Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
|Type||Private medical school|
|Johns Hopkins University|
|President||Ronald J. Daniels|
|Students||480 M.D. 1,400 total|
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM) is the medical school of Johns Hopkins University, a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1893, the School of Medicine shares a campus with the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Children's Center, established in 1889. It has consistently ranked among the top medical schools in the United States in terms of the number of research grants awarded by the National Institutes of Health and other measures.
The founding physicians (the "Four Doctors") of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine included pathologist William Henry Welch (1850–1934), the first dean of the school and a mentor to generations of research scientists; a Canadian, internist Sir William Osler (1849–1919), regarded as the Father of Modern Medicine, having been perhaps the most influential physician of the late 19th and early 20th centuries as author of The Principles and Practice of Medicine (1892), written at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and published for more than a century; surgeon William Stewart Halsted (1852–1922), who revolutionized surgery by insisting on subtle skill and technique, as well as strict adherence to sanitary procedures; and gynecologist Howard Atwood Kelly (1858–1943), a superb gynecological surgeon credited with establishing gynecology as a specialty and being among the first to use radium to treat cancer.
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, which was finally begun 17 years after its original visionary benefactor Johns Hopkins (1795–1873), died and opened only with the large financial help offered by several wealthy daughters of the city's business elite on condition that the medical school be open equally to students of both sexes, consequently one of the first co-educational medical colleges.
The School of Medicine shares a campus with the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Children's Center, its main teaching hospitals, as well as several other regional medical centers, including Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center on Eastern Avenue in East Baltimore; the Howard County General Hospital, near Ellicott City, southwest of Baltimore; Suburban Hospital in Bethesda, (northwest of Washington, D.C.); Sibley Memorial Hospital in Washington, D.C.; and Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital in St. Petersburg, Florida. Together, they form an academic health science centre.
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine is the home of many medical advancements and contributions, including the first of many to admit women and to introduce rubber gloves, which provided a sterile approach to conducting surgical procedures. Johns Hopkins has also published The Harriet Lane Handbook, an indispensable tool for pediatricians, for over 60 years. The Lieber Institute for Brain Development is an affiliate of the School.
According to the Flexner Report, Hopkins has served as the model for American medical education. Its major teaching hospital, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, was ranked the top hospital in the United States every year from 1991 to 2011 by U.S. News & World Report.
Upon matriculation, medical students at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine are divided into four colleges named after famous Hopkins faculty members who have had an impact in the history of medicine (Florence Sabin, Vivien Thomas, Daniel Nathans, and Helen Taussig). The colleges were established to "foster camaraderie, networking, advising, mentoring, professionalism, clinical skills, and scholarship" in 2005. In each incoming class, 30 students are assigned to each college, and each college is further subdivided into six molecules of five students each. Each molecule is advised and taught by a faculty advisor, who instructs them in Clinical Foundations of Medicine, a core first-year course, and continues advising them throughout their 4 years of medical school. The family within each college of each molecule across the four years who belong to a given advisor is referred to as a macromolecule. Every year, the colleges compete in the "College Olympics" in late October, a competition that includes athletic events and sports, as well as art battles and dance-offs.
Thomas College was named for Vivien Thomas, the surgical technician who was the driving force behind the successful creation of the Blalock-Taussig Shunt procedure (now renamed Blalock-Taussig-Thomas shunt). Thomas did not receive rightful credit for decades due to racial discrimination (Thomas was African-American). His story was detailed in the 2004 HBO documentary Something the Lord Made
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine is led by Ronald J. Daniels, the president of the Johns Hopkins University, Paul B. Rothman, CEO and dean of the medical faculty, and Redonda Miller, president of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and health system. The CFO of Johns Hopkins Medicine is Richard A. Grossi, who is also the Senior Associate Dean for Finance and Administration and executive vice president of Johns Hopkins Medicine.
- Gregg L. Semenza – Faculty, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2019
- William Kaelin Jr. – former resident, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2019
- Carol Greider – Faculty, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2009
- Richard Axel – MD 1971, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2004
- Peter Agre – MD 1974, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2003
- Paul Greengard – PhD 1953, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2000
- Henry David Abraham – MD 1967, Nobel Peace Prize (co-recipient), 1985
- David H. Hubel – former resident, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1981
- Torsten Wiesel – Faculty, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1981
- Hamilton O. Smith – Faculty, MD 1956, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1978
- Daniel Nathans – Faculty, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1978
- Haldan Keffer Hartline – MD 1927, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1967
- Francis Peyton Rous – MD, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1966
- Joseph Erlanger – MD 1899, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1944
- Herbert Spencer Gasser – MD 1915, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1944
- George Minot – Assistant in Medicine, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1934
- George Whipple – MD 1905, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1934
- Thomas Hunt Morgan – PhD 1890, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1933
Notable faculty and alumni
- John Jacob Abel – Pharmacologist, founder and chair of the first department of pharmacology in the U.S.
