Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
|Motto||Protecting Health, Saving Lives – Millions at a Time|
|Type||Private public health graduate school|
|Johns Hopkins University|
|Endowment||US $632 million (2022)|
|Dean||Ellen J. MacKenzie|
|875 primary, 833 affiliated|
The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health is the public health graduate school of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. As the first independent, degree-granting institution for research in epidemiology and training in public health, and the largest public health training facility in the United States, the school is ranked first in public health in the U.S. News & World Report rankings and has held that ranking since 1994. The school is ranked second for public health in the world by Shanghai Rankings.
Originally named the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, the school was founded in 1916 by William H. Welch with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. The school was renamed the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health on April 20, 2001, in honor of Michael Bloomberg (founder of the eponymous media company) for his financial support and commitment to the school and Johns Hopkins University. Bloomberg has donated a total of $2.9 billion to Johns Hopkins University over a period of several decades.
The school is also the founder of Delta Omega (est. 1924), the national honorary society for graduate training in public health. The Bloomberg School is fully accredited by the Council on Education for Public Health (CEPH).
In 1913, the Rockefeller Foundation sponsored a conference on the need for public health education in the United States. Foundation officials were convinced that a new profession of public health was needed. It would be allied to medicine but also distinct, with its own identity and educational institutions. The result of deliberations between public health leaders and foundation officials was the Welch–Rose Report of 1915, which laid out the need for adequately trained public health workers, and envisioned an "institute of hygiene" for the United States. The report reflected the different preferences of the plan's two architects—William Henry Welch favored scientific research, whereas Wickliffe Rose wanted an emphasis on public health practice.
In June 1916, the executive committee of the Rockefeller Foundation approved the plan to organize an institute or school of public health at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. The institute was named the School of Hygiene and Public Health, indicating a compromise between those who wanted the practical public health training on the British model and those who favored basic scientific research on the German model. Welch, the first dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, also became the founding dean of the first school of public health in the United States.
The facility is located on the former Maryland Hospital site founded in 1797. The Maryland Hospital was originally built as a hospital to care for Yellow Fever for the indigent away from the city. In 1840, the hospital expanded to exclusively care for the mentally ill. In 1873, the buildings were torn down as the facility relocated to a new site as the Spring Grove Hospital Center.
The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health represents the archetype for formalized public health training and epidemiology education in the United States. By 1922, other schools of public health at Harvard, Columbia and Yale had all been established in accordance with the Hopkins model. The Rockefeller Foundation continued to sponsor the creation of public health schools in the United States and around the world in the 1920s and 1930s, extending the American model of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health to countries such as Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, England, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Norway, the Philippines, Poland, Rumania, Sweden, Turkey, and Yugoslavia.
The official title of the head of the school has changed periodically between director and dean throughout the years. Originally the title was director. In 1931, it was changed to dean and in 1946 back to director. In 1958, the title again became dean. The directors and deans of the Bloomberg School include:
- William H. Welch (1916–1927)
- William Henry Howell (1927–1931)
- Wade Hampton Frost (1931–1934)
- Allen W. Freeman (1934–1937)
- Lowell Reed (1937–1947)
- Ernest L. Stebbins (1947–1967)
- John C. Hume (1967–1977)
- Donald A. Henderson (1977–1990)
- Alfred Sommer (1990–2005)
- Michael J. Klag (2005–2017)
- Ellen J. MacKenzie (2017–present)
Reputation and ranking
The Bloomberg School is the largest school of public health in the world, with 875 primary and 833 affiliated faculty, and 3,639 students from 97 countries. It is home to over 80 research centers and institutes with research ongoing in the U.S. and more than 60 countries worldwide. The school ranks first in federal research support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), receives nearly 25 percent of all funds distributed among the 40 U.S. schools of public health, and has consistently been ranked first among schools of public health by U.S. News & World Report.
Academic degrees and departments
The school offers master's degrees, doctoral degrees, postdoctoral training, and residency programs in general preventive medicine and occupational medicine. and combined and certificate training programs in various areas of public health. It is composed of 10 academic departments:
- Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
- Environmental Health and Engineering
- Epidemiology: has the largest overall postdoctoral training program in the School of Public Health. Many postdoctoral fellows and predoctoral trainees (master's level and doctoral level degree students) are supported by NIH-funded training programs. Affiliated centers and institutes include George W. Comstock Center for Public Health Research and Prevention and the Wendy Klag Center for Autism and Developmental Disabilities.
- Health, Behavior and Society
- Health Policy and Management
- International Health
- Mental Health
- Molecular Microbiology and Immunology
- Population, Family and Reproductive Health
The Bloomberg School of Public Health is located in the East Baltimore campus of the Johns Hopkins University. The campus, collectively known as the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI), is also home to the School of Medicine and the School of Nursing and comprises several city blocks, radiating outwards from the Billings Building of the Johns Hopkins Hospital with its historic dome. The main building on which the school is located is on North Wolfe Street; it has nine floors and features an observation area and a fitness center on the top floor. The Bloomberg School also occupies Hampton House on North Broadway. The school is also serviced by the Welch Medical Library, a central resource shared by all the schools of the Medical Campus. The campus includes the Lowell Reed Residence Hall and the Denton Cooley Recreational Center. Public transportation to and from the campus is served by the Baltimore Metro Subway, local buses, and the JHMI shuttle.
