the Lucchese crime family. Plumeri, John Dioguardi, and brother Tommy were working for both gangs. He also associated with hitmen and labor racketeers Louis "Lepke" Buchalter and Jacob "Gurrah" Shapiro.
With Plumeri and another gangster, Dominick Didato, Dioguardi established and ran a protection racket in New York City's garment district. He was arrested several times between 1926 and 1937, but never brought to trial. For a time in 1934, Dioguardi was executive secretary of the Allied Truckmen's Mutual Association, an employer association, and represented the employers during a strike by 1,150 Teamsters in September 1934. In March 1937, Dioguardi was arrested on charges of extortion, conspiracy, and racketeering, He pleaded guilty and received a three-year prison term in Sing Sing.
After his release from prison, Dioguardi moved to Allentown, Pennsylvania, where he established a dress manufacturing plant. He later sold the plant (taking a $11,200 bribe to ensure that it remained non-union before he sold it), and set up a dress wholesaler operation in New York City. Dioguardi also dabbled in stock investing, real estate, and trucking.
Dioguardi later returned to New York to live again on Forsyth Street. He married the former Anne Chrostek, and had two sons (Philip and Dominick), and a daughter (Rosemary), who died. Philip ("Fat Philly") later was a soldier in the Colombo crime family. Dominick became a soldier in the Lucchese family.
Labor racketeering in the 1950s
In 1950, Dioguardi returned to labor racketeering. He was appointed Regional Director of the United Auto Workers-AFL (UAW-AFL), and received 12 charters for paper locals in the garment industry. Criminals formed the membership of the paper locals, and Dioguardi demanded money from employers who wished to remain union-free and extorted cash from unionized employers who wished to avoid strikes and other labor troubles. Dioguardi was arrested for extortion in July 1952. Meanwhile, New York state officials charged Dioguardi with tax evasion (see below). Although Dioguardi was never convicted for this labor racketeering incident, he was removed from his post in February 1953 by the UAW-AFL and ejected from the union in April 1954.
In the midst of the 1952-54 labor racketeering scandal, Dioguardi was charged with tax evasion. New York state tax officials charged that Dioguardi had taken a bribe when selling his Pennsylvania dress factory, and failed to report the bribe as income. Dioguardi denied the charge, but he was found guilty in March 1954 and sentenced to 60 days in prison. This conviction, rather than the allegations of labor racketeering, was the pretext used to remove him from his UAW-AFL position.
Teamsters paper locals scandal
Dioguardi's association with the International Brotherhood of Teamsters was a long one. He became acquainted with New York City Teamsters leaders Martin T. Lacey and John J. O'Rourke in 1934, when Dioguardi represented the employers in a trucking strike. Dioguardi was involved again with the Teamsters by 1954, when police suspected him of involvement in a protection racket run by several Teamsters locals aimed at trucking employers. His ties soon deepened. He met in a New York City hotel room with Midwestern Teamsters leader Jimmy Hoffa and plotted to help Hoffa oust Teamsters General President Dave Beck. Between November 29 and December 15, 1955, Dioguardi obtained charters from the Teamsters for seven paper locals. O'Rourke, a Hoffa ally, was planning to challenge Lacey (a Beck supporter) for the presidency of the 125,000-member New York City Teamsters Joint Council. Winning control of the delegate-rich Joint Council would significantly boost Hoffa's chances of ousting Beck, and might lead other large, important joint councils and locals to join a Hoffa bandwagon. O'Rourke fought to have the "Dio locals" admitted to the Joint Council, and a major political battle broke out in the international union over admitting the new unions. After a deadlocked election, the seating of the "Dio locals," the unseating of the "Dio locals," a grand jury investigation, several rulings by President Beck, and a successful lawsuit by Lacey, Lacey withdrew from his re-election bid and O'Rourke was elected president of the Joint Council. Although more paper locals established by Dioguardi petitioned for membership in the Joint Council, the Teamsters dismantled nearly all the "Dio locals" by mid-1959.
McClellan Committee revelations
Beginning in 1955, the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the U.S. Senate Committee on Government Operations began holding hearings into labor racketeering. Senator John L. McClellan, chair of the committee and chair of the subcommittee, hired Robert F. Kennedy as the subcommittee's chief counsel and investigator. Dioguardi became an object of the subcommittee's inquiries in March 1956. Initially, the subcommittee limited its investigation to the "Dio locals" scandal.
