Joint Task Force
"Combined" is the British-American military term for multi-national formations.
- CTF - Commander Task Force, sometimes Combined Task Force
- CCTF - Commander Combined Task Force
- CJTF - Combined Joint Task Force
There are two ways in which a U.S. or U.S.-allied task force may be assigned a number. The first is the originally naval scheme promulgated and governed by the U.S. Military Communications-Electronic Board, chaired by the Joint Staff J6. Task force numbers allocated under this scheme form the majority of the listings below.
The second is a by-product of the U.S. Army's procedure for forming task-organised forces for combat, differing from strictly doctrinally assigned table of organization and equipment organizations. A battalion, company or brigade commander has very wide latitude in selecting a task force name, though often the name of the commander is used (e.g. Task Force Faith). This has often resulted in derivations from the originator unit's numerical designation being used. For example, when a special operations aviation unit was being formed in the late 1970s, the original unit drew heavily on personnel from the 158th Aviation. The designation chosen was Task Force 158, which later grew to become the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment. Another example comes from 2004 in Afghanistan. On 15 April 2004 the headquarters of the U.S. Army's 25th Infantry Division arrived in Afghanistan and took command of CJTF-180 from the 10th Mountain Division. Lieutenant General David Barno, commanding then decided to rename CJTF 180 because the “180” designation had traditionally been given to Joint task forces led by the Army's XVIII Airborne Corps. Barno chose Combined Joint Task Force 76 as the new name to evoke America’s history and the democratic spirit of 1776. The CFC-A commander was hoping that this new designation would highlight the change in command at the operational level at a time when Afghanistan appeared to be moving closer to democracy.
No coordination appears to occur between U.S. Army task forces designated in this way, and the USMCEB scheme. This has resulted in simultaneous designations being used at the same time. For example, Combined Joint Task Force 76, was in use in Afghanistan in 2004, but doubling up on the Task Force 76 designation used for decades by Amphibious Force, United States Seventh Fleet, in north Asia.
Numbered USMCEB joint task forces
Allied Communications Publication 113: Call Signs Book for Ships in its Annex B lists allocations of task force numbers from 1 to approximately 1000, allocated by the United States Military Communications-Electronic Board in blocks for use by the United States Department of Defense and allies.
Norman Polmar notes in Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet, 2005, that the task forces under the commanders of the Atlantic and Pacific Fleet are mainly for contingency purposes. They are employed for specific operations and exercises.
|Joint task force||Abbrev.||Who||Notes|
|Joint Task Force 1||001 JTF-1||US||Operation Crossroads|
|Joint Task Force 2||002 JTF-2||US/CAN||In September 1964, Major General George Brown was selected to organize and command JTF-2, a Joint Chiefs of Staff organization formed at Sandia Base, New Mexico, to the test the services' weapon systems. It was staffed by personnel of all three services. Low Altitude Program nuclear test organisation, 1965-70. In 1990s seemingly transferred to Canada, possibly completely out of USMCEB formal system for use by Canadian special forces. The Canadian SOF unit that took this designation was formed on 1 April 1993.|
|Joint Task Force 3||003 JTF-3||US||Formed late 1949 in preparation for Operation Greenhouse nuclear test series.|
|Joint Task Force 4||004 JTF-4||US||Drug interdiction task force in Caribbean Sea from December 1989. Became Joint Interagency Task Force East on 1 October 1994. Later amalgamated into Joint Interagency Task Force South in 1994.|
|Joint Task Force 5||005 JTF-5||US||Drug interdiction task force at Coast Guard Island, Alameda, California, from December 1989. Later became Joint Interagency Task Force West.|
|Joint Task Force 6||006 JTF-6||US||Drug interdiction task force at El Paso, Texas, from December 1989. Became Joint Task Force North in 2004. Now seemingly Task Force 6, the naval component commander, U.S. Africa Command, an additional duty post for Commander, Sixth Fleet.|
|Joint Task Force 7||007 JTF-7||US||Operation Sandstone, a series of nuclear weapon tests in 1948.|
|Combined Joint Task Force 7||007 CJTF-7||US||CJTF 7 was the interim military formation that directed the U.S. military effort in Iraq between June 2003 and May 2004. Previously used for Operation Castle atomic tests in the 1940s-1950s|
|Joint Task Force 8||008 JTF-8||US||Operation Dominic nuclear test organisation, April–November 1962.|
|Joint Task Force 11||011 JTF-11||US||During World War II, Task Force 11 was a United States Navy aircraft carrier task force in the Pacific theater.
