Tanjung Puteri/Iskandar Puteri
|• Jawi||جوهر بهرو|
|• Simplified Chinese||新山|
|• Tamil||ஜொகூர் பாரு|
Bandaraya Selatan (Southern City)
|Motto: Berkhidmat, Berbudaya, Berwawasan
(English: "Servicing, Cultured, Visionary")
|Founded by Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim||10 March 1855
(as Tanjung Puteri)
|Granted city status||1 January 1994|
|• Mayor||Haji A. Rahim Haji Nin|
|• Council||Johor Bahru City Council|
|• City||220.00 km2 (84.94 sq mi)|
|Elevation||32 m (105 ft)|
|• Demonym||JB-ites / JB-ians / Johor Bahruans|
|Time zone||MST (UTC+8)|
|• Summer (DST)||Not observed (UTC+8)|
|Postal code||79xxx to 86xxx|
Johor Bahru (Malaysian pronunciation: [ˈjohorˈbahru], Jawi: جوهر بهرو, Chinese: 新山; pinyin: xin shan, Tamil: ஜொகூர் பாரு), formerly known as Tanjung Puteri or Iskandar Puteri, is the capital of the state of Johor in Peninsular Malaysia. Johor Bahru has a population of 497,097. It is a part of Iskandar Malaysia, the country's second largest metropolitan area with an estimated population of 1,805,0000 in 2013, and was the southernmost city in the Malay Peninsula.
Johor Bahru has been the capital of the Sultanate of Johor since 1899, when the Sultanate administration centre was moved there from Telok Blangah in Singapore. There was development and modernisation within the city during the reign of Sultan Abu Bakar with the construction of administrative buildings, schools and religious buildings. During World War II, Johor Bahru was occupied by Japanese forces from 1942 to 1945. The Japanese used the Istana Bukit Serene as their main base to launch a final attack on the last British stronghold in Singapore. After the war, Johor was administered as part of the Unfederated Malay States and Johor Bahru remained the capital. After the formation of Malaysia in 1963, Johor Bahru retained its status as state capital and was granted city status in 1994.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Capital city
- 4 Geography
- 5 Demography
- 6 Economy
- 7 Connectivity
- 8 Other utilities
- 9 Culture and leisure
- 10 International relations
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 Literature
- 15 External links
The present area of Johor Bahru was originally known as Tanjung Puteri, and was a fishing village of the Malays located near Singapore. Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim then renamed Tanjung Puteri to Iskandar Puteri once he arrived in the area in 1858 after acquiring the territory from Sultan Ali; before it was renamed Johor Bahru by Sultan Abu Bakar following Temenggong death. The British preferred to spell its name as Johore Bahru or Johore Bharu, but the current accepted western spelling is Johor Bahru, as Johore is only spelt Johor (without the letter "e" at the end of the word) in Malay language. The city is currently spelled as Johor Baru or Johor Baharu.
The city was also once known as Little Swatow (Shantou) by the Chinese community in Johor Bahru as most of Johor Bahru Chinese are Teochew people whose ancestry are come from Shantou, China in the mid 1800s, during the reign of Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim.
Due to a dispute between the Malays and Bugis, the Johor-Riau Empire, which was already split in 1819 with the mainland Johor Sultanate, came under the control of Temenggong Daeng Ibrahim while the Riau-Lingga Sultanate came under the control of the Bugis. The Temenggong intended to create a new administration centre for the Johor Sultanate to create a dynasty under the entity of Temenggong. As the Temenggong already had a close relationship with the British and the British intended to have control over trade activities in Singapore, a treaty was signed between Sultan Ali and Temenggong Ibrahim in Singapore on 10 March 1855. According to the treaty, Ali would be crowned as the Sultan of Johor and receive $5,000 (in Spanish dollars) with an allowance of $500 per month. In return, Ali was required to cede the sovereignty of the territory of Johor (except Kesang of Muar which would be the only territory under his control) to Temenggong Ibrahim. When both sides agreed on Temenggong acquiring the territory, he renamed it Iskandar Puteri and began to administer it from Telok Blangah in Singapore. As the area was still an undeveloped jungle, Temenggong encouraged the migration of Chinese and Javanese to clear the land and to develop an agricultural economy in Johor. The Chinese planted the area with black pepper and gambier, while the Javanese dug parit (canals) to drain water from the land, build roads and plant coconuts. During this time, a Chinese businessman, pepper and gambier cultivator, Wong Ah Fook arrived; at the same time, Kangchu and Javanese labour contract systems were introduced by the Chinese and Javanese communities. After Temenggong deaths on 31 January 1862, the town was renamed Johor Bahru and the administration's position was succeeded by his son, Abu Bakar with the administration centre in Telok Blangah being moved to the area in 1899.
At the first stage of Abu Bakar's administration, the British only recognised him as a maharaja rather than a sultan. In 1855, the British Colonial Office start to recognise his status as a Sultan after he met Queen Victoria. He managed to regain Kesang territory for Johor after a civil war with the aid of British forces and he boosted the town's infrastructure and agricultural economy. Infrastructure such as the State Mosque and Royal Palace was built with the aid of Wong Ah Fook, who had become a close patron for the Sultan since his migration during the Temenggong reign. As the Johor-British relationship have become close, he also set up his administration under a British style and implemented a constitution known as Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor (Johor State Constitution). Although the British have long became the adviser for the Sultanate of Johor, the Sultanate never came under direct colonial control. It only effectively came into effect when the status of adviser was elevated to a level similar to that of a Resident in the Federated Malay States (FMS) during the reign of Sultan Ibrahim in 1904. In Johor Bahru, the Malay Peninsula railway extension was completed in 1909, and the completion of a causeway in 1923 linked the railway and road systems between Singapore and the Malay Peninsula. Johor Bahru developed at a modest rate between the First and Second World Wars. The secretariat building—Sultan Ibrahim Building—was completed in 1940 as the British colonial government attempted to streamline the state's administration.