Some of the graduates of the Bloomberg School of Public Health include
- Dr. Chen Chien-jen – Vice President of Taiwan (2016–); former Minister of Health, VP and Academician of national academic institute (Academia Sinica)
- Leroy Edgar Burney: 8th Surgeon General of the United States, first to publicly identify cigarette smoke as a cause of lung cancer
- Virginia Apgar: Apgar test, Anesthesiology, Teratology, founder of the field of Neonatology
- Dorland J. Davis: 3rd Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
- Alexander Langmuir: Epidemiologist, founder of the Epidemic Intelligence Service
- George W. Comstock: Epidemiologist, Pioneer of tuberculosis control and treatment
- Martha E. Rogers: Major figure in Nursing theory, created the Science of Unitary Human Beings
- Donald A. Henderson: Eradication of smallpox, Presidential Medal of Freedom, former Dean 1977–1990
- Andrew Spielman: Major figure in the modern history of public health entomology & vector-borne diseases
- Alfred Sommer: Nutrition, Discovered efficacy of Vitamin A in reducing child mortality, former Dean 1990–2005
- Miriam Were: African health advocate, recipient of the Légion d'honneur & the Hideyo Noguchi Africa Prize
- António Correia de Campos: Member of the European Parliament since 2009; Health Minister of Portugal 2001–2002, 2005–2008
- Antonia Novello: 14th Surgeon General of the United States
- Bernard Roizman: Virologist, world's foremost expert on the Herpes Simplex Virus
- Linda Rosenstock: Dean of the University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health
- Peter Pronovost: Intensive care checklist protocol, Time 100 (2008), MacArthur Fellow
- Miriam Alexander: President of the American College of Preventive Medicine
- Dorry Segev, Israeli-born Marjory K. and Thomas Pozefsky Professor of Surgery at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Professor of Epidemiology at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Associate Vice Chair of the Department of Surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital
- Paul B. Spiegel Humanitarian health leader
- John Travis: Pioneer in the Wellness movement
- Sanjay Ghose: Indian rural development activist who pioneered rural community health and development media initiatives
- Abdullah Baqui: public health scientist
- Lolade Adeyemi, Nigerian medical doctor 
- Anna Baejter: Physiologist known for her work on the carcinogenic effects of Chromium
- Hugo López-Gatell: Deputy Secretary of Prevention and Health Promotion of Mexico
- Suzanne Maman: HIV/AIDS researcher
- American Journal of Epidemiology
- Epidemiologic Reviews
- Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action (PCHP)
- Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
- Hopkins Bloomberg Public Health Magazine
- "What is Public Health?". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "The School at a Glance".
- "Ellen J. MacKenzie, PhD". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "Welch-Rose Blueprint" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 14, 2016. Retrieved November 10, 2017.
- The World Book Encyclopedia, 1994, p. 135.
- Education of the Physician: International Dimensions. Education Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates., Association of American Medical Colleges. Meeting. (1984 : Chicago, Ill), p. v.
- Milton Terris, "The Profession of Public Health", Conference on Education, Training, and the Future of Public Health. March 22–24, 1987. Board on Health Care Services. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, p. 53.
- Cecil G. Sheps (1973). "Schools of public health in transition". The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society. 51 (4): 462–468. doi:10.2307/3349628. JSTOR 3349628.
- "Rankings of Public Health Programs, U.S. News & World Report".
- "ShanghaiRanking's Global Ranking of Academic Subjects".
- "What is the Delta Omega Alpha Chapter?". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "The Delta Omega Public Health Honorary Society". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "Bloomberg School Receives Seven Year Accreditation".
- Gebbie, Rosenstock & Hernandez (2003), p. 228
- Gebbie, Rosenstock & Hernandez (2003), p. 229
- Rice, Laura (2002). Maryland History in Prints. p. 122.
- Gebbie, Rosenstock & Hernandez (2003), p. 230
- "The Institutional Records of The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health". Medical Archives. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) Profile". Archived from the original on March 20, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
- "Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Research Map". Archived from the original on June 15, 2009. Retrieved June 17, 2009.
- "Master's Programs at Bloomberg School of Public Health". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
- "Doctoral Degrees at Bloomberg School of Public Health". Retrieved January 11, 2022.
- "Postdoctoral Training". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "Residency Programs". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "Combined Programs". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "Certificate Programs". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "Departments". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "JHSPH - Distribution of Postdoctoral Fellows by Department". Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- Greer, Spencer. "Training Programs". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved September 10, 2015.
- "Health Policy and Management". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "International Health". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions".
- "Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions Housing". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "JHMI Shuttle Service". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "CHIT Chat webinar: What is Preventive Medicine?". American College of Preventive Medicine. December 9, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
- "Abdullah Baqui, MBBS". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- "She-EO 6 Stage". She-EO. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
- Adepoju, Taiwo. "10:10 #PAW INTERVIEW SERIES: WOMEN WITH A DIFFERENCE WITH OLOLADE ADEYEMI". Phenomenal African Woman. Retrieved July 8, 2020.
- "Anna M Baetjer, ScD". Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- Gebbie, Kristine; Rosenstock, Linda; Hernandez, Lyla M., eds. (2003). Who will keep the public healthy?: Educating public health professionals for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-08542-X.