JTF at Soto Cano Air Base, 1983. By 1984 redesignated Joint Task Force Bravo
|Task Force 12||012 TF-12||US||Theater Anti-Submarine Warfare Force, Pacific / Patrol and Reconnaissance Force, Pacific (PATRECONFORPAC).|
|Task Force 16||016 TF-16||US||Maritime Defense Zone, U.S. Pacific Fleet, commanded by a Coast Guard officer (2005). Previously celebrated carrier task force during World War II.|
|Task Force 17||017 TF-17||US||Naval Air Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet (2005). Previously celebrated carrier task force during World War II.|
|Task Force 18||018 TF-18||US||Sealift forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet (2005). USS Hornet (CV-8)'s task force for 1942 Doolittle Raid.|
|Task Force 20||020 TF-20||US||Deputy Commander, Fleet and Joint Operations, U.S. Fleet Forces Command, with responsibility for subordinate seagoing formations, until 1 October 2012.|
|Task Force 21||021 TF-21||US||Transformation of the United States Army|
|Task Forces 30-39||030 TF-30||US||All allocated to United States Third Fleet|
|Task Force 31||031 TF-31||US|
|Task Force 37||037 TF-37||US|
|Task Force 38||038 TF-38||US||Fast Carrier Task Force, World War II (Also Task Force 38.3)|
|Task Force 44||044 TF-44||US|
|Task Forces 50-57||050 TF-50||US||All allocated to United States Fifth Fleet|
|Task Force 57||057 TF-57||US|
|Task Force 58||058 TF-58||US||Recently Maritime Surveillance Force in the North Persian Gulf. Fast Carrier Task Force, World War II.|
|Task Force 60||060 TF-60||US||United States Sixth Fleet; Battle Force from c.1950s-c.2010|
|Task Force 61||061 TF-61||US||United States Sixth Fleet|
|Task Force 67||067 TF-67||US|
|Task Force 73||073 TF-73||US||Commander, Logistics Group, Western Pacific, Seventh Fleet, Singapore.|
|Task Force 74||074 TF-74||US||Submarine Force, U.S. Seventh Fleet. Previously Enterprise task force during Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.|
|Task Force 76||076 TF-76||US||Amphibious Force, United States Seventh Fleet. CJTF 76 was a designation given to a division-sized U.S. Army task force in Afghanistan, seemingly outside the formal USMCEB system.|
|Task Force 77||077 TF-77||US||Carrier Striking Force, United States Seventh Fleet. Currently built around Carrier Strike Group Five.