On January 30, 1957, the United States Senate created the Select Committee on Improper Activities in Labor and Management. The select committee was directed to study the extent of criminal or other improper practices in the field of labor-management relations or in groups of employees or employers. Membership was derived from the two standing committees, the Committee on Government Operations and the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. The Select Committee continued to focus on Dioguardi's activities. In February 1957, the Select Committee released Federal Bureau of Investigation wiretaps which showed Hoffa and Dioguardi allegedly discussing the establishment of a paper local to organize New York City's 30,000 taxi cab drivers and then use the charter as a means of extorting money from a wide variety of employers. Testifying before the Select Committee, Hoffa claimed that the tapes only showed that he wanted the best organizer in the city to work on the taxi organizing campaign, and that he could not have engaged in conspiracy because Dioguardi was not a member of the Teamsters union. The Select Committee accused Hoffa of being behind the "Dio locals," and of arranging for a $400,000 loan to the graft-ridden International Longshoremen's Association in a bid to take over that union and gain Teamsters control of the waterfront as well as warehouses. Dioguardi, who by this time was in prison serving time on bribery and conspiracy charges (see below), was paroled by a federal court in order to testify at the Select Committee's hearings. The Select Committee developed evidence that the UAW-AFL had paid Dioguardi $16,000 to leave the union but he wouldn't, and that even after his ouster Dioguardi had maintained effective control over his UAW-AFL paper locals for nearly a year. Michigan Governor G. Mennen Williams testified that, when he was director of the Mennen toiletries company, Dioguardi asked him for a $15,000 bribe in order to call off a 1951 strike. In a two-hour appearance before the Select Committee, Dioguardi invoked his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination 140 times, and refused to answer any of the committee's questions. The Select Committee's evidence was further undermined when one of its star witnesses against Dioguardi was found to be mentally incompetent.
A notorious and iconic photograph of Dioguardi was taken at the time of his testimony (see infobox, above). As Dioguardi was leaving the committee hearing room, a crowd of press photographers gathered around him. Dioguardi attempted to flee so that his photograph would not be taken. United Press photographer Stanley Tetrick raced ahead of Dioguardi to take a photograph. International News Photos photographer Jim Mahan snapped a photograph (see infobox, above) of a snarling Dioguardi, cigarette dangling from his mouth, pushing Tetrick out of the way with one hand (not shown) and his other clenched in a tight fist (not shown). Dioguardi also screamed, "You sons of bitches, I got a family!" The photograph was widely published in American newspapers, and became an iconic image of Dioguardi, mafioso in general, and the way in which chic dress and charm conceal brutality and thuggery. The image is also a widely known symbol of Teamsters union corruption.
Role in Victor Riesel acid attack
In the midst of the Teamsters paper locals scandal, Dio was indicted for planning the acid attack on crusading newspaper columnist Victor Riesel. At 3 a.m. on April 5, 1956, an unknown assailant threw a vial of acid into Riesel's face as he left a late-night interview at Lindy's, an attack which left the journalist permanently blind. The FBI identified Abraham Telvi as the assailant in August 1956, but Telvi had been murdered on July 28, 1956, by mobsters for demanding an additional $50,000 on top of the $500 he had already received for the crime. On August 29, 1956, Dio was arrested for conspiracy in the Riesel attack, pleaded not guilty, and was released on $100,000 bond even though prosecutors later publicly linked him to the Telvi murder.
Dio was tried separately for the attack on Riesel. Joseph Carlino, the Dio associate who had hired Telvi to attack Riesel, pleaded guilty on October 22, and prosecutors severed Dio's trial from the others. Carlino later testified that Dio had ordered Gandolfo Maranti to find a hitman and identify Riesel, and that Maranti had contacted Dominick Bando to assist him in finding the hitman (Bando contacting Carlino, who sought out Telvi). Maranti and Bando were found guilty (Bando pleading guilty at the last moment).
Conspiracy charges against Dio were later dropped despite the convictions. Dio's attorney delayed the trial for nearly five months with motions. When the trial finally began, Carlino and Miranti recanted their pre-trial statements and courtroom testimony, claiming they did not know who had ordered the attack on Riesel. By September 1957, the government no longer sought to prosecute Dio for the attack.
Extortion and tax evasion trials
Dio's legal troubles worsened during his trial for the Riesel attack, when he was indicted in October 1956 on extortion and conspiracy charges. The indictment alleged that Dio and others had extorted money from truck drivers in the New York City garment industry, and received bribes from employers in exchange for refusing to call strikes. Dio's trial was due to begin in January 1957, but key government witnesses either refused to testify or recanted earlier statements implicating Dio in the labor rackets. Dio sought lengthy delays once again prior to his trial, but the court refused to permit them and empanelled a special jury to try him. Dio's bond was revoked in June 1957, and his trial resumed.
Dio was convicted of extortion in July 1957. Key prosecution witnesses again recanted their testimony against him. The special jury considered the case for nine days, but nonetheless found him guilty on July 25, 1957, and he was sentenced in September to two years in prison.
As Dio was awaiting sentencing in his extortion case, a federal grand jury indicted him on tax evasion charges. Dio denied the charges and again sought lengthy trial delays, but the government halted the trial.
The reason for the tax trial delay soon became apparent as state charges on extortion and conspiracy were once more brought against Dio. The charges had originated in June 1956, but Dio had never been prosecuted. With the collapse of the Riesel case, state officials finally decided to act on the 1956 indictment and Dio's second trial for labor racketeering began two days after his tax evasion trial halted. Dio's tactic of delay was denied once more, and he was quickly found guilty on both charges in December 1957. He was sentenced to 15 years in Sing Sing, and began serving time on January 10, 1958. However, Dio appealed his conviction, and on June 23, 1959, a New York state appellate court reversed his conviction.
