Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
|The Bloomberg School of Public Health|
|Motto||Protecting Health, Saving Lives - Millions at a Time|
|Endowment||US $360 million (2008)|
|Dean||Michael J. Klag|
|529 Full-time, 623 Part-time |
|Location||Baltimore, Maryland, USA|
The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (also referred to as The Bloomberg School or JHSPH) is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. As the first independent, degree-granting institution for research and training in public health, and the largest public health training facility in the United States, the Bloomberg School is a leading international authority on the improvement of health and prevention of disease and disability. The school's mission is to protect populations from illness and injury by pioneering new research, deploying its knowledge and expertise in the field, and educating scientists and practitioners in the global defense of human life. The school is ranked first in public health in the U.S. News and World Report rankings and has held that ranking since 1994.
Originally named the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, the school was founded in 1916 by William H. Welch with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. The school was renamed the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health on April 20, 2001 in honor of Michael Bloomberg (founder of the eponymous media company) for his financial support and commitment to the school and Johns Hopkins University. Bloomberg has donated a total of $1.1 billion to Johns Hopkins University over a period of several decades.
The school is also the founder of Delta Omega (est. 1924), the national honorary society for graduate studies in public health. The Bloomberg School is fully accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH).
In 1913, the Rockefeller Foundation sponsored a conference on the need for public health education in the United States. Foundation officials were convinced that a new profession of public health was needed. It would be allied to medicine but also distinct, with its own identity and educational institutions. The result of deliberations between public health leaders and foundation officials was the Welch-Rose Report of 1915, which laid out the need for adequately trained public health workers and envisioned an "institute of hygiene" for the United States. The Report, reflected the different preferences of the plan's two architects--William Henry Welch favoured scientific research, whereas Wickliffe Rose wanted an emphasis on public health practice.
In June 1916, the executive committee of the Rockefeller Foundation approved the plan to organize an institute or school of public health at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The institute was named the School of Hygiene and Public Health, indicating a compromise between those who wanted the practical public health training on the British model and those who favoured basic scientific research on the German model. Welch, the first Dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine also became the founding Dean of the first school of public health in the United States.
The facility is located on the former Maryland Hospital site founded in 1797. The Maryland Hospital was originally built as a hospital to care for Yellow Fever for the indigent away from the city. In 1840 the hospital expanded to exclusively care for the mentally ill. In 1873, the buildings were torn down as the facility relocated to a new site as the Spring Grove Hospital Center.
The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health represents the archetype for formalized public health education in the United States. By 1922, other schools of public health at Harvard, Columbia and Yale had all been established in accordance with the Hopkins model. The Rockefeller Foundation continued to sponsor the creation of public health schools in the United States and around the world in the 1920s and 1930s, extending the American model of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health to countries such as Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, England, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Norway, the Philippines, Poland, Rumania, Sweden, Turkey, and Yugoslavia.
Reputation and Ranking
The Bloomberg School is the largest school of public health in the world, with 530 full-time and 620 part-time faculty, and 2,030 students from 84 countries. It is home to over fifty Research Centers and Institutes with research ongoing in the U.S. and more than 90 countries worldwide. The School ranks first in federal research support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), receiving nearly 25 percent of all funds distributed among the 40 U.S. schools of public health, and has consistently been ranked first among schools of public health by U.S. News & World Report.
Academic Degrees and Departments
The School offers five Master’s degrees (Master of Public Health - MPH, Master of Science in Public Health - MSPH, Master of Health Science - MHS, Master of Health Administration - MHA, and the Master of Science - ScM) and three Doctoral degrees (Doctor of Philosophy – PhD, Doctor of Public Health – DrPH, and Doctor of Science - ScD), as well as postdoctoral training and residency programs in general preventive medicine and occupational medicine. The School also offers a host of combined and certificate training programs in various areas of public health. The Bloomberg School is composed of ten academic departments:
- Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
- Environmental Health Sciences
- Health, Behavior and Society
- Health Policy and Management
- International Health
- Mental Health
- Molecular Microbiology and Immunology
- MPH Program (School-wide)
- Population, Family and Reproductive Health
- Graduate Training Program in Clinical Investigation (JHSPH and JHU School of Medicine collaborative program)
The Bloomberg School of Public Health is located in the East Baltimore campus of the Johns Hopkins University. The campus, collectively known as the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI), is also home to the School of Medicine and the School of Nursing and comprises several city blocks, radiating outwards from the Billings Building of the Johns Hopkins Hospital with its historic dome. The main building on which the school is located is on North Wolfe Street; it has nine floors and features an observation area and a fitness center on the top floor. The Bloomberg School also occupies Hampton House on North Broadway. The school is also serviced by the Welch Medical Library, a central resource shared by all the schools of the Medical Campus. The campus includes the Lowell Reed Residence Hall and the Denton Cooley Recreational Center. Public transportation to and from the campus is served by the Baltimore Metro Subway, local buses, and the JHMI shuttle.