ALSO: Former Task Force 145
|Task Force 80||080 TF-80||US||TF-80 is currently the Maritime Headquarters component for the U.S. Fleet Forces Command. Task Force 180 redirects to TF-80|
|Task Force 84||084 TF-84||US||Seemingly Anti-Submarine Warfare Force, Atlantic (ASWFORLANT).|
|Task Force 88||088 TF-88||US||Used during World War II for Task Force 88 (Operation Dragoon); after World War II for Task Force 88 (Operation Argus). Also used by a USSOCOM task force, seemingly not within the USMCEB numbering scheme.|
|Task Force 90||090 TF-90||US||Amphibious Force, Naval Forces Far East, during the Korean War, and later involved in Operation Passage to Freedom.|
|Task Force 91||091 TF-91||US||U.S. Naval Forces Alaska, commanded by Commander 17th Coast Guard District, United States Coast Guard.|
|Task Force 93||093 TF-93||US||Commander Alaskan Sea Frontier, late 1960s. Rear Admiral Donald M. White during SS Robert Louis Stevenson sinking incident, late 1960s.|
|Task Force 100||100, TFTF 100||US||Involved in USS Liberty incident, 1967. Previously at times held by Deputy Commander-in-Chief United States Naval Forces Europe (DCINCUSNAVEUR).|
|Combined Joint Task Force - 101||101, CJTFCJTF 101||US||(Refer Combined Joint Task Force 82)|
|Task Forces 102-109||102, TFTF 102||US||All now seemingly allocated to United States Tenth Fleet.|
|Task Force 115||115, TFTF 115||US||Coastal Surveillance Force, Naval Forces Vietnam|
|Task Force 116||116, TFTF 116||US||River Patrol Force, Naval Forces Vietnam|
|Task Force 117||117, TFTF 117||US||Mobile Riverine Force, Naval Forces Vietnam|
|Joint Task Force 120||120, JTFJTF 120||US||In times of crisis and during certain exercises, Commander Second Fleet became Commander, JTF 120. This joint task force drew from the Atlantic Fleet, U.S. Army airborne and air assault units, U.S. Air Force aircraft and support personnel, U.S. Marine Corps amphibious forces, and at times, the United States Coast Guard. Ran Operation Urgent Fury, the invasion of Grenada in October 1983.|
|Task Force 121||121, TFTF 121||US||Possibly part of United States Twelfth Fleet during World War II. Task Force 121 was a multi-service force from Joint Special Operations Command, made up of operators from the U.S. Army's Delta Force, 75th Ranger Regiment, and 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment, the U.S. Navy's SEAL Team Six , the CIA's Special Activities Division, U.S. Air Force Combat Controllers, Pararescuemen, Tactical Air Control Party operators, and Special Operations Weather Technicians, the Aviation Tactics Evaluation Group (AvTEG), and the Joint Communications Unit. Two Troops from the U.S. Army 1st Squadron, 1st Cavalry Regiment provided armor support for the Task Force. On occasions, operators from Coalition nations (particularly Canadian, British, Australian and Polish operators) augmented TF121 and provided direct and indirect operational assistance. It served in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.|
|Task Force 122||122, TFTF 122||US||United States Twelfth Fleet, World War II. Commanded by Rear Admiral Alan G. Kirk, who commanded D-Day's Western Naval Task Force (Utah and Omaha Beaches).|
|Task Force 124||124, TFTF 124||US||Strategic Communications Wing One, Tinker AFB, Oklahoma (E-6A Mercury aircraft)|
|Task Force 125||125, TFTF 125||US||Designation for Commander, Western Hemisphere Group, when acting as a naval component commander for U.S. Southern Command. Obsolete.|
|Task Force 130||130, TFTF 130||US||Manned Spacecraft Recovery Force, Pacific, for Project Apollo. Flagship USS Arlington (AGMR-2).|
|Task Force 134||134, TFTF 134||US||Commander, Task Force 134, COMSUBPAC, is an operational commander responsible to USSTRATCOM for strategic deterrent submarine operations.|
|Task Force 136||136, TFTF 136||US||Under the commander of Commander, Second Fleet, was quarantine force during Cuban Missile Crisis. Led for a time by Commander Cruiser-Destroyer Flotilla 2 aboard USS Canberra.|
|Task Force 140||140, TFTF 140||US||Project Mercury Recovery Force (early 1960s), later Manned Spacecraft Recovery Force, Atlantic (for Apollo 9). In 1980s, as JTF 140, designation for Second Fleet for Caribbean contingency operations. Ocean Venture '90 was a JCS directed field exercise sponsored by the U.S. Atlantic Command and executed by JTF 140, a standing JTF assigned to LANTCOM which had existed since 1979. Utilised for Haiti operations during 1994.|
|Task Force 144||144, TFTF 144||US||CTF 144, Commander Submarine Forces/COMSUBLANT. Operational commander for Atlantic ballistic missile submarines, responsible to Commander, U.S. Strategic Command|
|Task Force 145||145, TFTF 145||US|
|Task Force 151||151, TFTF 151||US||Combined Maritime Forces|
|Joint Task Force 160||160, JTFJTF 160||US||Directed Operation Sea Signal. This humanitarian operation receiving Haitian refugees at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba, took place from August 1994 to February 1996.