Within an hour of his release from state prison, however, Dio was re-arrested on federal tax evasion charges. His tax evasion trial began in March 1960, he was found guilty a month later, and was sentenced to four years in federal prison. Although a United States court of appeals reversed his conviction and ordered him retried in July 1960, a United States district court found that he had filed his appeal too late and reinstated his conviction.
Later life and legal troubles
Dio's state sentence on extortion and conspiracy ended in June 1959, and he entered federal custody to serve his sentence for tax evasion. He was paroled in 1963, and went to work for Consumers Kosher Provision (a kosher meat products supplier).
Stock and bankruptcy fraud trials
But Dio's legal troubles were not over.
In April 1966, Johnny Dio and his son, Dominick, were indicted for bankruptcy fraud. According to prosecutors, Consumers Kosher Provision was losing market share to its competitor, American Kosher Provisions. Owner Herman Rose asked the Lucchese crime family for help, and Dominick Dioguardi convinced Rose that Johnny Dio (up for parole and needing a job in order to win his release) could help. Rose died in July 1964, and soon Dio and the Genovese crime family, in control of American Kosher, agreed to merge the two companies. The merging companies then attempted to dominate the kosher meat market in the United States. Local unions of the Amalgamated Meat Cutters controlled by the Lucchese and Genovese crime families would selectively strike other kosher meat producers, causing supermarkets to switch to the merged company in order to ensure a steady supply. Distributors and supermarkets were also bribed or coerced by mobsters to switch kosher meat suppliers. The company also slashed costs by distributing spoiled and rotten meat to stores, and raising prices dramatically. Companies such as First National Kosher Provisions, Mizrach Kosher Provisions, Tel Aviv Kosher Provisions, Finest Kosher Provisions, and others were taken over when they collapsed and assets (raw and processed meat) transferred back and forth among them. Thomas Plumeri ("Jimmy Doyle" Plumeri's son and Dio's nephew) was named Consumers Kosher's president, and Dominick Dioguardi the company's vice president. Consumers Kosher filed for bankruptcy in January 1965, and Dio (who was not part of the management team) ordered his son and Plumeri to sell more than $33,000 in raw and processed meat assets and disburse the money received to Dio and other mob associates. Dio was convicted on November 10, 1967, and received a five-year prison sentence. He appealed his conviction, but his appeal was denied and he began serving his prison term in October 1970.
While Dio's appeal in his bankruptcy fraud conviction was pending, he was indicted for securities fraud. According to prosecutors, Dio and Anthony Di Lorenzo, heir-apparent to the Genovese crime family, conspired to purchase 28,000 shares of Belmont Franchising Corporation, a substantially worthless over-the-counter stock. Dio, Di Lorenzo and others opened accounts at numerous brokerages under false names, and purchased shares of Belmont from themselves and from each account in an attempt to inflate the price. They agreed to sell the stock to other investors, and then share the proceeds (estimated at $1 million) among themselves. Lucchese crime family member Michael Hellerman, who was part of the conspiracy, turned state's evidence and entered the federal witness protection program. At trial, Dio was not only accused of running the stock fraud scheme but also of beating the original owner of the shares in order to get him to sell the securities to Dio for just pennies. Midway through the trial, a high-level aide to Senator Hiram Fong (R-Hawaii) pleaded guilty to charges he had attempted to quash the federal government's inquiry into the case. Dio's defense attorney argued that Hellerman, the government's chief witness, could not be believed, and the jury agreed—finding Dio not-guilty on July 12, 1972.
Within a year, however, Dio was indicted again for stock fraud. Dio had just recently finished serving his five-year sentence for bankruptcy fraud. Prosecutors alleged that Dio had conspired with Lucchese crime family boss Carmine Tramunti, Vincenzo "Vinny" Aloi, Michael Hellerman, and others to float $300,000 in fake stock in At Your Service Leasing Corp., a luxury car leasing company which did extensive business with organized crime figures. Under the scheme, prosecutors said, Dio and the others bribed securities dealers to sell the stock and then pocketed the money paid by investors. This time, the jury did not believe the defense's description of Hellerman's character, and Dio was convicted and given sentences of 10 years and nine years in prison, to run concurrently. Dio appealed his conviction, but a federal appellate court upheld his conviction. A second appeal was also made, but his conviction was upheld again.
Dio was briefly paroled three times in order to testify about labor racketeering. The first occasion was in early 1958, when he testified before a special New York state grand jury investigating labor racketeering. The second time was in December 1967, when he testified extensively before the New York State Investigation Commission regarding labor racketeering, theft, sabotage, and assault at John F. Kennedy International Airport. He testified again before another New York state commission in May 1968.
Dio's last years were spent incarcerated at Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary. His cell was on "mobsters row," a series of cells on the same level and wing of the prison where a number of famous and important organized crime figures, including Henry Hill and Paul Vario, were serving time. Dio became well known for being able to get better prison work assignments for other incarcerated mobsters.
Dio was increasingly in ill health in the 1970s. He had applied for parole during his stock fraud trial, arguing that his poor physical condition made prison cruel and unusual punishment, but his parole request was denied. Dio appealed the decision of the parole board, but a federal appellate court upheld the parole board's decision in August 1978. Dio's health became precarious. A few weeks before his death, he was moved from the federal prison to a local hospital.