The continuous development of Johor Bahru was however halted when the Japanese under General Tomoyuki Yamashita invaded the town on 31 January 1942. As the Japanese had reached northwest Johor by 15 January, they easily captured major towns of Johor such of Batu Pahat, Yong Peng, Kluang and Ayer Hitam. The British and other Allied forces were forced to retreat towards Johor Bahru; however, following a further series of bombings by the Japanese on 29 January, the British retreated to Singapore and blew up the causeway the following day as a final attempt to stop the Japanese advancement in British Malaya. The Japanese then used the Sultan's residence of Istana Bukit Serene located in the town as their main temporary base for their future initial plans to conquest Singapore while waiting to reconnect the causeway. The Japanese choose the palace as their main base because they already knew the British would not dare to attack it as this would harm their close relationship with Johor.
In less than a month, the Japanese repaired the causeway and easily invading the whole Singapore island. Soon after the war ended in 1946, the town became the main hotspot for Malay nationalism in Malaya. Onn Jaafar, a local Malay politician who later became the Menteri Besar of Johor, formed the United Malay National Organisation party in 11 May 1946 when the Malays expressed their widespread disenchantment over the British government's action for granting citizenship laws to non-Malays in the proposed states of the Malayan Union. An agreement over the policy was then reached in the town with Malays agreeing with the dominance of economy by the non-Malays while the Malay's dominance in political matters was agreed by non-Malays. Racial conflict between the Malay and non-Malays, especially the Chinese, was however continuously been flared since the Malayan Emergency.
When the Federation of Malaya, together with North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore formed the Federation of Malaysia in 1963, Johor Bahru continued as the state capital and more development was carried out, with the town's expansion and the construction of more new townships and industrial estates. The Indonesian confrontation did not directly affect Johor Bahru as the main Indonesian landing point in Johor was in Labis. There is only one active Indonesian spy organisation in the town, known as Gerakan Ekonomi Melayu Indonesia (GEMI). They frequently engaged with the Indonesian communities living there to contribute information for Indonesian commandos until the bombing of the MacDonald House in Singapore.[note 1] By the early 1990s, the town had considerably expanded in size, and was officially granted a city status on 1 January 1994. Johor Bahru City Council was formed and the city's current main square, Dataran Bandaraya Johor Bahru, was constructed to commemorate the event. A central business district was developed in the centre of the city from the mid-1990s in the area around Wong Ah Fook Street and the Johor–Singapore Causeway. The state and federal government channelled considerable funds for the development of the city—particularly more so after 2006, when the Iskandar Malaysia was formed.
As the capital city of Johor, the city plays an important role in the economic welfare of the population of the entire state. There is one member of parliament (MP) representing the single parliamentary constituency in the city: Johor Bahru (P.160). The city also elects two representatives to the state legislature from the state assembly districts of Tanjong Puteri and Stulang.
The city is administered by the Johor Bahru City Council (Majlis Bandaraya Johor Bahru). The current mayor is Haji A. Rahim Haji Nin, who took over from Dato' Haji Abdul Rahman Mohamed Dewam on 16 August 2015. Johor Bahru obtained city status on 1 January 1994. The area under the jurisdiction of the Johor Bahru City Council includes Central District, Kangkar Tebrau, Kempas, Larkin, Majidee, Maju Jaya, Mount Austin, Pandan, Pasir Pelangi, Pelangi, Permas Jaya, Rinting, Tampoi, Tasek Utara and Tebrau. This covers an area of 220 square kilometres. In addition, the Johor Bahru metropolitan area includes the area under the jurisdiction of Johor Bahru Tengah Municipal Council, Kulai Municipal Council and Pasir Gudang Municipal Council, spanning 2,217 square kilometres.
Johor Bahru is located along the Straits of Johor which separate it from the rest of Singapore island to the south. Originally, the city area was only 12.12 square kilometres in 1933 before been expanded to over 220 square kilometres in 2000 following the expansion of development. Mount Ophir (Gunung Ledang), which stand at 1,276 metres (4,186 ft) above sea level is the highest point in Johor, located 170 km from the city centre.
The city has an equatorial climate with consistent temperatures, a considerable amount of rain and high humidity throughout the course of the year. Temperatures range from 25.5 °C (77.9 °F) to 27.8 °C (82.0 °F) with an annual rainfall of around 2,000 millimetres, mostly falling from November until February. Although the climate is relatively uniform, it can change through the Southeast Asian monsoon with variation of wind speeds and direction, cloudiness and wet and dry seasons throughout the year. There are two monsoon periods every year; the first one happens between December and February, and is known as North-East Monsoon. It is characterised by heavy rains and winds from the north east. The second one is the South-East Monsoon, characterised by relative dryness with winds driven from the south and south west. It occurs between June and August. There are two-inter Monsoon periods from March until May and from September until November, which are relatively calm with less rain and weaker winds.
|Climate data for Johor Bahru (1974–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||31.0
|Average low °C (°F)||21.9
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||162.6
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||11||9||13||15||15||12||13||13||13||16||17||15||162|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation|
Johor Bahru has an official demonym where people are commonly referred to as "Johor Bahruans". The terms "J.B-ites" and "J.B-ians" have also been used to a limited extent. People from Johor are called Johoreans.