Task Force 160 was a non-USMCEB, U.S. Army allocation.
|Task Force 214||214, TFTF 214||US||Twentieth Air Force, while acting as the ICBM task force for United States Strategic Command|
|Task Force 294||294, TFTF 294||US||U.S. Air Force air refueling forces while acting as a task force for United States Strategic Command|
|Task Force 301||301, TFTF 301||CAN||Royal Canadian Navy, Atlantic Coast|
|Task Force 311||311, TFTF 311||UK||Commander, Task Force 311 (CTF-311), located in Northwood, Middlesex, is the Royal Navy's sole submarine operating authority (SUBOPAUTH). CTF-311 maintains operational control of all Britain's attack submarines, wherever they may be.|
|Task Group 316.1||316, TFTF 316||UK||Used for Endeavour 90 deployment, under Capt Franklyn, HMS Bristol (DTS)|
|Task Force 317||317, TFTF 317||UK||Falklands Task Force; see British naval forces in the Falklands War|
|Task Force 318||318, TFTF 318||UK||In November 1967, TF 318, under Flag Officer Second in Command Far East Fleet, Rear Admiral Edward Ashmore, managed the British withdrawal from Aden after 128 years of colonial rule. Reestablished with effect from 1 November 1971 to cover withdrawal of British forces from Persian Gulf (Roberts, 95)|
|Task Force 321||321, TFTF 321||UK||Seemingly Royal Navy in the Mediterranean and Middle East. Used Cyprus 1974 during Falklands War when RNZN frigates deployed , and after Iraqi invasion of Kuwait (deployed force TG 321.1 in both later cases). In 1990 CINCFLEET acted as CTF 321.|
|Task Group 323.2||323, TFTF 323||UK||RN Mediterranean group during Operation Desert Storm|
|Task Force 324||324, TFTF 324||UK||Royal Navy Red Sea force during Suez Crisis of 1956. Consisted only of HMS Newfoundland.|
|Task Force 330||330, TFTF 330||UK||UK naval forces during Operation Telic|
|Task Force 333||333, TFTF 333||UK||Involved in Operation Grapple nuclear tests at Christmas Island, August 1958. TG 333.1 seemingly utilised by Captain 11th Frigate Squadron (Captain F11), Royal New Zealand Navy, in November 1972, during LONGEX 71 between Auckland and Wellington. TGs of TF 333 later used in NATO area (Roberts)|
|Task Force 345||345, TFTF 345||UK||UK Mediterranean naval task force during Suez Crisis of 1956. Now is reported as '..CTF 345 is the organisation that provides command and control of the UK deterrent' at Northwood Headquarters. Rear Admiral Ian Corder commanded the task force as of September 2012.|
|Task Force 373||373, TFTF 373||US||JSOC or SOCCENT special operations forces task force in Afghanistan|
|Task Force 402||402, TFTF 402||US|
|Joint Task Force 435||435, JTFJTF 435||US||(Combined Joint Interagency Task Force 435) Afghanistan theatre detention operations|
|Task Force 473||473, TFTF 473||France||Seemingly permanently assigned to the carrier battle group ('aeronaval group') build around Charles de Gaulle. Part of Force d'action navale.|
|Task Force 508||508, TFTF 508||NATO (or member)||As of late 2013, Operation Ocean Shield Somali counter-piracy force. CTF 508 was Rear Admiral Eugenio Diaz del Rio on board flagship ALVARO DE BAZAN on 14 January 2014.|
|Joint Task Force 510||510, JTFJTF 510||US||Special Operations Command Pacific standing joint task force for rapid deployment. Involved in Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines, 2002.|
|Joint Task Force 622||622, JTFJTF 622||AUS||Operation VIC FIRE ASSIST|
|Joint Task Force 627||627, JTFJTF 627||AUS||SUBmarine Search And Rescue (SUBSAR) May be designator for Commander Australian Fleet; CTF 627 was allocated to this officer under his previous title of Maritime Commander Australia in 1999-2000.|