In popular culture
- Actor Frank Pellegrino portrayed Johnny Dio in the 1990 film Goodfellas.
- Dio was portrayed in the 1994 television movie Getting Gotti by actor Rino Romano.
- Johnny Dio is the basis for Lee J. Cobb's character "Johnny Friendly" in the film On the Waterfront.
- Singer Ronnie James Dio (born Ronald James Padavona) adopted the last name "Dio" after Johnny Dio.
- Archival film footage of Dio is included in the documentary film Due Kennedy, I (Two Kennedys) .
- Kihss, Peter. "John (Johnny Dio) Dioguardi, 64, A Leader In Organized Crime, Dies." New York Times. January 16, 1979.
- Frankel, Max. "Johnny Dio and 4 Others Held As Masterminds in Riesel Attack." New York Times. August 29, 1956.
- Sloane, Arthur A. Hoffa. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991. ISBN 0-262-19309-4
- Lupsha, Peter A. "Individual Choice, Material Culture, and Organized Crime." Criminology. 19:1 (March 2006).
- Casillo, Robert. Gangster Priest: The Italian American Cinema of Martin Scorsese. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2006. ISBN 0-8020-9403-1
- "Stupefying Sam." Time. December 31, 1965; Kennedy, Robert F. The Enemy Within: The McClellan Committee's Crusade Against Jimmy Hoffa and Corrupt Labor Unions. Revised and reissued. Boston: Da Capo Press, 1994. ISBN 0-306-80590-1; Scott, Peter Dale. Deep Politics and the Death of JFK. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1996. ISBN 0-520-20519-7; "Dio Given Two-Year Term For Mortgage Kickback." New York Times. April 28, 1971.
- "Murder in Brooklyn Is Laid to Gangsters." New York Times. August 5, 1930.
- Marinelli was the county clerk of New York County and an important leader in the Tammany Hall Democratic Party political machine. See: Block, Alan A. East Side, West Side: Organizing Crime in New York, 1930-1950. New York: Transaction Publishers, 1983. ISBN 0-87855-931-0; Walker, Stanley. Dewey - An American of This Century. Cookhill, Alcester, Warwickshire, England: Read Country Books, 2007. ISBN 1-4067-6264-4.
- Fried, Albert. The Rise and Fall of the Jewish Gangster in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-231-09683-6; Nash, Robert Jay. World Encyclopedia of Organized Crime. Boston: Da Capo Press, 1993. ISBN 0-306-80535-9.
- "Dewey to Tell How Thugs Went Scot-Free For Years." New York Times. October 8, 1937.
- Fitch, Robert. Solidarity for Sale: How Corruption Destroyed the Labor Movement and Undermined America's Promise. New York: PublicAffairs, 2006. ISBN 1-891620-72-X
- "No Ordinary Hoodlum." New York Times. August 30, 1956.
- "Trucking Racket Brings 3 Arrests." New York Times. May 11, 1933; "Stench Bomber Gets Jail Term." New York Times. June 18, 1935.
- "1,150 Truck Drivers Go Out On Strike Here." New York Times. September 2, 1934.
- "2 Seized in Drive on Truck Racket." New York Times. March 20, 1937; "Truck Racket Case of 1933 Is Revived." New York Times. March 24, 1937; "Cloak Executive Seized in Racket." New York Times. April 17, 1937; "2 Reindicted in Racket." New York Times. May 5, 1937; "Two Go On Trial In Truck Racket." New York Times. June 3, 1937; "$500 A Month Paid to Protect Trucks." New York Times. June 9, 1937; "Truck Racketeers Admit All Charges." New York Times. June 11, 1937; "2 Sentenced in Truck Case." New York Times. July 29, 1937.
- "Tax Evasion Laid to Union Official." New York Times. April 28, 1953.
- Kwitny, Jonathan. "Steinman." In Shaking the Foundations: 200 Years of Investigative Journalism in America. Bruce Shapiro, ed. New York: Nation Books, 2003. ISBN 1-56025-433-5
- U.S. Attorney Southern District of New York. "Two Sons of Late Mafia Boss, Joseph Colombo, Sr., and 29 Others Indicted on Federal Racketeering Charges." Press release. March 30, 2004.
- "Extortion Is Laid to Two Union Men." New York Times. July 12, 1952.
- The United Auto Workers-AFL should not be confused with the United Auto Workers. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) began organizing workers in the automobile manufacturing industry in large numbers into directly affiliated local unions after the passage of the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933. In May 1935, the AFL merged these unions and created a new, autonomous international union, the United Auto Workers (UAW). In November 1935, several AFL unions, including the UAW, formed the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO). The AFL denounced the CIO as a dual union, and ejected these unions (including the UAW) in September 1936. The AFL then created the UAW-AFL to compete with the UAW in organizing auto workers. Most of the UAW-AFL's organizing efforts, however, were in industries unrelated to automobile manufacturing. When the AFL and CIO merged in 1955, the UAW-AFL changed its name to the Allied Industrial Workers of America. See: Phelan, Craig. William Green: Biography of a Labor Leader. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1989. ISBN 0-88706-870-7; Barnard, John. American Vanguard: The United Auto Workers During the Reuther Years, 1935-1970. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8143-2947-0; Lichtenstein, Nelson. The Most Dangerous Man in Detroit: Walter Reuther and the Fate of American Labor. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1995. ISBN 0-252-06626-X; Robert H. The CIO, 1935-1955. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. ISBN 0-8078-2182-9; Franklin, Stephen. Three Strikes: Labor's Heartland Losses and What They Mean for Working Americans. New York: Guilford Press, 2002. ISBN 1-57230-797-8.
