|A traumatic right knee effusion. Note the swelling lateral to the kneecap as marked by the arrow.|
|Classification and external resources|
The approach to diagnosis depends on the joint involved. While aspiration of the joint is considered the gold standard of treatment, this can be difficult for joints such as the hip. Ultrasound may be used both to verify the existence of an effusion and to guide aspiration.
Gout is usually present with recurrent attacks of acute inflammatory arthritis (red, tender, hot, swollen joint). It is caused by elevated levels of uric acid in the blood that crystallizes and deposits in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues. Gout affects 1% of individuals in Western populations at some point in their lives.
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- Mathison DJ, Teach SJ (November 2009). "Approach to knee effusions". Pediatr Emerg Care. 25 (11): 773–86; quiz 787–8. doi:10.1097/PEC.0b013e3181bec987. PMID 19915432.
- Marx, John (2010). Rosen's emergency medicine: concepts and clinical practice (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier. p. Chapter 53. ISBN 978-0-323-05472-0.
- "septic arthritis" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- Marx, John (2010). Rosen's emergency medicine: concepts and clinical practice (7th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier. p. Chapter 134. ISBN 978-0-323-05472-0.
- Chen LX, Schumacher HR (October 2008). "Gout: an evidence-based review". J Clin Rheumatol. 14 (5 Suppl): S55–62. doi:10.1097/RHU.0b013e3181896921. PMID 18830092.
- Johnson MW (April 2000). "Acute knee effusions: a systematic approach to diagnosis". Am Fam Physician. 61 (8): 2391–400. PMID 10794580.