Demographics of Jordan
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Jordan, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
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|Source: OECD/World Bank|
According to the OECD/World Bank, the Jordanian population increased from 1990 to 2008 by 2.7 million - an 86% growth in population, compared to 39% growth in Lebanon, 56% growth in Israel, 67% growth in Syria and according to the U.S. Census 106% growth in the Palestinian territories.
Native Jordanians are mostly descended from village-dwellers and Bedouins originating in the Arabian Peninsula. Half of Jordan's population are of Palestinian origin. In addition, there are minorities such as Circassians, Chechens, Armenians and refugees such as Iraqis, Syrians, Assyrians. There are also hundreds of thousands of guest workers from Egypt, Syria, Indonesia, and South Asia, who work as domestic and construction employees.
The official language is Arabic. English is used widely in commerce and government. About 70% of Jordan's population is urban; less than 6% of the rural population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. Most people live where the rainfall supports agriculture.
- 1 Definition
- 2 Vital statistics
- 3 Ethnic and religious groups
- 4 Education
- 5 Population demographic statistics
- 6 Languages
- 7 Literacy
- 8 Jordanian demographic policy
- 9 See also
- 10 References
The territory of Jordan can be defined by the history of its creation after the end of World War I, the League of Nations and redrawing of the borders of the Eastern Mediterranean littoral. The ensuing decisions, most notably the Sykes–Picot Agreement, which created the Mandatory Palestine. In September 1922, Transjordan was formally identified as a subdivision of the Mandate Palestine after the League of Nations approved the British Transjordan memorandum which stated that the Mandate east of the Jordan River would be excluded from all the provisions dealing with Jewish settlement west of the Jordan River. Two other events in the history of Jordan affected its demographics, the outcomes of the 1948 and the 1967 conflicts with Israel.
|Period||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||CBR1||CDR1||NC1||TFR1||IMR1|
|1950–1955||26 000||11 000||15 000||47.4||19.3||28.1||7.38||160.9|
|1955–1960||38 000||13 000||25 000||49.4||16.5||32.9||7.38||128.9|
|1960–1965||54 000||15 000||40 000||53.6||14.5||39.1||8.00||103.2|
|1965–1970||73 000||16 000||57 000||52.3||11.8||40.5||8.00||82.8|
|1970–1975||90 000||17 000||73 000||49.0||9.4||39.6||7.79||68.3|
|1975–1980||92 000||16 000||76 000||42.8||7.5||35.3||7.38||56.5|
|1980–1985||101 000||17 000||85 000||39.7||6.5||33.2||7.05||44.4|
|1985–1990||117 000||18 000||99 000||37.5||5.7||31.8||6.44||36.0|
|1990–1995||132 000||19 000||113 000||33.9||4.9||29.0||5.14||30.6|
|1995–2000||147 000||21 000||127 000||32.0||4.5||27.5||4.34||26.7|
|2000–2005||143 000||21 000||122 000||28.1||4.2||23.9||3.60||23.6|
|2005–2010||152 000||23 000||128 000||26.4||4.1||22.3||3.27||21.0|
|1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births|
|Average population||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Total fertility rate (TFR)|
|2007||5 723||185 011||20 924||164 087||29.1||7.0||22.1||3.6|
|2008||5 850||181 328||19 403||161 925||29.1||7.0||22.1||3.6|
|2009||5 980||179 872||20 251||159 621||30.1||7.0||23.1||3.8|
|2010||6 113||183 948||21 550||162 398||30.1||7.0||23.1||3.8|
|2011||6 249||178 435||21 730||156 705||28.6||7.0||21.6||3.8|
Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):
|Year||CBR (Total)||TFR (Total)||CBR (Urban)||TFR (Urban)||CBR (Rural)||TFR (Rural)|
|1990||36,1||5,57 (3,94)||33,9||4,75 (3,36)||39,0||6,85 (4,76)|
|1997||33,1||4,35 (2,9)||32,5||4,22 (2,9)||35,5||5,00 (3,1)|
|2002||29,0||3,7 (2,6)||28,4||3,5 (2,5)||31,3||4,2 (2,8)|
|2007||28,1||3,6 (2,8)||28,1||3,6 (2,8)||28,2||3,7 (2,8)|
|2009||30,6||3,8 (3,0)||30,6||3,8 (2,9)||30,7||4,0 (3,1)|
|2012||27,2||3,5 (2,4)||26,7||3,4 (2,4)||29,8||3,9 (2,7)|
Ethnic and religious groups
Muslim (Sunni) 92%, Christian 6% (majority Greek Orthodox, with some in Catholic, Greek Catholic, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, and Protestant denominations, and Iraqi refugee populations of Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic and Syriac Orthodox), other 2% (several small Shi'a Muslim and Druze populations) (2001 est.)
