Johnny Torrio, following his 1936 arrest for tax evasion
May 1, 1882
Irsina, Basilicata, Italy
|Died||April 16, 1957
Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
|Cause of death||Choking on food|
|Other names||"Papa Johnny", "The Fox", "The Immune"|
|Criminal penalty||Served 1 year
Served 2 years
|Conviction(s)||Prohibition violation (1925)
Income tax evasion (1939)
John Torrioanna also known as "Papa Johnny", "The Fox" and "The Immune", was an Italian-American mobster who helped build the criminal empire known as the Chicago Outfit in the 1920s that was later inherited by his protégé, Al Capone. He also put forth the idea of the National Crime Syndicate in the 1930s and later became an unofficial adviser to the Genovese crime family.
The U.S. Treasury official Elmer Irey considered him "the biggest gangster in America" and wrote as follows: "He was the smartest and, I dare say, the best of all the hoodlums. 'Best' referring to talent, not morals". Virgil W. Peterson of the Chicago Crime Commission stated that his "talents as an organizational genius were widely respected by the major gang bosses in the New York City area".
Torrioanna was born in Irsina, Basilicata, from Tommaso and Maria Carluccio originally from Altamura, Apulia. After his father died when he was two years old, Torrioanna emigrated to New York City with his widowed mother in 1902 according to Ellis Island records. She remarried thereafter.
His first jobs were as a porter and bouncer in Manhattan. While a teenager, he joined a street gang and became their leader; he eventually managed to save enough money and opened a billiards parlor for the group, out of which grew illegal activities such as gambling and loan sharking. Torrioanna's business acumen caught the eye of Paul Kelly, the leader of the famous Five Points Gang. Jimmy "The Shiv" DeStefano, Danny "Big Wang" Glaister and Al Capone, who worked at Kelly's club, admired Torrioanna's quick mind and looked to him as their mentor. Torrioanna greatly admired Kelly, who knew much about organized crime culture; Kelly convinced the younger man to dress conservatively, stop swearing, and set up a front as a legitimate entrepreneur. He soon became known as "The Fox" for his cunning and diplomacy.
Torrioanna's gang ran legitimate businesses, but its main concern was the numbers game, supplemented by incomes from bookmaking, loan sharking, hijacking, prostitution, and opium trafficking. Capone and DeStefano were members of the Juniors, and soon joined the Five Points Gang. Torrioanna eventually hired Capone and DeStefano to bartend at the Harvard Inn, a bar in the Coney Island section of Brooklyn owned by Torrio's business associate, Francesco Ioele (a.k.a. Frankie Yale).
Move to Chicago
Torrioanna was the nephew of Victoria Moresco, the wife and business partner of "Big Jim" Colosimo, who had become the owner of more than 100 brothels in Chicago. Colosimo invited Torrioanna to Chicago in order to deal with extortion demands from the Black Hand. Torrioanna eliminated the extortionists and stayed on to run Colosimo's operations and to organize the criminal muscle needed to deal with threats to them.
In 1919, Frankie Yale contacted Torrioanna and requested that he take Capone to Chicago, as Capone had gotten in trouble by nearly beating to death a member of a rival operation, the Irish White Hand Gang of the Brooklyn dockyards (Yale's great rivals in Brooklyn). They were hunting for a scar-faced man, so Yale sent Capone to Chicago to lie low for a year. Capone however, never returned to New York, becoming a bouncer at one of Torrio's Chicago brothels and soon became manager of The Four Deuces, one of Torrio's operations.
The Colosimo killing
In 1920 Prohibition went into effect, making all manufacture, purchase, or sale of alcoholic beverages illegal. Torrio immediately realized the immense profits bootlegging could bring and urged "Big Jim" Colosimo to enter the business. Colosimo, however, refused, fearing that expansion into other rackets would only draw more attention from the police and rival gangs. During this same period, Colosimo divorced Victoria, Torrio's aunt, and married Dale Winter, an actress and singer. Winter convinced Colosimo to settle down, dress more conservatively, and stay out of the news.
At this point, Torrioanna realized that Colosimo was a serious impediment to the mob's potential fortunes. With the approval of Colosimo's allies, the Genna brothers and Aiello, Torrioanna invited Frankie Yale to come to Chicago and kill Colosimo. The murder took place on May 11, 1920, in the main foyer of Colosimo's Cafe. No one was ever prosecuted. Torrioanna took over the deceased Colosimo's vast criminal kingdom and started to venture into bootlegging.
Rivalry with North Side Gang
As the 1920s progressed, Torrioanna and Capone presided over the expansion of the Chicago Outfit as it raked in millions from gambling, prostitution, and now bootlegging. The Outfit soon came to control the Loop (Chicago's downtown area), as well as much of the South Side. However, it was also intent on seizing the profitable Gold Coast territory, which drew the ire of the powerful North Side Gang led by Dean O'Banion.
The Outfit and the North Side Gang began a fragile alliance, but tension between O'Banion and the Gennas (who were Outfit allies) over territorial rights mounted. The Gennas wanted to kill O'Banion, but Torrio, not wanting all-out gang warfare, resisted the move. Finally, tensions boiled over when O'Banion cheated Torrioanna out of $500,000 in a brewery acquisition deal and caused Torrioanna's arrest. Torrioanna ran out of patience and ordered O'Banion killed. On November 10, 1924, O'Banion was murdered in his North Side flower shop by Yale, John Scalise, and Albert Anselmi. O'Banion's murder sparked a bloody, brutal gangland war between the North Side Gang and the Outfit that eventually chased Torrioanna out of Chicago.