Ethnicity and religion
The Malaysian Census in 2010 reported the population of Johor Bahru was 497,097. The city's population today is a mixture of three main races- Malays, Chinese and Indians- along with other bumiputras. Malays comprise the majority of the population at 240,323, followed by Chinese totalling 172,609, Indians totalling 33,319 and others totalling 2,957. Non-Malaysian citizens form a population of 42,585. Most of the Malays are chiefly descended from Riau Malay and Javanese stock. The Chinese mainly comprise Teochew, Hainanese and Hakka people, while the Indian community mainly consists of Tamils and Telugus. The Malays are Muslims, the Chinese are either Buddhists, Taoists, Confucianists or Christians whilst the Indians are mostly Hindus. There was also a small numbers of Sikhs, Animists and secularists.
The local ethnic Malays speak Malay, while the language primarily spoken by the local Chinese is Mandarin Chinese.The Chinese community is represented by several dialect groups: Teochew, Hainanese, Hakka, Hokkien, Cantonese, Fuzhou and Hokchia (Fuqing)  The Indian community mainly speaks Tamil and Telugu. The English language (or Manglish) is also used considerably, albeit more so among the older generation, who have attended school during the British rule.
Johor Bahru is one of the fastest-growing cities in Malaysia after Kuala Lumpur. As well as its specific location in the Indonesia–Malaysia–Singapore Growth Triangle, it become the main industrial and commercial centre for Johor. Tertiary-based industry dominates the economy with thousands of Singaporeans along with Indonesians and other international tourists visiting the city. It is the centre of financial services, commerce and retail, arts and culture, hospitality, urban tourism, plastic manufacturing, electrical and electronics and food processing. The city has a very close economic relationship with Singapore as many Singaporeans frequently visit for shopping, entertainment, and dining which increase the city income with the stronger Singapore dollar; some Singaporeans have also chosen to live in the city. Due to this, Johor Bahru's retail scene was continuously developed to meet the needs of its consumers. The main shopping districts are located within the city, with a number of large shopping malls located in the suburbs. A large numbers of the city's residents work in Singapore, where the salaries are higher than in Malaysia. The presence of Singaporean and Chinese-owned companies were also significant, with China being the fifth largest investor in Iskandar Malaysia after Singapore, the United States, Spain and Japan as of September 2014. In 2014, the sudden change of weekend rest days to Friday and Saturday from Saturday and Sunday by the Sultan of Johor had a relatively small impact to the city economy, with business especially affected, but boosted the tourism industry as the holidays would be able to start earlier on Sunday, attracting more tourists from Singapore. Johor Bahru is the location of numerous conferences, congress and trade fairs, such as the Eastern Regional Organisation for Planning and Housing and the World Islamic Economic Forum. The city is the first in Malaysia to practise a low-carbon economy.
The internal roads linking different parts of the city are mostly federal roads constructed and maintained by Malaysian Public Works Department. The five major highways linking the Johor Bahru Central Business District to outlying suburbs are Tebrau Highway and Johor Bahru Eastern Dispersal Link Expressway in the northeast, Skudai Highway in the northwest, Iskandar Coastal Highway in the west and Johor Bahru East Coast Highway in the east. Pasir Gudang Highway and the connecting Johor Bahru Parkway cross Tebrau Highway and Skudai Highway, which serve as the middle ring road of the metropolitan area. The Johor Bahru Inner Ring Road , which connects with the Sultan Iskandar customs complex, aids in controlling the traffic in and around the central business district. Access to the national expressway is provided through the North-South Expressway and Senai-Desaru Expressway . The Johor-Singapore Causeway links the city to Woodlands, Singapore with a six-lane road and a railway line terminating at the Southern Integrated Gateway. The Malaysia-Singapore Second Link , located west of the metropolitan area, was constructed in 1997 to alleviate congestion on the Causeway. It is linked directly to the Second Link Expressway . Further expansion of other major highways in the city were currently in the process.
Larkin Sentral, located 5 kilometres northwest of the city centre has direct bus services to and from many destinations in West Malaysia, southern Thailand and Singapore. Two types of taxis operate in the city; the main taxi is either in red and yellow, blue, green or red while the larger, less common type is known as a limousine taxi, which is more comfortable but expensive. Most taxis in the city are known for not using their meter. Since 2014, various taxi-booking applications have begun in the city such as Uber, and GrabTaxi. The Johor Bahru Sentral railway station serves train services to Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. In 2015, a new shuttle train service operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) was launched providing transport to Woodlands in Singapore.
The city's only airport, Senai International Airport is located about 32 kilometres north-west of the city centre. Five airlines, AirAsia, Firefly, Malaysia Airlines, Malindo Air and Xpress Air, provide flights internationally and domestically. The city will also be the main hub for a new airline called flymojo.
Johor Port is located on the eastern side of the metropolitan area in the industrial area of Pasir Gudang. It is the country's most important seaports for commodities and mineral resources seaport, as Johor is home to a large number of major commercial plantations. The port is also the location of the majority of Malaysia's resources refineries. In the west side of the metropolitan area, the Port of Tanjung Pelepas, which ranks as Malaysia’s largest container port since 2004 is ranked as the 19th busiest container port in the world as of 2013. Singapore's seaports serve Johor Bahru's transportation and logistics needs as they are less than an hour's drive from the city. Boat services are also available to ports in Sumatra.