|Joint Task Force 630||630, JTFJTF 630||AUS||Op Larry Assist after Cyclone Larry, March 2006. Commander was Mick Slater.|
|Joint Task Force 631||631, JTFJTF 631||AUS||Operation Astute - Timor Leste International Stabilisation Force|
|Joint Task Force 633||633, JTFJTF 633||AUS||Operation Okra, HQJTF 633, based in the United Arab Emirates, provides command and control of all ADF elements deployed throughout the Middle East Area of Operations (MEAO) as part of Operation Slipper. JTF 633 is commanded by Major General Craig Orme. Previous commanders have included MAJGEN Stuart Smith. Included Security Detachment Iraq|
|Joint Task Force 634||634, JTFJTF 634||AUS||Supported 2007 Sydney APEC Conference. Commander: Brigadier Andrew Smith, Cdr 7th Brigade.|
|Joint Task Force 637||637, JTFJTF 637||AUS||Operation Kiribati Assist; Operation Queensland Flood Assist|
|Joint Task Force 639||639, JTFJTF 639||AUS||Op Resolute - Border Protection Command|
|Joint Task Force 645||645, JTFJTF 645||AUS||Commander INTERFET, 1999 (TF 645), CHOGM 2001, CHOGM 2002|
|Task Force 646||646, TFTF 646||AUS||RAAF Air Command Aerospace Operational Support Group TG 646.7.|
|Joint Task Force 662||662, JTFJTF 662||AUS||ADF support during the 2009 Victorian Black Saturday bushfires.|
|Joint Task Force 663||663, JTFJTF 663||AUS||Operation Render Safe 2011. HMAS Gascoyne, HMAS Diamantina, HMNZS Resolution (A14), HMNZS Wellington.|
|Joint Task Force 664||664, JTFJTF 664||AUS||Operation Yasi Assist|
|Joint Task Force 665||665, JTFJTF 665||AUS||Operation Testament, ADF commitment to World Youth Day 2008, Commander Brigadier David Saul|
|Joint Task Force 950||950, JTFJTF 950||US||Commander, Second Fleet whilst in a training role.|
|Task Force 1099||US||(See Task Force 121)|
Named joint task forces
Joint Task Force Shining Hope; Joint Task Force Eagle Vista (1998 Presidential African visit)
United States Army and other non-USMCEB task forces
|Task Force 1-41||141 TF 1-41 INF||US||U.S. Army combined-arms heavy battalion mechanized Task Force based upon 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment. It served at the Battle of 73 Easting and the Battle of Norfolk. Formed in various other incarnations during other conflicts.|
|Combined Joint Task Force-180||180, JTFJTF 180||US||Appears to be the permanently assigned designator for HQ XVIII Airborne Corps when operating as a combined joint task force or joint task force, for example in Afghanistan after 2002. Task Force 180 redirects to Task Force 80|
|Combined Joint Task Force 82||082 CJTF-82||US|
|Task Force ALBA||Swiss||Humanitarian operation in Albania during 1999.|
|Task Force Aegis||US||Redirects to Combined Joint Task Force 76|
|Task Force Alpha||UK||Redirects to 7th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)|
|Task Force Baum||US||Concentration camp rescue force "set up by U.S. Army general George S. Patton"|
|Task Force Bayonet||US||Task Force Bayonet (disambiguation)|
|Task Force Black||US||Redirects to Task Force 88 (anti-terrorist unit)|
|Task Force Blue||US||United States Navy SEALs|
|Task Force Danbi||South Korea||Haiti earthquake relief 2010|
|Task Force Eagle||NATO||IFOR|
|Task Force East||US||US European Command initiative to strengthen relationships with Eastern European allies|
|Task Force Faith||US||US Army unit during the Korean War|
|Task Force Falcon (US)||US||US Army Task Force serving as part of KFOR in Kosovo|