Native Jordanians are mostly descended from village-dwellers and Bedouins originating in the Arabian Peninsula. There were some 56,000 Bedouins at the turn of the 20th century on the plain east of Jordan, even after the World War I, Amman was only a village of a few thousand residents, many recent immigrants from the coastal areas of the Ottoman Syria where most of the fighting took place. By 1956, of the 1.5 million population, 200,000 were residing in Amman. Following the 1948 war, and seizure of what later came to be known as the "West Bank", the citizens of Transjordan numbered about 1,185,000: 375,000 Transjordanians, 460,000 former residents of Mandate Palestine and 350,000 refugees from other former Mandate Palestine areas. Of the 100,000 estimated Transjordanians on the West Bank, about half had migrated elsewhere by the early 1950s. In 2004, ethnic Arabs represented 93% of the population.
In Jordan, there is no official census data for how many inhabitants are Palestinian but they are estimated to constitute half of the population, which in 2008 amounted to about 3 million. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics put their number at 3.24 million in 2009. There are more than two million registered Palestinian refugees in Jordan as of January 2012.
There is an Assyrian refugee population in Jordan. Many Assyrians have arrived in Jordan as refugees since the invasion of Iraq, making up a large part of the Iraqi refugees.
There were an estimated 5,000 Armenians living within the country in 2009. An estimated 4,500 of these are members of the Armenian Apostolic Church, and predominantly speak the Western dialect of the Armenian language. This population makes up the majority of non-Arab Christians in the country.
Circassians obtained Ottoman citizenships since 1887, immigrated to Jordan and they selected Amman. They settled in several cities such as Jerash and Zarqa, and established their own village, Wadi as-Ser.
The Circassians played a role in the history of Transjordan era, and are famous for their loyalty to Abdullah I of Jordan and his family, obtaining the Transjordan citizenship in the law of citizenship that was issued in 1928, while other tribes obtained their citizenship in 1930 or later.
Over the years, various Circassians have served in distinguished roles in Jordan, including a prime minister (Sa`id al-Mufti), ministers, high-ranking officers, etc. Circassians form the Hashemites honor guard at the royal palaces, and represented Jordan in the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo in 2010, joining other honor guards such as The Airborne Ceremonial Unit.
The Circassians are Sunni Muslims and are estimated to number 120,000 persons, or 2% of Jordanian population, while accounting for 5% of Amman's residents.
Until recently, most Mandaeans were Iraqi, but this religious minority fled the country in the face of this violence, and the Mandaeans community in Iraq faces extinction. Out of the over 60,000 Mandaeans in Iraq in the early 1990s, only about 5,000 to 7,000 remain there; as of early 2007, over 80% of Iraqi Mandaeans were refugees in Syria and Jordan as a result of the Iraq War.
There are about 10,000 Chechens estimated to reside in Jordan.
The era of king Hussein of Jordan saw increased school enrollment rates, which resulted in a rapid rise in the literacy rate in Jordan. At the beginning of his reign in 1952 the literacy rate was 33% and grew to 85% in 1996; according to the 2009 estimate, it is now 94% of the total population.