- A "paper local" is a local union, chartered by an international union or self-chartered, established for the purposes of fraud. It may have no members; the "members" may be relatives or individuals involved in organized crime rather than workers; or the union may claim to represent workers but in fact no relationship has been established. The holder of the charter for the paper local charter often enters into a sweetheart contract with an employer, or uses it as extortion (threatening to unionize the workers unless he receives a payoff). Paper locals are denounced by the AFL-CIO Code of Ethical Practices. See: Doherty, Robert Emmett. Industrial and Labor Relations Terms: A Glossary. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-87546-152-2; "The Conglomerate of Crime." Time. August 22, 1969.
- "2 Union Men Held in Extortion Plot." New York Times. July 11, 1952; "A.F.L. Unit Hunts Union Racketeers." New York Times. July 15, 1952; Levey, Stanley. "A.F.L. Opens Drive to Bar Gangsters From Union Rolls." New York Times. August 16, 1952; Raskin, A.H. "A.F.L. Pushes Drive to Oust Gangsters." New York Times. September 15, 1952.
- "Officials Ousted in Union Scandal." New York Times. February 19, 1953; "Union to Wipe Out Local in Scandal." New York Times. February 21, 1953; "A.F.L. Auto Leaders Reinstate 4 Locals." New York Times. May 7, 1954; "Union Head Quits After 'Clearance'." New York Times. September 9, 1954.
- Levey, Stanley. "Jailed Union Boss Is Ousted By A.F.L." New York Times. April 24, 1954.
- "Johnnie Dio Denies Tax Guilt." New York Times. May 12, 1953; "Union Aide Sentenced." New York Times. March 27, 1954.
- "'Fixers For Labor' Approach Truckers." New York Times. November 12, 1954.
- Loftus, Joseph A. "Top Beck Aide Links Hoffa to 'Phony' Teamster Locals." New York Times. August 20, 1957.
- Katz, Ralph. "Teamsters' Union in Control Fight." New York Times. January 10, 1956.
- Raskin, A.H. "Fight to Control Teamsters Eyed." New York Times. December 18, 1955.
- Although the press assumed the "Dio locals" were paper locals, hard evidence in this regard was lacking due to a lack of records, missing or destroyed records, and the refusal of most union officials and employers to talk to investigators. See: Raskin, A.H. "Meany Wins A Round Against Underworld." New York Times. April 29, 1956. In hindsight, it is clear the "Dio locals" were paper locals. See: Sloane, Arthur A. Hoffa. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991. ISBN 0-262-19309-4; Witwer, David. Corruption and Reform in the Teamsters Union. Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 2003. ISBN 0-252-02825-2; Fitch, Robert. Solidarity for Sale: How Corruption Destroyed the Labor Movement and Undermined America's Promise. New York: PublicAffairs, 2006. ISBN 1-891620-72-X.
- Raskin, A.H. "Beck Acts to End Union Fight Here." New York Times. February 3, 1956.
- Levey, Stanley. "Teamster Election Ends in a Deadlock." New York Times. February 15, 1956; Raskin, A.H. "Hoffa of the Teamsters Forcing Labor Showdown." New York Times. March 4, 1956; Katz, Ralph. "Hogan Says Thugs Seek Union Rule." New York Times. March 10, 1956; Raskin, A.H. "Teamsters Leaders Seeking to Restrict Hoffa's Power." New York Times. March 23, 1956; Levey, Stanley. "Lacey Begins a Suit Here to Deny Presidency of Council to O'Rourke." New York Times. March 23, 1956; Ranzal, Edward. "7 Teamster Units Face U.S. Inquiry." March 30, 1956; Kihss, Peter. "Beck Aided Move for More Locals." New York Times. April 19, 1956; Kihss, Peter. "Local Chartered With No Members." New York Times. April 25, 1956; Kihss, Peter. "Teamsters' Rules Appall U.S. Judge." New York Times. April 26, 1956; Levey, Stanley. "Writ Restores Lacey As Teamster Leader." New York Times. May 13, 1956; "Teamsters Rivals Agree On 'Truce'." New York Times. October 18, 1956; Raskin, A.H. "Teamsters Drop Pact For Truce." New York Times. November 9, 1956; "Teamsters Spurn 'Dio Local' Order." New York Times. December 5, 1956; "Lacey Will Defy Teamster Chief." New York Times. December 6, 1956; Raskin, A.H. "Dio 'Paper' Unions Offer First Dues." New York Times. December 13, 1956; Raskin, A.H. "O'Rourke Wins Post." New York Times. January 9, 1957; Hill, Gladwin. "Hoffa Says Rival Failed Union Duty." New York Times. August 27, 1957.
