Jonathan Grudin

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Jonathan Grudin
Jonathan Grudin at Microsoft Research in 2009.
BornDecember 31, 1949
Boulder, Colorado
Alma materReed College
Purdue University
University of California, San Diego
Known forGrudin number
Grudin Paradox
AwardsAssociation for Computing Machinery SIGCHI CHI Academy
Association for Computing Machinery Fellow
CSCW Lasting Impact Award
Scientific career
FieldsHuman-computer interaction
Computer-supported cooperative work
InstitutionsMicrosoft Research
University of Washington Information School
University of California, Irvine
Wang Laboratories
Aarhus University
Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation
Doctoral advisorDonald Norman
Doctoral studentsRebecca Grinter
Leysia Palen

Jonathan Grudin (born December 31, 1949) was a researcher at Microsoft from 1998 to 2022 and is affiliate professor at the University of Washington Information School working in the fields of human-computer interaction and computer-supported cooperative work. Grudin is a pioneer of the field of computer-supported cooperative work and one of its most prolific contributors.[1] His collaboration distance to other researchers of human-computer interactions has been described by the "Grudin number".[1] Grudin is also well known for the "Grudin Paradox" or "Grudin Problem", which states basically with respect to the design of collaborative software for organizational settings, "What may be in the managers' best interests may not be in the interests of individual contributors, and therefore not used."[2][3][4] He was awarded the inaugural CSCW Lasting Impact Award in 2014 on the basis of this work. He has also written about the publication culture and history of human-computer interactions.


Prior to working at Microsoft Research, Grudin was a professor of information and computer science at the University of California, Irvine from 1991 to 1998.[5] His career has spanned numerous institutions. He worked at Wang Laboratories as a software engineer (1974–1975 and 1983–1986).[5] He was a visiting scientist in the Psychology and Artificial Intelligence Laboratories at MIT (1976–1979) and a NATO Postdoctoral Fellow at the Medical Research Council's Applied Psychology Unit (now known as the Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit (1982–1983)).[5] From 1986 to 1989 he worked at the Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, then took a series of faculty positions (including visiting professorships) at Aarhus University (1989–1991), the University of California, Irvine (1991–1998), Keio University (1995) and the University of Oslo (1997).[5]

From 1997 to 2003, he was editor-in-chief of ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, one of the most prestigious journals in the field of human-computer interaction.[6] Grudin was inducted into the selective Association for Computing Machinery SIGCHI CHI Academy in 2004.[4] In 2012, he was made an Association for Computing Machinery Fellow for "contributions to human computer interaction with an emphasis on computer supported cooperative work."[7] He holds a B.A. in mathematics and physics from Reed College (1972), a M.S. in mathematics from Purdue University, and a Ph.D. in cognitive psychology from the University of California, San Diego (1981), where he was advised by Donald Norman.[5]

His book From Tool to Partner, The Evolution of Human-Computer Interaction was published in 2017.


  1. ^ a b Horn, Daniel B.; Thomas A. Finholt; Jeremy P. Birnholtz; Dheeraj Motwani; Swapnaa Jayaraman (2004). Six degrees of Jonathan Grudin: a social network analysis of the evolution and impact of CSCW research. ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. ACM Press. pp. 582–591. doi:10.1145/1031607.1031707.
  2. ^ Grudin, Jonathan (1989). "Why groupware applications fail: problems in design and evaluation". Office: Technology and People. 4 (3): 245–264.
  3. ^ Ackerman, Mark S.; Christine Halverson (2003). "Sharing Expertise: The Next Step for Knowledge Management". In Wulf, Volker; Huysman, Marlene (eds.). Social Capital and Information Technology. Cambridge, Mass., USA: MIT Press. Grudin [1989] framed what is sometimes called the Grudin paradox: What may be in the managers' best interests may not be in the ordinary users' interests.
  4. ^ a b "SIGCHI 2004 Awards". SIGCHI. 2004. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Curriculum Vitae". Retrieved 2017-01-06.
  6. ^ "ACM TOCHI Editorial Board: Past Editors". Association for Computing Machinery SIGCHI. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
  7. ^ "ACM Fellows - Jonathan Grudin". ACM Fellows. Association for Computing Machinery. 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012.

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