Courts of law and legal enforcement
The city high court complex is located along Dato' Onn Road. The Sessions and Magistrate Courts is located on Ayer Molek Road, while another court for Sharia law is located on Abu Bakar Road. The Johor Police Contingent Headquarters is located on Tebrau Road. There are two district headquarters in the city, the Johor Bahru North District police headquarters in Skudai, and the Johor Bahru South District headquarters on Meldrum Road. Both also operate as police stations. There are around eleven police stations and seven police substations (Pondok Polis) in the south district while five police stations is located in the north district with six police substations. The city's north district traffic police headquarters is located along Tebrau Road while the south district is in Skudai. There is one main prison located in the city along the Ayer Molek road, but this has been closed down since 9 December 2005. Temporary lock-ups or prison cells are available in most police stations in the city.
There are three public hospitals, four health clinics and thirteen 1Malaysia clinics in Johor Bahru. Sultanah Aminah Hospital, which is located along Persiaran Road, is the largest public hospital in the state with 989 beds. Another government funded hospital is the Sultan Ismail Specialist Hospital with 700 beds. Regency Specialist Hospital in Masai is the largest private hospital with 218 beds. Another large private health facility is the KPJ Puteri Specialist Hospital with 158 beds. Further healthcare facilities are currently being expanded to improve healthcare services in the city.
Many government or state schools are available in the city. The secondary schools include Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Engku Aminah, Sekolah Menengah Infant Jesus Convent, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan (Perempuan) Sultan Ibrahim and Sekolah Menengah Saint Joseph. In the district of Johor Bahru itself, there is a total of 41 secondary schools, one religious school, three vocational schools, one technical secondary school and one fully residential school. There are also a number of independent private schools in the city. These include Austin Heights, Excelsior International School, Foon Yew High School and the Sri Ara Schools. The Sri Ara Schools provide two curricula, the British-based curriculum of International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) under Cambridge International Examinations and the National Curriculum with emphasis on the English language that leads to the Malaysian Schools Certificate. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia has its main campus in the city and is the only public university there. The other private universities are University of Southampton Malaysian Campus, Raffles University Iskandar, Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia and Wawasan Open University. There are also a number of private college campuses and one polytechnic operating in the city; these are Crescendo International College, KPJ College, Olympia College, Southern University College, Sunway College, Taylor's College, College of Islamic Studies Johor and Politeknik Ibrahim Sultan.
The Johor Public Library headquarters is the main library in the state, located off Yahya Awal Road. Another public library branch is the University Park in Kebudayaan Road, while there are other libraries or private libraries in schools, colleges, and universities. Two village libraries are available in the district of Johor Bahru.
Culture and leisure
Attractions and recreation spots
There are a number of cultural venues in Johor Bahru. The Royal Abu Bakar Museum located within the Grand Palace building is the main museum in the city. The Foon Yew High School houses many historical documents of the city history with a Chinese cultural heritage. A Chinese Heritage Museum on Ibrahim Road includes the history of Chinese migration to Johor along with a collection of documents, photos, and other artefacts. The Arts Plaza (Plaza Seni) on the Wong Ah Fook Street features the state heritage and cultures with exhibitions of art, cultural performances, clothes, fashion accessories, travel agencies, and batik fabrics.
The Johor Art Gallery (Galeri Seni Johor) in Petrie Road is a house gallery built in 1910, known as the house for the former third Menteri Besars of Johor, Abdullah Jaafar. The house features old architecture and became the centre for the collection of artefacts related to Johor's cultural history.
The Grand Palace is one of the historical attractions in the city, and is an example of Victorian-style architecture with a garden. Tokoh Museum is another historical colonial building since 1886 which is the first resident for Johor first Menteri Besar Jaafar Mohamed; it is located on the top of Smile Hill (Bukit Senyum), also overlooking the straits. The English College (now Maktab Sultan Abu Bakar) established in 1914 was located close to the Sungai Chat Palace before being moved to its present location at Sungai Chat Road; some of the ruins are visible at the old site. The Sultan Ibrahim Building is another historical building in the city; built in 1936 by British architecture Palmer and Turner, it was the centre of the administration of Johor as since the relocation from Telok Blangah in Singapore, the Johor government never had its own building. Before the current railway station was built, there was Johor Bahru railway station (formerly Wooden Railway) which has now been turned into a museum after serving for 100 years since the British colonial era.
Sultan Abu Bakar State Mosque, located along Skudai Road, is the main and oldest mosque in the state. It was built with a combination of Victorian, Moorish and Malay architectures. The Johor Bahru Old Chinese temple, located on the Trus Road, hosts the Gods of five Chinese dialects spoken in the city. It was built in 1875 and renovated by the Persekutuan Tiong Hua Johor Bahru (Johor Bahru Tiong Hua Association) in 1994-95 with the addition of a small L-shaped museum in one corner of the square premises. The Wong Ah Fook Mansion, the home of the late Wong Ah Fook, was a former historical attraction. It stood for more than 150 years but was demolished illegally by its owner in 2014 to make way for a commercial housing development without informing the state government. Other historical religious buildings include the Arulmigu Sri Rajakaliamman Hindu Temple, Sri Raja Mariamman Hindu Temple, Gurdwara Sahib and Church of the Immaculate Conception.