|Task Force Frigid||US||After World War II, the War Department decided that U.S. Army personnel must be able to live and operate in any degree of cold. A group of task forces was therefore organized to test U.S. Army equipment in the cold. Task Force Frigid and Task Force Williwaw were dispatched to what is now Fort Greely, Alaska during the winters of 1946 and 1947.|
|Task Force Harvest||NATO||Operation Essential Harvest|
|Task Force Hawk||US||Kosovo|
|Task Force Helmand||NATO||Part of ISAF in Helmand Province, Afghanistan|
|Task Force K-Bar||US||"The first major ground deployment in the US-led invasion of Afghanistan"|
|Task Force Kandahar||NATO||ISAF in Kandahar, Afghanistan|
|Task Force Kean||UN||North Korea|
|Task Force Leatherneck||US||Located at Camp Leatherneck, Helmand Province, Afghanistan. Marine Air-Ground Task Force currently operating in Helmand Province. 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade during 2009-10 for Operation Enduring Freedom. Also used by the 1st and 2nd Marine Divisions during their deployments to Afghanistan|
|Task Force Libeccio||CAN||Operation Mobile#Royal Canadian Air Force - 2011 military intervention in Libya.|
|Task Force Lightning||US||25th Infantry Division (United States)|
|Task Force Manchu||US||Second Battle of Naktong Bulge#The end of Task Force Manchu|
|Task Force Mustang||US||Combat Aviation Brigade, 36th Infantry Division, Texas Army National Guard|
|Task Force ODIN||US||US Army aviation battalion created to combat improvised explosive devices in Iraq|
|Task Force Phoenix||CJTF Phoenix||US||Initially organized by CENTCOM to train and mentor the newly created Afghan National Security Forces|
|Task Force Ranger||US||Battle of Mogadishu (1993)#Task Force Ranger|
|Task Force Scorpio||Swiss||Biological and chemical response team activated during the first Gulf War - not deployed|
|Task Force Shield||US/UK/Iraq||Set up in 2003 to provide security for Iraq's critical oil infrastructure|
|Task Force Sinai||US||U.S. element of Multinational Force and Observers (MFO)|
|Task Force Smith||US||Battle of Osan#Task Force Smith|
|Task Force Tarawa||US||The 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade during the 2003 invasion of Iraq|
|Task Force Taro||US||3rd Marine Regiment (United States)|
|Task Force Trinity||US||3rd Battalion 3rd Marines|
|Task Force Tripoli||US||USMC air ground task force formed after the fall of Baghdad during the 2003 invasion of Iraq|
|Task Force Uruzgan||Netherlands||Part of NATO's Regional Command South, ISAF, Afghanistan|
|Task Force Viking||US||Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force – North (CJSOTF–N), also known as Task Force Viking, was the U.S. joint task force responsible for the northern front during the initial period of the 2003 invasion of Iraq|
|Task Force White Eagle||Poland||A brigade sized detachment of Polish Land Forces in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan. The brigade was under the command of the US 1st Cavalry Division.|
- Task Force for Business and Stability Operations - U.S. Department of Defense commercial facilitation organization, not an operational task force.
- Task Force 6-26 - USSOCOM or JSOC task force
- Task Force 777 - Egyptian special forces hostage rescue unit
- Task Force Iron- A heavy battalion mechanized task force with the foundation being formed by Task Force 1-41 Infantry and other 2nd Armored Division(FWD)battalions during the 1st Gulf War. It served at the Battle of 73 Easting and the Battle of Norfolk.