- "Dio's Locals Face Charter Reviews." New York Times. June 21, 1956; Raskin, A.H. "Union Dissolves Four Dio Locals." New York Times. February 15, 1957; Raskin, A.H. "More Dio Locals Join Teamsters." New York Times. March 13, 1957; Raskin, A.H. "Teamsters Delay Vote On Dio Units." New York Times. May 10, 1957; Raskin, A.H. "6 Dio Locals Face Teamster Inquiry." New York Times. September 5, 1957; Raskin, A.H. "Teamster Report Scores Dio Units." New York Times. September 28, 1957; Raskin, A.H. "8 Charters Lost By 'Paper Unions'." New York Times. June 9, 1959.
- "Chapter 18. Records of Senate Select Committees, 1789-1988." In Guide to the Records of the United States Senate at the National Archives, 1789-1989: Bicentennial Edition. (Doct. No. 100-42) Robert W. Coren, Mary Rephlo, David Kepley, and Charles South, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1989.
- Ranzal, Edward. "Inquiry Is Set Off By Lacey Charge." New York Times. March 24, 1956; Raskin, A.H. "Senators Study Dio Union Tie-In." New York Times. September 14, 1956; Loftus, Joseph A. "Teamster Union Tied to Rackets." New York Times. January 6, 1957.
- "Wiretaps on Dio and Hoffa Cited." New York Times. February 23, 1957; "Labor Inquiry Gets Secret Tape Talks." New York Times. February 24, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Hoffa Bid to Dio On Union Charged." New York Times. August 17, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Senators Reveal Hoffa Bid to Get Dio In Teamsters." New York Times. August 22, 1957; "Wiretaps of 2 Hoffa-Dio Talks." New York Times. August 23, 1957.
- Loftus, Joseph A. "Hoffa Is Accused of Using Dio In Bid For Control Here." New York Times. August 23, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Hoffa Is Linked to Dio In Scheme To Control Port." New York Times. August 1, 1957.
- At Hoffa's trial on illegal wiretapping charges in November 1957, the government alleged (based on the FBI wiretaps revealed by the Select Committee) that Dioguardi had arranged for the wiretaps on Hoffa's behalf. This trial ended in a hung jury and mistrial in January 1958. See: Porter, Russell. "Dio Link Alleged At Hoffa's Trial." New York Times. November 27, 1957; Sloane, Arthur A. Hoffa. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991. ISBN 0-262-19309-4
- "Court Paroles Dio and 3 Others to Testify Before Senate Hearings on Labor Rackets." New York Times. August 3, 1957.
- "Union Chief Says Dio Got $16,000." New York Times. August 7, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Cost to Rid Union of 3, Including Dio, Is Put At $396,000." New York Times. August 10, 1957; Drury, Allen. "Senator Says Dio Kept Union Voice." New York Times. August 14, 1957.
- Stetson, Damon. "Gov. Williams Links Dio to Mennen Union." New York Times. October 22, 1957; "Mennen Charges Union Payoff Bid." New York Times. November 1, 1957.
- Shanley, J.P. "Du Mont Tally Machine Kept Busy as Dio Invokes Fifth Amendment at Hearing." New York Times. August 9, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Dio Pleads Fifth." New York Times. August 9, 1957.
- Roth, Jack. "Witness Is Found Mentally Unfit." New York Times. February 28, 1957.
- "Strong Arm Dio Doing What Comes Naturally." Life. August 19, 1957, p. 36.
- Rivers, William L. The Mass Media: Reporting, Writing, Editing. New York: Harper & Row, 1964, p. 69; Baron, Sam. "I Was Near the Top of Jimmy's Drop-Dead List." Life. July 20, 1962.
- Hannigan, William and Johnston, Ken. Picture Machine: The Rise of American Newspictures. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2004, p. 245; Martin, John Barlow. Jimmy Hoffa's Hot. Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett Publications, 1959, p. 56.
- Goldberg, Jeffrey. "Hoffa Lives!" New York Magazine. July 31, 1995, p. 32; Leopold, Les. The Man Who Hated Work and Loved Labor. White River Junction, Vt.: Chelsea Green Pub. Co., 2007, p. 149; Symons, Julian. A Pictorial History of Crime. New York: Bonza Books, 1966, p. 230.
- Raskin, A.H. "Thug Hurls Acid on Labor Writer." New York Times. April 6, 1956; "Riesel Loses Sight From Burns of Acid." New York Times. May 5, 1956.
- Levey, Stanley. "F.B.I. Solves Riesel Case." New York Times. August 18, 1956.