Leisure and conservation areas
The Danga Bay is a 25 kilometre area of recreational waterfront. There are around 15 established golf courses, of which two offer 36-hole facilities; most of these are located within resorts. The city also features a number of paintball parks which are also used for off-road motorsports activities. The Legoland Malaysia is a newly-built theme park in Nusajaya off Johor Bahru metropolitan with over 40 interactive rides, shows and attractions. It is the first legoland theme park in Asia upon its opening in 2012. The Puteri Harbour Family Theme Park also opened in 2012 and features a Sanrio Hello Kitty Town, Little Big Club and LAT's Place.
The Johor Bahru Zoo is one of the oldest zoos in Malaysia; built in 1928 covering 4 hectares (9.9 acres) of land, it was originally called “animal garden” before being handed to the state government for renovation in 1962. The zoo has around 100 species of animals, including wild cats, camels, gorillas, orangutans, and tropical birds. Visitors can participate in activities such as horse riding or using pedalos.
Dataran Bandaraya was built after Johor Bahru was proclaimed as a city on 1 January 1994. The site features a clock tower, fountain and a large field. The Laman Tun Sri Lanang (Tun Sri Lanang Park), named after Tun Sri Lanang (Bendahara of the royal Court of the Johor Sultanate in the 16th and 17th centuries) is located in the centre of the city. The Wong Ah Fook Street is named after Wong Ah Fook, a Chinese businessman who came to Johor in the 1850s, later became the royal builder, and contributed significantly to the early development of the city's infrastructure. The Tam Hiok Nee Street is named after Tan Hiok Nee, who was the leader of the former Ngee Heng Kongsi, a secret society in Johor Bahru. He was one of the city's wealthiest inhabitants, known for his pepper and gambier planting and his ownnership of significant assets within the town area. Together with the Dhoby Street, both are part of a trail known as Old Buildings Road; they feature a mixture of Chinese and Indian heritages, reflected by their forms of ethnic business and architecture.
Shopping malls in Johor Bahru include Johor Bahru City Square, ÆON Bukit Indah Shopping Centre, ÆON Tebrau, Holiday Plaza, Komtar JBCC, KSL City, Plaza Pelangi, Sutera Mall and Danga City Mall. New malls are continuously constructed in the city. Along the Sungai Chat Road located the Mawar Handicrafts Centre, a government-funded exhibition and sales centre sells various batik and songket clothes. Opposite this is the Johor Area Rehabilitation Organisation (JARO) Handicrafts Centre which sells items such as hand-made cane furniture, soft toys and rattan baskets which are produced by people who are physically disabled.
The oldest cinema in the city is the Broadway Theatre which mostly screenings Tamil and Hindi movies. There is around five new cinemas available in the city with most of them located inside shopping malls.
The city main football stadium, Tan Sri Dato Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium has a capacity of around 30,000. The stadium is the home ground of Johor Darul Ta'zim F.C., also known as JDT. There is also a futsal centre, known as Sports Prima, which has 8 minimum-sized FIFA approved futsal courts; it is the largest indoor sports centre in the city.
Johor Bahru currently has six sister cities:
- Another early attack to destabilise Malaysia was done with the murder of Malay trishaw in Singapore that led to the racial conflict between Malay and Chinese there. At the first stage of the conflict, it was alleged the murder was done by a Chinese but this was however turned down when further investigation revealed the murder was actually done by Indonesian agents who had infiltrate Singapore in an attempt to weakening the unity of race there during the state was still part of Malaysia. (Drysdale, Halim and Jamie)
- "Background (Total Area)". Johor Bahru City Council. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Malaysia Elevation Map (Elevation of Johor Bahru)". Flood Map : Water Level Elevation Map. Archived from the original on 22 August 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Population Distribution by Local Authority Areas and Mukims, 2010 (page 1 & 4)" (PDF). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- "Iskandar Malaysia Key Economic Statistics". Iskandar Regional Development Authority. Iskandar Malaysia. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Iskandar Malaysia". Johor State Government. 26 December 2013. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- Nathalie Fau; Sirivanh Khonthapane; Christian Taillard (2014). Transnational Dynamics in Southeast Asia: The Greater Mekong Subregion and Malacca Straits Economic Corridors. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 253–. ISBN 978-981-4517-89-8.
- "Johor Bahru, a city on the move". South China Morning Post. 31 August 1996. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "JB calling". The Straits Times. 7 July 2013. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- Aldo Tri Hartono (11 August 2014). "Wisata Belanja di Malaysia, Johor Bahru Tempatnya" (in Indonesian). DetikCom. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Menikmati Johor Bahru Selangkah dari Singapura" (in Indonesian). Jawa Pos Group. 4 July 2015. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- Zainol Abidin Idid (Syed.). Pemeliharaan warisan rupa bandar: panduan mengenali warisan rupa bandar berasaskan inventori bangunan warisan Malaysia (in Malay). Badan Warisan Malaysia. ISBN 978-983-99554-1-5.
- "Background of Johor Bahru City Council and History of Johor Bahru" (PDF). Malaysian Digital Repository. 12 March 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- Margaret W. Young; Susan L. Stetler; United States. Department of State (October 1985). Cities of the world: a compilation of current information on cultural, geograph. and polit. conditions in the countries and cities of 6 continents, based on the Dep. of State's "Post Reports". Gale. ISBN 978-0-8103-2059-8.