- Fuller Albright – endocrinologist, trained at Johns Hopkins; Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy; McCune–Albright syndrome
- Dorothy Hansine Andersen – identified cystic fibrosis and Andersen's disease
- John Auer – physiologist and pharmacologist, namesake of the Auer rod in acute myeloid leukemia
- Stanhope Bayne-Jones – Bacteriologist and U.S. Army Brigadier General
- Jeremy M. Berg – former Director of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry; co-author of the Biochemistry textbook
- George Packer Berry – Dean of Harvard Medical School
- John Shaw Billings – Civil War surgeon, pioneering leader in hygiene
- Alfred Blalock – Developed field of cardiac surgery; Blalock–Taussig shunt
- Eugene Braunwald – acclaimed cardiologist, trained at Hopkins; editor of Braunwald's Heart Disease, now in its 11th edition; longtime editor of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
- Max Brödel – Medical illustrator; illustrated for Harvey Cushing, William Halsted and Howard Kelly
- William R. Brody – Radiologist, President of the Salk Institute, former President of Johns Hopkins University
- Ernesto Bustamante – Biochemist & Molecular Biologist, ex Chief of the National Institute of Health of Peru, Elected Member of Parliament of Peru 2021-2026
- Ben Carson – retired pediatric neurosurgeon, U. S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, awarded Presidential Medal of Freedom
- Caroline August Chandler – Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Patricia Charache – Microbiologist and infectious disease specialist
- Denton Cooley – cardiovascular surgeon
- John Fielding Crigler – pediatrician; first described Crigler–Najjar syndrome
- Thomas Stephen Cullen – helped establish the first gynecologic pathology laboratory, and advanced understanding of endometriosis, among other gynecologic conditions
- Harvey Cushing – Father of modern neurosurgery; Cushing's syndrome; Cushing ulcer
- Walter Dandy – Neurosurgeon, namesake of the Dandy-Walker malformation
- George Delahunty – physiologist and endocrinologist; Lilian Welsh Professor of Biology at Goucher College
- Harry Dietz – pediatric geneticist; described Loeys–Dietz syndrome
- Catherine Clarke Fenselau – Biochemist and mass spectrometrist
- Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr. – described Li–Fraumeni syndrome; trained at Johns Hopkins
- Irwin Freedberg – former Director of Dermatology
- Ernest William Goodpasture – pathologist, described Goodpasture syndrome
- William Halsted – Father of modern surgery; one of the four founders of Johns Hopkins Medicine
- J. William Harbour M.D. – Ocular oncologist, cancer researcher and vice chairman at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute in Miami
- Andy Harris – U.S. Congressman, 1st District of Maryland
- Tinsley R. Harrison – Cardiologist, editor of the first five editions of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
- Arthur Douglass Hirschfelder - apprentice of William Osler; Johns Hopkins' first full-time cardiologist
- Leroy Hood – Invented automated DNA and protein sequencing, Lasker Award winner, entrepreneur
- Howard A. Howe – Polio researcher
- Ralph H. Hruban – expert on pancreatic cancer; authored more than 700 peer-reviewed manuscripts and five books; recognized by Essential Science Indicators as the most highly cited pancreatic cancer scientist
- Kay Redfield Jamison – Psychologist and psychiatry professor, author of An Unquiet Mind
- James Jude – Father of CPR; thoracic surgeon who developed cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- William Kaelin Jr. – Nobel laureate, trained in internal medicine at Johns Hopkins
- Leo Kanner – Father of child psychiatry; first described autism in Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact (1943)
- Chester Keefer – "Penicillin czar" during World War II, managed distribution and allocation of the then-new drug for civilian uses in the US; dean of the Boston University School of Medicine.