Some of the graduates of the Bloomberg School of Public Health include
- Leroy Edgar Burney: 8th Surgeon General of the United States, first to publicly identify cigarette smoke as a cause of lung cancer
- Virginia Apgar: Apgar test, Anesthesiology, Teratology, founder of the field of Neonatology
- Alexander Langmuir: Epidemiologist, founder of the Epidemic Intelligence Service
- George W. Comstock: Epidemiologist, Pioneer of tuberculosis control and treatment
- Martha E. Rogers: Major figure in Nursing theory, created the Science of Unitary Human Beings
- Donald A. Henderson: Eradication of smallpox, Presidential Medal of Freedom, former Dean 1977–1990
- Andrew Spielman: Major figure in the modern history of public health entomology & vector-borne diseases
- Alfred Sommer: Nutrition, Discovered efficacy of Vitamin A in reducing child mortality, former Dean 1990–2005
- Miriam Were: African health advocate, recipient of the Légion d'honneur & the Hideyo Noguchi Africa Prize
- António Correia de Campos: Member of the European Parliament since 2009; Health Minister of Portugal 2001–2002, 2005–2008
- Antonia Novello: 14th Surgeon General of the United States
- Bernard Roizman: Virologist, world's foremost expert on the Herpes Simplex Virus
- Linda Rosenstock: Dean of the University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health
- Peter Pronovost: Intensive care checklist protocol, Time 100 (2008), MacArthur Fellow
- Miriam Alexander: President of the American College of Preventive Medicine
- Sanjay Ghose: Indian rural development activist who pioneered rural community health and development media initiatives
- Warren Winkler: Director of American Hospital of Istanbul - retired
Deans of the School
The official title of the head of the School has changed periodically between Director and Dean throughout the years. Originally the title was Director. In 1931, it was changed to Dean and in 1946 back to Director. In 1958, the title again became Dean. The Deans (Directors) of the Bloomberg School include:
- William H. Welch (1916–1927)
- William Henry Howell (1927–1931)
- Wade Hampton Frost (1931–1934)
- Allen W. Freeman (1934–1937)
- Lowell Reed (1937–1947)
- Ernest L. Stebbins (1947–1967)
- John C. Hume (1967–1977)
- Donald A. Henderson (1977–1990)
- Alfred Sommer (1990–2005)
- Michael J. Klag (2005–present)
- American Journal of Epidemiology
- Epidemiologic Reviews
- Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action (PCHP)
- Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
- The Johns Hopkins Public Health Magazine
- "The School at a Glance".
- "Michael J. Klag JHSPH Faculty Profile".
- The World Book Encyclopedia, 1994, p. 135.
- Education of the Physician: International Dimensions. Education Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates., Association of American Medical Colleges. Meeting. (1984 : Chicago, Ill), p. v.
- Milton Terris, "The Profession of Public Health", Conference on Education, Training, and the Future of Public Health. March 22–24, 1987. Board on Health Care Services. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, p. 53.
- Cecil G. Sheps (1973). "Schools of public health in transition". The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society 51 (4): 462–468. JSTOR 3349628.
- "Rankings of Public Health Programs, U.S. News and World Report".
- "Bloomberg School Receives Seven Year Accreditation".
- Gebbie, Rosenstock & Hernandez (2003), p. 228
- Gebbie, Rosenstock & Hernandez (2003), p. 229
- Laura Rice. Maryland History in Prints. p. 122.
- Gebbie, Rosenstock & Hernandez (2003), p. 230
- "Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) Profile".
- "Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Research Map".
- "Schools of Public Health Application Service (SOPHAS): JHSPH Departmental Degrees & Admissions Profile" (PDF).
- "The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions".
- "JHMI Shuttle Service".
- Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center
- Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
- Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Degrees and Admissions Information (SOPHAS)
- Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Research Centers & Institutes
- Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Opencourseware (OCW) Project
- Johns Hopkins Public Health Preparedness Programs (JHPHPP)
- Johns Hopkins Public Health News Center
- JHSPH Delta Omega Society, Alpha Chapter