- Gordon D. Feir (10 September 2014). Translating the Devil: Captain Llewellyn C Fletcher Canadian Army Intelligence Corps In Post War Malaysia and Singapore. Lulu Publishing Services. pp. 378–. ISBN 978-1-4834-1507-9.
- Cheah Boon Kheng (1 January 2012). Red Star Over Malaya: Resistance and Social Conflict During and After the Japanese Occupation, 1941-1946. NUS Press. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-9971-69-508-8.
- Carl Parkes (1994). Southeast Asia Handbook. Moon Publications.
- Faridah Abdul Rashid (2012). Biography Of The Early Malay Doctors 1900-1957 Malaya And Singapore. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 383–. ISBN 978-1-4771-5994-1.
- "Keeping the art of Teochew opera alive". New Straits Times. AsiaOne. 24 July 2010. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- Swaran Ludher (22 January 2015). THEY CAME TO MALAYA. Xlibris Corporation. pp. 60–. ISBN 978-1-5035-0036-5.
- M. A. Fawzi Mohd. Basri (1988). Johor, 1855-1917: pentadbiran dan perkembangannya (in Malay). Fajar Bakti. ISBN 978-967-933-717-4.
- "Johor Treaty is signed". National Library Board. 10 March 1855. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- Abdul Ghani Hamid (3 October 1988). "Tengku Ali serah Johor kepada Temenggung (Kenangan Sejarah)" (in Malay). Berita Harian. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- "History of the Johor Sultanate". Coronation of HRH Sultan Ibrahim. 2015. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- S. Muthiah (19 June 2015). "The city that gambier built". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- Carl A. Trocki (2007). Prince of Pirates: The Temenggongs and the Development of Johor and Singapore, 1784-1885. NUS Press. pp. 152–. ISBN 978-9971-69-376-3.
- Patricia Pui Huen Lim (1 July 2000). Oral History in Southeast Asia: Theory and Method. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 119–. ISBN 978-981-230-027-0.
- Patricia (2002), p. 129–132
- Muzaffar Husain Syed; Syed Saud Akhtar; B D Usmani (14 September 2011). Concise History of Islam. Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. pp. 316–. ISBN 978-93-82573-47-0.
- Dominique Grele (1 January 2004). 100 Resorts Malaysia: Places with a Heart. Asiatype, Inc. pp. 292–. ISBN 978-971-0321-03-2.
- Cheah Jin Seng (15 March 2008). Malaya: 500 Early Postcards. Didier Millet Pte, Editions. ISBN 978-981-4155-98-4.
- Fr Durand; Richard Curtis (28 February 2014). Maps of Malaysia and Borneo: Discovery, Statehood and Progress. Editions Didier Millet. pp. 177–. ISBN 978-967-10617-3-2.
- "Johor is brought under British control". National Library Board. 12 May 1914. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
- Winstedt (1992), p. 141
- Winstedt (1992), p. 143
- Oakley (2009), p. 181
- Patricia Pui Huen Lim; Diana Wong (1 January 2000). War and Memory in Malaysia and Singapore. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 140–145. ISBN 978-981-230-037-9.
- Richard Reid. "War for the Empire: Malaya and Singapore, Dec 1941 to Feb 1942". Australian War Memorial. Australia-Japan Research Project. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- Bill Yenne (20 September 2014). The Imperial Japanese Army: The Invincible Years 1941–42. Osprey Publishing. pp. 140–. ISBN 978-1-78200-982-5.
- Wendy Moore (1998). West Malaysia and Singapore. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 186–187. ISBN 978-962-593-179-1.
- Swan Sik Ko (1990). Nationality and International Law in Asian Perspective. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 314–. ISBN 0-7923-0876-X.
- Keat Gin Ooi (1 January 2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1365–. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.
- Christoph Marcinkowski; Constance Chevallier-Govers; Ruhanas Harun (2011). Malaysia and the European Union: Perspectives for the Twenty-first Century. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-3-643-80085-5.
- M. Stenson (1 November 2011). Class, Race, and Colonialism in West Malaysia. UBC Press. pp. 89–. ISBN 978-0-7748-4440-6.
- Arthur Cotterell (15 July 2014). A History of South East Asia. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. pp. 341–. ISBN 978-981-4634-70-0.
- K. Vara (16 February 1989). "Quiet town with a troubled past". New Straits Times. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- Mohamed Effendy Abdul Hamid; Kartini Saparudin (2014). "MacDonald House bomb explosion". National Library Board. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- "Background" (in English and Malay). Johor Bahru City Council. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- Zaini Ujang (2009). The Elevation of Higher Learning. ITBM. pp. 46–. ISBN 978-983-068-464-2.
- Oxford Business Group Malaysia. The Report: Malaysia 2010 - Oxford Business Group. Oxford Business Group. pp. 69–. ISBN 978-1-907065-20-0.
- "List of Parliamentary Elections Parts and State Legislative Assemblies on Every States". Ministry of Information Malaysia. Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Mayor's Profile". Johor Bahru City Council. Archived from the original on 3 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Administrative areas of Johor Bahru City Council". Johor Bahru City Council. Archived from the original on 27 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "Johor Bahru and Conurbation Transformation Plan (Johor Bahru Conurbation in context of Iskandar Malaysia)" (PDF). Iskandar Regional Development Authority. Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister's Department Malaysia. 2011. p. 6. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- Eric Wolanski (18 January 2006). The Environment in Asia Pacific Harbours. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 349–. ISBN 978-1-4020-3654-5.