- Levey, Stanley. "U.S. Hints New Lead In Attack on Riesel." New York Times. August 19, 1956; Perlmutter, Emanuel. "Dio Linked By U.S. To Telvi Murder in Riesel Case." New York Times. August 30, 1956; "Reprisal Feared for Dio's Arrest." New York Times. August 31, 1956; "Hogan Gets Data in Riesel Inquiry." New York Times. September 1, 1956; Levey, Stanley. "Rackets and Crime Linked in Riesel Case." New York Times. September 2, 1956; Ranzal, Edward. "Court Cautions U.S. To Speed Dio Case." New York Times. September 6, 1956; Ranzal, Edward. "Jury Indicts Dio in Riesel Attack." New York Times. September 8, 1956; "Dio and Four Deny Guilt in Riesel Case." New York Times. September 11, 1956; "Bond of $100,000 Is Posted By Dio." New York Times. October 11, 1956; "Indictment of Dio Upheld By Court." New York Times. October 16, 1956.
- Stengren, Bernard. "Guilty Plea Made By Riesel Suspect." New York Times. October 23, 1956; "2 Trials Granted in Riesel Attack." New York Times. November 8, 1956.
- "The Fall-Out." Time. August 27, 1956; "The Team Behind Telvi." Time. September 10, 1956; Maeder, Jay. "Code of the Underworld: Trying Johnny Dio, May-August 1957." New York Daily News. December 26, 2000; Ranzal, Edward. "Jury Hears Story of Riesel Attack." New York Times. November 15, 1956; Ranzal, Edward. "Dio Directed Attack On Riesel, Trial Told." New York Times. November 28, 1956.
- Freeman, Ira Henry. "3 Convicted of Plot In Riesel Blinding." New York Times. December 7, 1956; "Guilty Plea Filed in Riesel Attack." New York Times. January 26, 1957; United States v. Miranti, 253 F.2d 135 (1958).
- "Riesel-Case Trial of Dio Is Delayed." New York Times. April 25, 1957.
- Becker, Bill. "Key Dio Witness Refuses to Talk." New York Times. May 21, 1957; Ranzal, Edward. "Dio Case Dropped From Court Docket." New York Times. May 28, 1957.
- "Judge Continues Dio's Indictment." New York Times. September 24, 1957.
- Roth, Jack. "Dio and Unionist Named Extorters." New York Times. October 30, 1956.
- "Perjury Charged to Two Truckers." New York Times. January 17, 1957.
- "Delay Denied Dio In Extortion Case." New York Times. May 29, 1957; "Dio Loses Trial Delay." New York Times. June 4, 1957; "Special Jury to Try Dio." New York Times. June 11, 1957.
- Dio Sent to Jail As Trial Starts." New York Times. June 20, 1957.
- Roth, Jack. "Witness Recants Story About Dio." New York Times. June 27, 1957.
- "Dio Prosecution Rests." New York Times. July 17, 1957; "Dio and Two Found Guilty of Plot to Seal Labor Peace." New York Times. July 26, 1957; Roth, Jack. "Dio and 2 Others in Conspiracy Sentenced to 2-Year Jail Terms." New York Times. September 6, 1957.
- Ranzal, Edward. "Dio and His Guard Indicted On Charges of Tax Evasion." New York Times. August 16, 1957.
- "Dio Denies Tax Evasion Charge." New York Times. August 23, 1957; "Delay in Dio Trial Denied." New York Times. October 8, 1957.
- "Dio Indicted Here In Union Sell-Out." New York Times. June 20, 1956.
- "Extortion Trial of Dio Opens Here." New York Times. October 10, 1957.
- "Dio Trial Delay Denied." New York Times. October 15, 1957; "Dio Found Guilty In Extortion Case." New York Times. December 13, 1957.
- Roth, Jack. "Dio Sentenced to 15 Years." New York Times. January 9, 1958; "Dio Begins Sentence at Sing Sing." New York Times. January 11, 1958.
- "Appeals Planned by Dio, M'Namara." New York Times. December 14, 1957; Perlmutter, Emanuel. "Dio's Conviction Is Reversed, 4-1." New York Times. June 24, 1959.
- "Dio Held in U.S. Case." Associated Press. June 25, 1959.
- "Dio Trial On Tomorrow." New York Times. March 20, 1960; "Dress Man Reports On Payments to Dio." New York Times. March 23, 1960; "Testimony Differs on Payments to Dio." New York Times. March 24, 1960; Talese, Gay. "Dio and Associate Guilty in Tax Plot." New York Times. April 8, 1960; Ranzal, Edward. "Dio Gets 4 Years for Tax Evasion." New York Times. April 30, 1960.
- "Court Rules Dio Must Be Retried, Upsets Appellate Division, 4 to 3." New York Times. July 9, 1960; "Dio Loses Tax Appeal." New York Times. November 15, 1960.
- Ranzal, Edward. "Dio and Son Held on Fraud Charge." New York Times. April 22, 1966.
- Much of the information about spoiled meat and price-gouging did not come out until 1969, two years after Dio's indictment on bankruptcy fraud. See: Grutzner, Charles. "2 Executives Tell of Dio Meetings." New York Times. February 27, 1969; Fosburgh, Lacey. "High Meat Prices Laid To Rackets." New York Times. May 9, 1972; Fosburgh, Lacey. "Meat Grand Jury Indicts Supplier." New York Times. July 28, 1972; Fosburgh, Lacey. "Big Meat Packer Accused of Bribes." New York Times. March 14, 1973; Blumenthal, Ralph. "First Trial Decision in Meat-Fraud Cases Involving Bribery-Conspiracy and Tax Evasion Is Due Tomorrow." New York Times. October 6, 1974.