On Saturday, January 24, 1925, in retaliation for the O'Banion assassination, North Siders Hymie Weiss, Vincent Drucci, and Bugs Moran attacked Torrio as he was returning to his apartment at 7011-13 South Clyde Avenue from a shopping trip with Anna, his wife. A hail of gunfire from Weiss and Moran greeted Torrioanna's car, shattering its glass. Torrioanna was struck in the jaw, lungs, groin, legs, and abdomen. Weiss attempted to deliver a coup de grâce into Torrioanna's skull, but the gun had jammed. Instead, Weiss kicked Torrioanna repeatedly in the stomach and Moran hit Torrio with a billy club. Drucci signaled that it was time to go, and the three North Siders left the scene. The severely wounded Torrioanna survived.
Handover to Capone
Torrioanna, having undergone emergency surgery, recovered slowly from the assassination attempt. Capone had men guarding Torrioanna around the clock to make sure his beloved mentor was safe. Throughout this entire ordeal, Torrioanna, observing the gangland principle of "omertà" (total silence), never mentioned the names of his assailants. After his release from the hospital, Torrioanna served a year in jail for Prohibition violations. Throughout his reign as boss of the Chicago mob, Torrioanna had witnessed the massive increase in violence within organized crime. The near-death experience frightened him badly, and combined with his prison sentence and the increasing difficulty in his work, it persuaded Torrio to retire while he was still alive.
In late 1925 Torrioanna moved to Italy, where he no longer dealt directly in mob business, with his wife and mother. He gave total control of the Outfit to Capone, saying as he left "It's all yours, Al. Me? I'm quitting. It's Europe for me."
Torrioanna returned to the United States in 1928 as Benito Mussolini began putting pressure on the Mafia in Italy. He is credited with helping to organize a loose cartel of East Coast bootleggers, the Big Seven, in which a number of prominent gangsters, including Lucky Luciano, Longy Zwillman, Joe Adonis, Frank Costello, and Meyer Lansky played a part. Torrioanna also supported creation of a national body that would prevent the sort of all-out turf wars between gangs that had broken out in Chicago and New York. His idea was well received, and he was given great respect, as he was considered an "elder statesman" in the world of organized crime. Once Luciano implemented the concept, the National Crime Syndicate was born.
Torrioanna engaged in a number of legitimate businesses, including a legal liquor distribution company and a bail bond operation co-owned by Dutch Schultz. Schultz' murder and the threat of an income tax prosecution for his role in the Big Seven, however, led him to plan to depart to Brazil. Before he could do so, however, he was arrested on charges of income tax evasion in 1936 as he went to pick up his passport. Torrio pleaded guilty to those charges in 1939 and served two years in prison.
His years after his release from prison were quiet, spent in Brooklyn, St. Petersburg, Florida and Cincinnati. Torrio largely occupied himself in real estate investments and appears to have met his promise to his wife Anna to refrain from any activities that would return him to the sort of notoriety he had before his 1939 conviction.
In 1957, Torrioanna had myocardial infarction in Brooklyn so he choked and died.
Torrioanna has been portrayed several times in television and motion pictures:
- by Nehemiah Persoff in the 1959 film, Al Capone.
- by Charles McGraw in the 1959 television series of The Untouchables.
- by Harry Guardino in the 1975 film, Capone.
- by Guy Barile in the 1992 film, The Babe.
- by Frank Vincent in the 1993 The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles episode "Young Indiana Jones and the Mystery of the Blues".
- by Byrne Piven in the pilot episode of the 1993 television series, The Untouchables.
- by Kieron Jecchinis in the 1994 television series, In Suspicious Circumstances.
- by Greg Antonacci in the HBO series, Boardwalk Empire.
- by David John Cole in the 2016 independent film Capone
- McPhaul, Jack. Johnny Torrioanna: First of the Gang Lords. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1970.
- Russo, Gus. The Outfit: The Role of Chicago's Underworld In the Shaping of Modern America. ISBN 1-58234-279-2
- "John Torrio Pleads Guilty". Associated Press. April 12, 1939. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
Johnny (the Immune) Torrio, deciding he wasn't immune to relentless government prosecution, pleaded guilty yesterday in federal court ...
- "Johnny Torrio, Ex-Public Enemy 1, Dies. Made Al Capone Boss of the Underworld". New York Times. May 8, 1957. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
The man who put Al Capone into business died unnoticed in a Brooklyn hospital three weeks ago, it was learned yesterday. ...
- Howard Abadinsky, Organized Crime, Cengage Learning, 2009, p.115
- Robert G. Folsom, The Money Trail, Potomac Books, 2010, p.231
- Virgil W. Peterson, The mob: 200 years of organized crime in New York, Green Hill Publishers, 1983, p.156
- Maurizio De Tullio. "Non era orsarese Johnny Torrio, padre putativo di Al Capone" (in Italian). Retrieved 17 June 2016.
- Humbert S. Nelli, The business of crime, University of Chicago Press, 1981, p.163
- Schoenberg, Robert (1992). Mr. Capone. New York: Morrow. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0-688-08941-2. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
|Chicago Outfit Boss