- Al-Gailani, S.A.; Mohammad, A.B.; Shaddad, R.Q. (2012). "Evaluation of a 1 Gb/s Free Space Optic system in typical Malaysian weather". Penang, Malaysia: IEEE Xplore. pp. 121–124. doi:10.1109/ICP.2012.6379839. ISBN 978-1-4673-1461-9. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- Al-Gailani, S.A.; Siat Ling Jong; Michele D’Amico; Jafri Din; Hong Yin Lam (5 January 2014). "Analysis of Fade Dynamic at Ku-Band in Malaysia". Hindawi Publishing Corporation. p. 7. doi:10.1155/2014/741678. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- A.N.M. Ludin; A.S. Barau (2011). "Industrial Agitation vs. Climate Disruption: Flood Vulnerabilities & Spatial Planning in Iskandar Metropolis (Geographical Data)" (PDF). Centre for Innovative Planning and Development (CIBD) – Faculty of Building Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. START. p. 11. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- "World Weather Information Service — Johor Bahru". World Meteorological Organisation. Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- Nelson Benjamin (28 April 2015). "Sultan wants all Johoreans to unite". The Star. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Population Distribution by Local Authority Areas and Mukims, 2010" (PDF). Statistics Department, Malaysia. December 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Guinness (1992), "In 1931 the 'Malayan' (Malay) population of Johor Bahru District, into which Mukim Plentong had been absorbed, comprised 10,990 (55 per cent) Malays and 6,641 (33 per cent) Javanese in a total of 19,822." p. 30
- Eileen Lee; Shin Pyng Wong; Lyon Laxman (April 2014). "Language Maintenance and Cultural Viability in the Hainanese Community: A Case Study of the Melaka Hainanese" (PDF). Athens Journal of Humanities & Arts. Athens Institute for Education and Research. p. 159. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- "SP Balu to perform in Malaysia". The Times of India. 10 January 2015. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
- Robbie B.H. Goh (1 March 2005). Contours of Culture: Space and Social Difference in Singapore. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 3–. ISBN 978-962-209-731-5.
- "Flagship A: Johor Bahru City". Iskandar Regional Development Authority. Iskandar Malaysia. Archived from the original on 27 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- Tash Aw (13 May 2015). "With more Singaporeans in Iskandar, signs of accelerating détente with Malaysia". The New York Times. The Malay Mail. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Zazali Musa (14 July 2015). "Lure of the Singapore dollar". The Star. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "More M'sians prefer to earn S'pore wages". Daily Express. 15 July 2015. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Karen Chiu; Grace Cao (5 December 2013). "Chinese investors home in on buoyant Malaysia". The Standard. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Vivien Teu (12 February 2014). "China developers target Johor Bahru". Perspectives. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "Iskandar Malaysia Records RM158.13 billion in Investments For Year 2014". Iskandar Regional Development Authority. Iskandar Malaysia. 10 March 2015. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Dominic Loh (24 November 2013). "Changed weekends could impact Johor's economy". My Sinchew. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- "46th EAROPH Regional Conference, Iskandar, Malaysia, Thistle Hotel, Johor Bahru" (PDF). Eastern Regional Organisation for Planning and Housing. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "8th WIEF Johor Bahru, Malaysia". 8th World Islamic Economic Forum. 2012. Archived from the original on 27 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "Low carbon city report focus on Johor Bahru, Malaysia". British High Commission, Kuala Lumpur. Government of the United Kingdom. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- Simon Richmond; Damian Harper (December 2006). Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. pp. 247–253. ISBN 978-1-74059-708-1.
- "Chapter 15: Urban Linkage System (Section B: Planning and Implementation)" (PDF). Iskandar Malaysia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Larkin Bus Terminal". Express Bus Malaysia. Archived from the original on 28 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Johor Bahru Taxi". Taxi Johor Bahru. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- Daniel Tay (22 August 2014). "Uber secretly arrives in Johor Bahru with free rides in hand". Tech in Asia. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- Steven Loeb (1 July 2015). "GrabTaxi raises $200M, now valued at $1.5B". Vator. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "From Singapore to KL by train". The Malaysia Site. Archived from the original on 28 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Singapore to Malaysia in just 5 minutes? It’s now possible". The Straits Times/Asia News Network. Philippine Daily Inquirer. 5 July 2015. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "Malaysia's new airline in $1.5bn deal with Bombardier". BBC News. 18 March 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
- "Profit From Malaysia's Petrochemical Industry (Pasir Gudang-Tanjung Langsat, Johor)" (PDF). Malaysian Industrial Development Authority. 2011. p. 6. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 July 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Senarai Mahkamah Johor" (in Malay). Johor Law Courts Official Website. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Johore Syariah Court Directory". E-Syariah Malaysia. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Johor Police Contingent". Johor Police Contingent. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Direktori PDRM Johor - Johor Bahru (Utara)" (in Malay). Royal Malaysia Police. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Direktori PDRM Johor - Johor Bahru (Selatan)" (in Malay). Royal Malaysia Police. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Penjara Johor Bahru Dalam Kenangan" (in Malay). Prison Department of Malaysia. 12 December 2007. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Prison Address & Directory". Prison Department of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Direktori Hospital-Hospital Kerajaan" (in Malay). Johor State Health Department. Archived from the original on 3 August 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- "Academic (Clinical) Vacancies" (PDF). Newcastle University Medical School. p. 15. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- "Direktori Hospital-Hospital Kerajaan" (in Malay). Johor State Health Department. Archived from the original on 3 August 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- "Introduction". Regency Specialist Hospital. Archived from the original on 3 August 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- "About Us". KPJ Puteri Specialist Hospital. Archived from the original on 3 August 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- "Healthcare projects in Iskandar Malaysia". Iskandar Regional Development Authority. Iskandar Malaysia. Archived from the original on 3 August 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- "SENARAI SEKOLAH MENENGAH DI NEGERI JOHOR (List of Secondary Schools in Johor) – See Johor" (PDF). Educational Management Information System. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "Senarai Sekolah Daerah Johor Bahru" (in Malay). Johor Bahru District Education Office. Archived from the original on 4 August 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "Private School". Austin Heights. Archived from the original on 4 August 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "Home". Excelsior International School. Archived from the original on 4 August 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "About Us (An Overview)". International School Johor. Archived from the original on 4 August 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "Brief History of UTM". Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Archived from the original on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
- "Lokasi Perbadanan Perpustakaan Awam Johor" (in Malay). Johor Public Library. Archived from the original on 9 August 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
- "Perpustakaan Cawangan Seluruh Negeri Johor (Public Branches whole over the state of Johor)" (in Malay). Johor Public Library. Archived from the original on 9 August 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
- "Perpustakaan Desa (Village Libraries)" (in Malay). Johor Public Library. Archived from the original on 9 August 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- "Revel In The Splendors Of Malaysia: Enjoy Johor Bahru’s Social And Cultural Glory". Legoland Malaysia. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- "Lokasi-lokasi Menarik Berhampiran HSAJB (Interesting Spots Near Sultanah Aminah Hospital)" (PDF) (in Malay). Sultanah Aminah Hospital. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- Natalya (14 April 2013). "Chinese Heritage Museum". Johor Travel. Archived from the original on 18 August 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- "Guide to Iskandar Malaysia's Places of Interests". Iskandar Regional Development Authority. Iskandar Malaysia. Archived from the original on 18 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "History, Heritage, Arts and Culture, Crafts" (PDF). Malaysian Urological Conference. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "Sultan Ibrahim Building". National Archives. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque". Tourism Malaysia. Archived from the original on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- Desiree Tresa Gasper (2 May 2014). "150-year-old building torn down in middle of the night". The Star. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "Johor govt issues writ of summons against Wong Ah Fook mansion owner for demolishment". Antara Pos. 9 May 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "History in the Making: Asia's First Legoland® opens to the Public". Legoland Malaysia. 15 September 2012. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "Puteri Harbour Family Theme Park marks its first year anniversary with half a million visitors". Play Time. Archived from the original on 20 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "Zoo Johor". Tourism Malaysia. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- Dees Stribling. "Zoos in Johor, Malaysia". USA Today. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- "Top 5 Places to Shop in Iskandar Malaysia". Iskandar Regional Development Authority. Iskandar Malaysia. Archived from the original on 18 August 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "Stadiums in Malaysia (Tan Sri Hassan Yunos)". World Stadiums. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "About us". Sports Prima. Archived from the original on 4 August 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- "Consulate General of the Republic of Indonesia, Kota Kinabalu". Consulate General of Indonesia, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "Consulate-General of the Republic of Singapore, Johor Bahru". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Singapore). Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "Singapore Consulate-General in Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia" (PDF). Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Singapore). pp. 7/44. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- Liuxi (16 February 2012). "First Cultural Exchange after Shantou and Johor Bahru becomes Sister Cities". Shantou Daily. Shantou Government. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- "International Connections". Shantou Foreign and Oversea Chinese Affairs Bureau. Shantou Government. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- Zazali Musa (10 March 2014). "Johor to strengthen trade and tourism activities with Guandong Province". The Star. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- Yu Ji (27 August 2011). "Kuching bags one of only two coveted ‘Tourist City Award’ in Asia". The Star. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- Mat Oakley; Joshua Samuel Brown (15 September 2010). Singapore. Lonely Planet. pp. 180–. ISBN 978-1-74220-401-7.
- Helmut K Anheier; Yudhishthir Raj Isar (31 March 2012). Cultures and Globalization: Cities, Cultural Policy and Governance. SAGE Publications. pp. 376–. ISBN 978-1-4462-5850-7.
- "Relations between Turkey and Malaysia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Turkey). Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- Guinness, Patrick (1992). On the Margin of Capitalism: People and development in Mukim Plentong, Johor, Malaysia. South-East Asian social monographs. Singapore: Oxford University Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-19-588556-9. OCLC 231412873.
- Lim, Patricia Pui Huen (2002). Wong Ah Fook: Immigrant, Builder and Entrepreneur. Singapore: Times Editions. ISBN 978-981-232-369-9. OCLC 52054305.
- Oakley, Mat; Brown, Joshua Samuel (2009). Singapore: city guide. Footscray, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74104-664-9. OCLC 440970648.
- Winstedt, Richard Olof; Kim, Khoo Kay (1992). A History of Johore, 1365–1941. M. B. R. A. S. Reprints (6) (Reprint ed.). Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. ISBN 978-983-99614-6-1. OCLC 255968795.
- John Drysdale (15 December 2008). Singapore Struggle for Success. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. pp. 287–. ISBN 978-981-4677-67-7.
- A Halim Hassan (September 2013). Meniti Impian (in Malay). Trafford Publishing. pp. 84–. ISBN 978-1-4907-0086-1.
- Jamie Han (2014). "Communal riots of 1964". National Library Board. Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Johor Bahru.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Johor Bahru.|