- Howard Kelly – gynecologist; credited with establishing gynecology as a specialty
- Harry Klinefelter – rheumatologist, endocrinologist, namesake of Klinefelter syndrome
- Ricardo J Komotar – neurosurgeon; the director of the University of Miami Brain Tumor Initiative, the UM Neurosurgery Residency Program, and the UM Surgical Neurooncology Fellowship Program
- William B. Kouwenhoven – electrical engineer; developed the external defibrillator and helped develop cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- Albert L. Lehninger – former chairman of Biological Chemistry; author of widely used Principles of Biochemistry textbook
- Bruce Lerman – cardiologist; Chief of the Division of Cardiology and Director of the Cardiac Electrophysiology Laboratory at Weill Cornell Medicine and the New York Presbyterian Hospital
- Michael Lesch – described Lesch–Nyhan syndrome
- Bart Loeys – pediatric geneticist; described Loeys–Dietz syndrome
- Howard Markel – pediatrician, historian of medicine, medical journalist; Guggenheim Fellow, member of the National Academy of Medicine
- Donovan James McCune – described McCune–Albright syndrome
- Paul McHugh – former psychiatrist-in-chief at Johns Hopkins
- Victor A. McKusick – Developed the field of medical genetics; namesake of McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine; founder of OMIM
- John Menkes – identified Menkes disease
- Adolf Meyer – first psychiatrist-in-chief at Johns Hopkins
- Vernon Mountcastle – Neuroscientist, Lasker Award winner
- Victor Assad Najjar – pediatrician; first described Crigler–Najjar syndrome
- William Nyhan – pediatrician, described Lesch–Nyhan syndrome
- William Osler – Father of modern medicine; Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome (hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia)
- Wilder Penfield – Pioneer of epilepsy neurosurgery; developed the cortical homunculus
- Peter Pronovost – Former anesthesiology faculty; Time 100 (2008); authored over 800 articles/chapters on patient safety; advisor to the World Health Organization's World Alliance for Patient Safety
- Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa – Neurosurgeon; former faculty in neurosurgery
- Mark M. Ravitch – Surgeon; pioneered modern surgical staples
- Dorothy Reed – Pathologist, namesake of the Reed–Sternberg cell in Hodgkin's lymphoma
- Dale G. Renlund – Cardiologist, trained at Johns Hopkins
- Mark C. Rogers – First director of the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1977; authored Rogers’ Textbook of Pediatric Intensive Care
- David Sabatini – Howard Hughes Investigator and molecular biologist, discovered mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)
- Florence Sabin – Anatomist, namesake of Sabin College at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Ernest Sachs – Neurosurgeon; graduated 1904
- Mark Schlissel – President of the University of Michigan
- Pamela Sklar – Neuroscientist and psychiatrist
- Solomon H. Snyder – Neuroscientist, Lasker Award winner
- Gertrude Stein – novelist, poet and playwright
- Charlotte Sumner – neurologist
- Helen B. Taussig – Founder of pediatric cardiology, developed Blalock–Taussig shunt; namesake of Taussig College at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Vivien Thomas – Helped develop the Blalock–Taussig shunt, namesake of Thomas College at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Thomas Turner – Microbiologist, former Dean of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (1957–68), archivist
- Victor Velculescu – Cancer genomics pioneer; entrepreneur
- Bert Vogelstein – Oncologist, trained in pediatrics; pioneer in cancer genetics, elucidated the role of p53 in cancer
- Rochelle Walensky – Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- David B. Weishampel – Paleontologist, author of The Dinosauria
- William H. Welch – Pathologist, Dean of American Medicine, first Dean of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
- Bang Wong – Creative director of the Broad Institute at MIT and Harvard University
- Hugh Hampton Young – Urologist, former head of Urology
- Elias Zerhouni – Radiologist, former Director of the NIH (2002–2008)
In popular culture
- The ABC documentary series Hopkins takes a look at the life of the medical staff and students of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System. This new series is a sequel to the 2000 ABC special Hopkins 24/7. Both Hopkins and Hopkins 24/7 were awarded the Peabody Award.
- The movie Something the Lord Made is the story of two men – an ambitious white surgeon, head of surgery at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and a gifted black carpenter turned lab technician – who defied the racial strictures of the Jim Crow South and together pioneered the field of heart surgery.
- "Fast Facts: Johns Hopkins Medicine" (PDF). Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "Hopkins Pocket Guide 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-02. Retrieved 2009-07-03.
- Fisher, Andy (2019-12-05). "Johns Hopkins Medicine: Patient Care Locations". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- Molnar, Heather. "The History of Johns Hopkins Medicine". Retrieved 2017-02-17.
- "JHU-affiliated Lieber Institute announces brain development research consortium". Retrieved 2019-07-12.
- Ludmerer, Kenneth. The Development of American Medical Education from the Turn of the Century to the Era of Managed Care . Accessed July 8, 2007
- U.S. News Best Hospitals: the Honor Roll Archived 2012-08-09 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2012-10-9.
- Stewart, RW; Barker, AR; Shochet, RB; Wright, SM (2007). "The new and improved learning community at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine resembles that at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry". Medical Teacher. 29 (4): 353–7. doi:10.1080/01421590701477423. PMID 17786750. S2CID 34265553.
- "Something the Lord Made - Rotten Tomatoes".
- The Johns Hopkins University – Nobel Prize Winners Archived 2014-02-08 at the Wayback Machine. Webapps.jhu.edu. Retrieved on 2011-04-03.
- Altman, Lawrence K., "George P. Berry, 87, Is Dead; Bacteriologist and Educator", New York Times
- "Ralph Hruban, M.D".
- "ABC Hopkins". Archived from the original on January 7, 2009.
- Abc Documentary “Hopkins” Wins Prestigious Peabody Award. Hopkinsmedicine.org (2009-04-02). Retrieved on 2011-04-03.
- Something the Lord Made – An HBO Film. Hopkinsmedicine.org. Retrieved on 2011-04-03.