- Task Force 1-37 was a heavy battalion mechanized task force formed around units of the 1st Armored Division (United States). It served with distinction at the Battle of Medina Ridge during the 1st Gulf War.
- See Larry Bond, 'Cauldron' (fiction) or Hackworth, 'About Face'.
- Lieutenant General David W. Barno, interview by Center for Military History, 21 November 2006, 31–32, in A Different Kind of War.
- Norman Polmar, Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet,' Naval Institute Press, 2005, p.37
- Puryear 1983, pp. 132–133.
- National Archives and Records Administration, Federal Record Group 374.5.2, accessed June 2013.
- Barton C. Hacker, 'Elements of Controversy'.
- Siegel, Adam B. (August 1996). The Intervasion of Haiti, Professional Paper 539 (PDF). Center for Naval Analyses. p. 12.
- Science Advisor, NAVEUR/NAVAF/Sixth Fleet, Science and Technology Shortfalls, 26 June 2012, accessed January 2014.
- Globalsecurity.org, Patrol and Reconnaissance Force, Pacific
- CTF 84 Reserve Unit Established, October 5, 2005
- Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet
- Mud, Muscle and Miracles, 384.
- Larry Berman, Zumwalt: The Life and Times of Admiral Elmo Russell "Bud" Zumwalt, Jr., Harper, 2012, 171.
- Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Jessica Vargas, TACAMO, Strategic Communications Wing One Public Affairs. "Strategic Communications Wing One Holds Change of Command". Navy.mil. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- Karen Smith et al., 'Is NAVSO Organized and Staffed to do its job?' Center for Naval Analysis, CRM D0005057.A1, January 2002.
- "p.370" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- U.S. Navy online documentation
- WA Saunders, Joint Pub 5-00.2 Joint Task Force Planning Guidance and Procedures: A Critical Review, 1992
- GlobalSecurity.org. "Operation Sea Signal", GlobalSecurity.org website, 2008. Retrieved on October 19, 2008.
- Roberts, 344.
- Independent, Obituary: Admiral Sir Richard Fitch, 22 February 1994. Note that the Independent incorrectly lists Ashmore's apppoinment at the time.
- Henn, Francis. A Business of Some Heat: The United Nations Force in Cyprus Before and During the 1974 Turkish Invasion. Casemate Publishers, 2004, 295
- The Gulf Revisited - Why?, The Naval Review, 1990, and Cdre Chris Craig account
- "SUEZ WAR OF 1956". Godfreydykes.info. 1956-11-05. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- Andrew Preston (2012-09-15). "and Royal Navy Bridge Card, various editions". Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- Operation OCEAN SHIELD (2014-01-14). "14 January 2014". Mc.nato.int. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- Operation VIC FIRE ASSIST, army.gov.au
- AFTP 9(H), navy.gov.au
- Australian Operations in Afghanistan, accessed April 2014.
- "Commodore Timothy William BARRETT CSC RAN, ACT" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- http://www.navy.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/Working_Paper_20.pdf, p.16
- Heightened security results in Joint Task Force, 11 April 2002, defence.gov.au/news/raafnews
- "WWII ammo to be rendered safe on joint mission - Keith Jackson & Friends: PNG ATTITUDE". Asopa.typepad.com. 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
- Navy Wire, 1999.
- See Spirtas et al., 'What it takes,' 59-63.
- U.S. Army Cold Regions Test Center - History, accessed June 2013.
- Center for Naval Analysis, Joint Task Force Operations since 1983, CRM94-42, July 1994
- Timothy M. Bonds, Myron Hura, Thomas-Durrell Young, 'Enhancing Army Joint Force Headquarters Capabilities,' Santa Monica, CA; RAND Corporation, 2010 - includes list of joint task forces
- Roberts, John. Safeguarding the Nation: The Story of the Modern Royal Navy. Seaforth Publishing, 2009. Includes mention of a number of RN task groups.