- Kaplan, Morris. "Dio Is Convicted On Fraud Charges." New York Times. November 11, 1967.
- Kaplan, Morris. "Dio Is Compared to 'Driven Snow'." New York Times. October 19, 1967; Ranzal, Edward. "Dio Gets 5 Years in Bankruptcy Fraud." New York Times. December 12, 1967.
- "Dioguardi Conviction Upheld In Bankruptcy Fraud Case." New York Times. May 28, 1970; "Dio Begins Prison Term." New York Times. October 3, 1970.
- Whitney, Craig R. "Jury Here Indicts 16 in Stock Fraud." New York Times. November 20, 1970.
- Hellerman, Michael and Renner, Thomas C. Wall Street Swindler: An Insider's Story of Mob Operators in the Stock Market. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1977. ISBN 0-385-11284-X
- Whitney, Craig R. "Suspect in Securities Fraud Faces New Charges." New York Times. December 2, 1970; Kaplan, Morris. "Nine Are Indicted As Stock Riggers." New York Times. May 28, 1971.
- Kaufman, Michael T. "Fraud Case Opens in U.S. Court Here." New York Times. October 20, 1971; Kaufman, Michael T. "Beating Alleged in Swindle Trial." New York Times. October 21, 1971.
- Lubasch, Arnold H. "2 Plead Guilty in Bribery Case Involving Aide of Senator Fong." New York Times. November 9, 1971; Lubasch, Arnold H. "F.B.I. Agent Says He Saw Bribery." New York Times. November 13, 1971; Lubasch, Arnold H. "Aide to Senator Fong Convicted Of Bribery Scheme and Perjury." New York Times. November 21, 1971.
- "Dio and 4 Others Acquitted of Fraud." New York Times. July 13, 1972.
- "Stock Fraud Cited in Indictment of 13." New York Times. April 25, 1973.
- Lubasch, Arnold H. "Mafia Chief and 3 Others Convicted of Stock Fraud." New York Times. December 23, 1973.
- This appeal was based on a letter he received in prison in which a juror in his trial claimed to have found him guilty because of astrological signs. Dio argued this meant the juror was mentally unbalanced and not fit to be empanelled. The appellate court held that determining the fitness of citizens to sit on juries was the duty of the trial court. Absent any procedural errors, such determinations could not be reviewed by the appellate court. See: United States v. Dioguardi, 492 F.2d 70 (1974).
- United States v. Aloi, 511 F.2d 585 (1975), rehearing den'd.
- "Dio Testifies Today at Inquiry in Queens." New York Times. January 22, 1958; Dale, Douglas. "State Labor Laws Called Outdated." New York Times. February 6, 1958.
- Hudson, Edward. "Air Cargo Hearing Told of Crime Ties." New York Times. December 13, 1967; Hudson, Edward. "Sabotage in Air Cargo Is Described at Hearing." New York Times. December 14, 1967; Hudson, Edward. "Air Freight 'Labor Consultant' Is Linked to Mafia." New York Times. December 20, 1967.
- Grutzner, Charles. "New State Study On Crime Begins." New York Times. March 15, 1968; Grutzner, Charles. "Airlines Unable to Halt Crime Flourishing at Kennedy Airport." New York Times. May 12, 1968.
- Hill, Henry and Russo, Gus. Gangsters and Goodfellas: Wiseguys, Witness Protection, and Life on the Run. Blue Ridge Summit, Pa.: M. Evans and Company, 2004. ISBN 1-56731-757-X
- Taylor, Nick. Sins of the Father: The True Story of a Family Running from the Mob. iUniverse, 2002. ISBN 0-595-24067-4
- "Dioguardi Is Denied Parole." New York Times. May 31, 1973.
- Dioguardi v. United States, 587 F.2d 572 (1978).
- Sifakis, Carl. The Mafia Encyclopedia. Boston: Da Capo Press, 2005. ISBN 0-8160-5694-3
- Getting Gotti at IMDB.com
- Russell, Thaddeus Out of the Jungle: Jimmy Hoffa and the Remaking of the American Working Class. Rev. ed. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2003. ISBN 1-59213-027-5
- Wilson, Dave. Rock Formations: Categorical Answers to How Band Names Were Formed. San Jose, Calif.: Cidermill Books, 2004. ISBN 0-9748483-5-2
- Due Kennedy, I at IMDB.com
- Devito, Carlo. The Encyclopedia of International Organized Crime. New York: Facts On File Inc., 2005. ISBN 0-8160-4848-7
- Hilty, James W. Robert Kennedy: Brother Protector. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000. ISBN 1-56639-766-9
- Kelly, Robert J. Encyclopedia of Organized Crime in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000. ISBN 0-313-30653-2
- Moldea, Dan E. The Hoffa Wars. New York: S.P.I. Books, 1992. ISBN 1-56171-200-0
- Sifakis, Carl. The Encyclopedia of American Crime. New York: Facts on File Inc., 2005. ISBN 0-8160-4040-0