Population demographic statistics
The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
- 6,198,677 (July 2008 est.)
- 6,508,887 (July 2012 est.)
- at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
- under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
- 15–64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female
- total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2012 est.)
- 0–14 years: 32.2% (male 1,017,233/female 976,284)
- 15–64 years: 62.4% (male 2,110,293/female 1,840,531)
- 65 years and over: 4.1% (male 122,975/female 131,361) (2008 est.)
- 0-14 years: 35.3% (male 1,180,595/female 1,114,533)
- 15-64 years: 59.9% (male 1,977,075/female 1,921,504)
- 65 years and over: 4.8% (male 153,918/female 160,646) (2011 est.)
- total: 22.6 years
- male: 22.2 years
- female: 22.9 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate
- 2.338% (2008 est.)
- -0.965% (2012 est.)
- 26.52 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
- 2.74 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
Net migration rate
- 5.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
- -33.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
- urban population: 82.7% of total population (2011)
- rate of urbanization: 2.17% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Maternal mortality rate
- 63 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate
- 15.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
- total population: 80.18 years
- male: 78.82 years
- female: 81.61 years (2012 est.)
Total fertility rate
- 3.36 children born/woman (2012 est.)
- 8.0% of GDP (2010)
- 2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density
- 1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
- 30% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
female: 93% (2010 est.)
Jordanian demographic policy
Initial integration of former residents of Mandatory Palestine, and granting them citizenship, was revoked following violence against PLO in 1970. Most Iraqi refugees are not granted citizenship.
- CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971-2008 (pdf pages 83-85) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) original population ref e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57)
- Jordan, World Bank
- US Census Bureau International Programs International Data Base IDB. See: West Bank and Gaza
- Lowi, Miriam R., Water and power: the politics of a scarce resource in the Jordan River basin, Cambridge University Press, 1995, p.36
- "American Jewish Yearbook p.528" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-12-22.
- World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
- Department of Statistics, Jordan
- Glubb, General Sir John Bagot, LIFE, 16 April 1956, Glubb tells how our Mid-East enemies work: Arab agitators abetted by Reds, says Jordan’s ousted general, imperil West's position, Time Inc, Vol. 40, No. 16, pp. 145-156
- Mazur, Michael P., Economic growth and development in Jordan, Taylor & Francis, 1979, p.8
- Mazur, Michael P., Economic growth and development in Jordan, Taylor & Francis, 1979, p.9
- "Assessment for Palestinians in Jordan". Minorities at Risk. 2006. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Jordan". Minority Rights Group International. 2008. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- "Palestinians at the end of 2012" (PDF). Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- "Where We Work - Jordan". UNRWA. 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- "2015 UNHCR country operations profile - Jordan". UNHCR. 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Jordan: Religions & Peoples
- Ethnologue 14 report for language code:ARM
- Jordan :: Religion - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
- Amman Centennial, From the end of the Ummayad era till 1878
- http://www.farrajlawyer.com/viewTopic.php?topicId=661 Arabic Language
- http://www.moi.gov.jo/%C7%E1%D5%DD%CD%C9%C7%E1%D1%C6%ED%D3%ED%C9/%DE%E6%C7%E4%ED%E4%E6%CA%D4%D1%ED%DA%C7%CA/%DE%C7%E4%E6%E4%C7%E1%CC%E4%D3%ED%C9%C7%E1%C7%D1%CF%E4%ED%C9/tabid/107/Default.aspx Via Ministry of Interior (Arabic Language)
- http://www.echoesfromjordan.com/performing-group/circassian-honour-guard Via EchoesfromJordan Website
- Genocide Watch: Mandaeans of Iraq
- The annual 'Eradication of Illiteracy' report by the Jordanian Ministry of Education http://www.moe.gov.jo/Departments/DepartmentSectionDetails.aspx?DepartmentSectionDetailsID=120&DepartmentID=17
- World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision