Jorge Chávez International Airport

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Jorge Chávez International Airport
Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez
Airp0rt lima peru.jpg
Summary
Airport typePublic international
OperatorLima Airport Partners
ServesLima, Peru
LocationCallao, Peru
Hub for
Elevation AMSL34 m / 113 ft
Coordinates12°01′19″S 077°06′52″W / 12.02194°S 77.11444°W / -12.02194; -77.11444Coordinates: 12°01′19″S 077°06′52″W / 12.02194°S 77.11444°W / -12.02194; -77.11444
Websitewww.lima-airport.com
Map
LIM is located in Lima
LIM
LIM
Location of airport in Lima
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
15/33 3,507 11,506 Asphalt
Statistics (2017)
Passengers22,046,042
Freight (tonnes)370,450,587
Aircraft movements178,578
Source: corpac s.a. statistics[1]

Jorge Chávez International Airport (IATA: LIM, ICAO: SPJC, formerly SPIM), (Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez), is Peru's main international and domestic airport. It is located in Callao, 11 kilometers (7 mi) from Lima, the nation's capital city and 17 km (11 mi) from Miraflores. Callao, a port city, has integrated transport connections with Lima. During 2017, the airport served 22,025,704 passengers. Historically, the airport was the hub for Compañía de Aviación Faucett and Aeroperú. Now it serves as a hub for many aviation companies. The airport was named after Peruvian aviator Jorge Chávez (1887 - 1910).

History[edit]

Lima Airport in 1972 with a SATCO Douglas DC-4 operating an internal flight

Lima's first airport was the Limatambo Airport in San Isidro. It ceased operations in 1960 due to a lack of space and capacity, and was replaced by the Lima-Callao International Airport. In June 1965, the Lima-Callao airport was renamed the "Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez" after the famous Peruvian aviator, Jorge Chávez Dartnell. In December 1965, the terminal building was officially opened.

When it was in operation, Compañía de Aviación Faucett had its corporate headquarters on the airport grounds.[2]

In 2001, in order to improve and expand its infrastructure, the government of Peru placed the airport under the management of Lima Airport Partners (LAP). LAP is now composed of Fraport and two other minor partners. The air traffic control is managed by the Peruvian Corporation of Airports and Commercial Aviation (CORPAC). The Peruvian government engaged Jaime Malagón, Jerome Jakubik, Paul Slocomb, and Víctor M. Marroquín of Baker and McKenzie international law firm, to oversee the changes.

Expansion[edit]

Main terminal

In February 2005, the first phase of a new renovation and expansion project was completed. This included the Peru Plaza Shopping Center and a new concourse. In June 2007, a four-star hotel, Ramada Costa del Sol, opened at the airport.

In January 2009, the second phase of the terminal expansion was commenced. The terminal has 28 gates, 19 with boarding bridges. In August 2009, the LAP announced that in 2010, the airport would have a new Instrument Landing System (ILS CAT III) to help with fog landings.[3] 'Arquitectonica", a Miami-based architectural office and Lima Airport Partners planned a second terminal and expansion of the main terminal.

On October 24, 2018, the Peruvian state delivered all the land for the expansion and modernization of the Jorge Chavez airport to the airport operator "Lima Airport Partners". The estimated investment of 1,200 million USD includes the construction of a new runway, a control tower and a passenger terminal in addition to the existing one. On the other hand, the state will build a new bridge and highway on the current Santa Rosa avenue that will connect directly with the "costa verde" highway. Works will be completed in 4 years, by the beginning of the year 2023, and will allow the transist of 40 millions of passengers per year by 2030. [4] [5] [6]

Accolades[edit]

From 2010 to 2012, the LAP received the annual Best Airport in South America 2010 award from Skytrax.[7][8][9][10] [11]

In March 2010, the Sumaq VIP lounge at the airport received its second annual Priority Pass "Lounge of the Year 2010".[12][13][14][15][16]

Transport and facilities[edit]

Food court

Transportation between the airport and the city is provided by taxis, tour buses and vans. Airport Express Lima is the official bus of Jorge Chávez Airport and operates between the airport and Miraflores. Line 2 and Line 4 of the Lima Metro is currently under construction, with an airport rail station terminal expected to be open by 2019.

The airport hosts the Wyndham Costa del Sol hotel which is located adjacent to the control tower and the arrivals exit. The hotel is built with noise canceling panels. The Peru Plaza Shopping Center is located near the passenger terminal in the Grand Concourse area. The food court is located near the entrance of the passenger terminal on the second floor and is always open. There is an ice cream vendor selling some special Peruvian flavours such as Chirimoya and Lucuma.

The airport has various premium lounges in the departures terminal, such as VIP Peru. For passengers in First class, there is an exclusive salon near the gates, the VIP Club.

On 12 May 2009, the airport opened Lima Cargo City, a hub for cargo airlines.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

AirlinesDestinations
Aerolíneas Argentinas Buenos Aires–Ezeiza
Aeroméxico Mexico City
Air Canada Rouge Montréal–Trudeau, Toronto–Pearson
Air Europa Madrid
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle
American Airlines Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami
ATSA[17] Atalaya, Chachapoyas, Huánuco, Tingo María
Avianca Bogotá
Avianca Costa Rica San José (CR), Santiago de Chile
Avianca Ecuador Guayaquil, La Paz, Quito, Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Avianca El Salvador San Salvador
Avianca Peru Arequipa, Asunción, Bogotá, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cali, Cancún, Cuzco, Havana, Juliaca, Medellín–JMC, Mendoza, Mexico City, Miami, Montevideo, Orlando,[18] Piura, Porto Alegre, Puerto Maldonado, Punta Cana, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, San Salvador, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Santiago de Chile, Trujillo
Avior Airlines Caracas[19]
British Airways Seasonal: London-Gatwick[20]
Copa Airlines Panama City
Delta Air Lines Atlanta
Estelar Latinoamerica Caracas
Iberia Madrid
Interjet Mexico City
JetBlue Airways Fort Lauderdale
JetSmart Santiago
KLM Amsterdam
LATAM Argentina Buenos Aires–Ezeiza
LATAM Brasil Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Córdoba, São Paulo–Guarulhos
LATAM Chile Los Angeles, New York–JFK, Santiago de Chile
LATAM Colombia Bogotá
LATAM Ecuador Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Guayaquil, Quito
LATAM Paraguay Asunción
LATAM Perú Antofagasta, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Barcelona, Bogotá, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cajamarca, Calama (begins July 2, 2019)[21], Cali (begins January 2, 2019)[22], Cancún, Cartagena, Chiclayo, Córdoba, Cuzco, Foz do Iguaçu, Guayaquil, Havana, Iquitos, Jaén, Jauja, Juliaca, La Paz, Los Angeles, Madrid, Medellín–JMC, Mendoza, Mexico City, Miami, Montego Bay (begins July 1, 2019)[23], Montevideo, New York–JFK, Orlando, Piura, Pucallpa, Puerto Maldonado, Punta Cana, Quito, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Rosario, Salta, San José (CR), San Miguel de Tucumán, Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru, Santiago de Chile, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Tacna, Talara, Tarapoto, Trujillo, Tumbes
LC Perú Andahuaylas, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Chachapoyas, Chiclayo, Cuzco, Huánuco, Pucallpa, Huaraz, Jauja, Tingo María, Trujillo
Peruvian Airlines Arequipa, Cuzco, Iquitos, Jauja, La Paz, Piura, Pucallpa, Tacna, Tarapoto
Plus Ultra Líneas Aéreas Madrid
Sky Airline Santiago
Spirit Airlines Fort Lauderdale
Star Perú Cuzco, Huánuco, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Puerto Maldonado, Tarapoto
TAME Quito
United Airlines Houston–Intercontinental, Newark
Viva Air Peru Arequipa, Bogotá, Chiclayo, Cuzco, Iquitos, Jaén (begins December 13, 2018)[24], Medellín–JMC, Piura, Talara (begins November 18, 2018)[25], Tarapoto
Viva Air Colombia Bogotá
Wayraperú Rioja

Cargo[edit]

AirlinesDestinations
Atlas Air Miami
Avianca Cargo Bogotá, Medellin-Córdova, Miami
Cielos Airlines Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Mexico City, Miami, Quito
KF Cargo Miami
Korean Air Cargo Campinas Viracopos, Los Angeles, Miami, Seoul-Incheon
LATAM Cargo Brasil Campinas Viracopos, Miami
LATAM Cargo Chile Miami
LATAM Cargo Colombia Rio de Janeiro-Galeão
LATAM Cargo Mexico Campinas Viracopos, Mexico City
Lufthansa Cargo Frankfurt
Martinair Quito
Northern Air Cargo Miami
Qatar Airways Cargo Campinas Viracopos, Doha
Sky Lease Cargo Amsterdam, Campinas Viracopos, Ciudad del Este, Bogotá, Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Caracas, Manaus, Medellin, Montevideo, Quito, Rio de Janeiro-Galeão, Santiago de Chile
UPS Airlines Miami

Statistics[edit]

Annual traffic[edit]

Annual Passenger Traffic[26]
Year Passengers % Change
2018 (Jan-Oct) 19,793,253 Increase TBD%
2017 22,046,042 Increase 14.07%
2016 19,286,158 Increase 9.73%
2015 17,575,919 Increase 8.69%
2014 16,170,035 Increase 8.45%
2013 14,908,772 Increase 11.84%
2012 13,330,290 Increase 11.70%
2011 11,904,553 Increase 15.82%
2010 10,278,493 Increase 17.00%
Annual Cargo Traffic
Year 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004
Cargo (Tons) 308,372,263 TBD 350,844 335,223 321,174 293,675 286,600 271,800 232,400 239,100 225,400 196,900 177,100 171,500

Busiest routes[edit]

Busiest international routes from/to Lima (LIM) in January-September 2018 [27]
Rank Airport Passengers Airline(s)
1 Chile Santiago de Chile, Chile Increase 1,209,916 Avianca Costa Rica, JetSmart, LATAM Chile, LATAM Perú, Sky Airline
2 Colombia Bogotá, Colombia Increase 659,039 Avianca, Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú, Viva Air Colombia
3 Argentina Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Argentina Decrease 617,169 Avianca Perú, Aerolíneas Argentinas, LATAM Argentina, LATAM Ecuador, LATAM Perú
4 United States Miami, United States Decrease 541,908 American Airlines, Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
5 Spain Madrid, Spain Increase 490,264 Air Europa, Iberia, LATAM Perú, Plus Ultra Líneas Aéreas
6 Mexico Mexico City, Mexico Increase 460,752 Aeroméxico, Avianca Perú, Interjet, LATAM Perú
7 Panama Panama City-Tocumen, Panama Increase 403,038 Copa Airlines
8 Brazil Sao Paulo-Guarulhos, Brazil Increase 353,090 Avianca Perú, LATAM Brasil, LATAM Perú
9 Mexico Cancún, Mexico Increase 286,697 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
10 Ecuador Quito, Ecuador Increase 242,683 Avianca Ecuador, LATAM Ecuador, LATAM Perú, TAME
11 Netherlands Amsterdam, Netherlands Increase 209,821 KLM
12 Dominican Republic Punta Cana, Dominican Republic Increase 209,095 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
13 United States Los Angeles, United States Decrease 187,101 LATAM Chile, LATAM Perú
14 El Salvador San Salvador, El Salvador Decrease 166,840 Avianca El Salvador, Avianca Perú
15 Uruguay Montevideo, Uruguay Increase 138,459 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
16 Bolivia La Paz, Bolivia Increase 137,443 Avianca Ecuador, LATAM Perú, Peruvian Airlines
17 Cuba Havana, Cuba Increase 137,054 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
18 France Paris-Charles de Gaulle, France Increase 130,560 Air France
19 Ecuador Guayaquil, Ecuador Decrease 127,355 Avianca Ecuador, LATAM Ecuador, LATAM Perú
20 United States New York-JFK, United States Decrease 127,296 LATAM Chile, LATAM Perú
21 United States Atlanta, United States Decrease 126,124 Delta Airlines
22 United States Fort Lauderdale, United States Increase 117,061 JetBlue Airways, Spirit Airlines
23 Bolivia Santa Cruz de la Sierra-Viru Viru, Bolivia Increase 110,687 Avianca Ecuador, LATAM Perú
24 United States Houston-Intercontinental, United States Increase 109,000 United Airlines
25 Brazil Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Brazil Increase 105,311 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
26 Paraguay Asunción, Paraguay Increase 99,436 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
27 Argentina Córdoba, Argentina Decrease 98,098 LATAM Perú
28 Costa Rica San José, Costa Rica Increase 97,697 Avianca Costa Rica, LATAM Perú
29 United States Dallas-Fort Worth, United States Increase 87,164 American Airlines
30 Canada Toronto-Pearson, Canada Increase 82,846 Air Canada Rouge
31 Argentina Rosario, Argentina Increase 77,977 LATAM Perú
32 Colombia Cartagena, Colombia Increase 75,982 LATAM Perú
33 Argentina Mendoza, Argentina Increase 74,867 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
34 United States Orlando, United States Increase 70,347 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
35 United States Newark, United States Decrease 64,568 United Airlines
36 Colombia Medellín-JMC, Colombia Increase 61,918 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
37 Brazil Porto Alegre, Brazil Increase 61,594 Avianca Costa Rica, Avianca Perú
38 Spain Barcelona, Spain Increase 59,899 LATAM Perú
39 Brazil Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil Increase 49,629 LATAM Perú
40 Argentina Tucumán, Argentina Increase 41,261 LATAM Perú
41 United Kingdom London-Gatwick, United Kingdom Decrease 40,215 British Airways
42 Canada Montréal-Trudeau, Canada Increase 35,043 Air Canada Rouge
43 Argentina Salta, Argentina Decrease 29,929 LATAM Perú
44 Chile Antofagasta, Chile Increase 26,689 LATAM Perú
45 Colombia Cali, Colombia Decrease 23,182 Avianca Perú
47 Venezuela Caracas, Venezuela Decrease 19,574 Avior Airlines, Estelar Latinoamerica
46 Venezuela Barcelona, Venezuela Increase 17,453 Avior Airlines
48 United States Washington-Dulles, United States Decrease 9,675 LATAM Perú

Access[edit]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • November 27, 1962: Varig Flight 810, a Boeing 707-441 registration PP-VJB flying from Rio de Janeiro-Galeão to Jorge Chávez International Airport, after initiating an overshoot procedure at the suggestion of the control tower because it was too high, proceeded to start another approach when it crashed into La Cruz peak, 8 miles from the airport. Possibly there was a misinterpretation of navigation instruments. All 97 passengers and crew aboard died.[28][29]
  • May 8, 1964: an Argentine Air Force Douglas C-54 registration T-47 flying from Buenos Aires to Jorge Chávez International Airport crashed into a sand dune during approach in poor visibility conditions, killing 46 of 49 people on board.[30]
  • December 1985: a bomb planted by the Maoist Shining Path insurgent movement, exploded in the parking lot and killed five people, including a child.[31]
  • August 6, 1986: an explosion of unknown origin occurred at a restroom in the domestic terminal.[32]
  • December 8, 1987: a Peruvian Navy Fokker 27-400M registration AE-560 flying from Pucallpa to Jorge Chávez International Airport chartered by the Alianza Lima football team crashed into the Pacific Ocean shortly before landing. A malfunctioning cockpit indicator made the crew believe that the landing gear was not properly deployed and locked, so they requested the control tower allow the plane to make a low pass for a visual check by ground personnel. After receiving the confirmation that the landing gear was down, the aircraft circled the airport for another attempt to land, but plunged into the ocean instead, killing all on board except the pilot.[33]
  • March 10, 1989: an Aero Condor Britten-Norman BN-2A Islander registration OB-1271 flying from Nazca to Jorge Chavez International Airport crashed into a building during approach killing all on board, apparently due to fuel exhaustion.[34]
  • January 25, 1991: a car bomb placed by the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA), killed two Peruvians and wounded several others. The attack occurred in a context of condemnation, by left-wing armed groups and political movements, of Operation Desert Storm; minutes after the attack, the US Embassy in Lima was attacked with an RPG by the MRTA.[35]
  • July 24, 1992: five American Airlines employees, charged with cleaning and baggage loading duties, were wounded by a bomb. This happened during the weekend in which Shining Path enforced a 48-hour nationwide "armed strike" that aimed at paralyzing, among other services, public transportation.[36][37]
  • January 22, 1993: three bullets hit the right side of the fuselage of American Airlines Flight 917 (inbound from Miami) while either landing or taxing on the runway after landing. There were no casualties and damage to the plane was minimal. Despite Shining Path (SP) claiming responsibility for the attack, a subsequent investigation failed to identify the actual assailants. Airport authorities reportedly stated that the source of the shots was accidental, originating in a security guard working in the perimeter.[38] The incident, occurring in the context of a decade-long leftist insurgency against the Peruvian state, happened in the midst of a surge of terrorist attacks and assassinations during that month which also targeted US interests and businesses.[39]
  • October 25, 1993: Months after the shooting of Flight 917, the cargo office of American Airlines suffered moderate property damage after the explosion of a bomb, placed under a minibus parked near the departure terminal. Shining Path involvement was suspected.[40]
  • April 15, 1995: an Imperial Air Tupolev Tu-134A-3 registration OB-1553 flying from Cusco to Jorge Chavez International Airport suffered a tyre failure after departure. The crew decided to continue the flight to Lima, but the left main landing gear did not extend during landing. There were no fatalities, but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.[41]
  • October 2, 1996: Flight 603, an AeroPerú Boeing 757-23A registration N52AW flying the Miami-Lima-Santiago, Chile route crashed into the Pacific Ocean some minutes after its take off from Jorge Chávez International Airport, killing all on board. The accident investigation found that masking tape was accidentally left over the static ports during maintenance, rendering the airspeed indicator, altimeter and vertical speed indicator unreliable.[42]
  • On October 11, 2013 an Airbus A320 (registration N492TA) from Taca Airlines, made an emergency landing at 8:20am Local Time. The pilot declared an emergency due to smoke in the cockpit. The aircraft was en route from Jorge Chávez International Airport to El Salvador International Airport, San Salvador, El Salvador. There were 31 passengers plus crew on board. The aircraft landed safely.[43]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Statistics. "CORPAC S.A." www.corpac.gob.pe.
  2. ^ PDFarchive. "Flightglobal/view/1995/1995". www.flightglobal.com.
  3. ^ "Peru this Week". Archived from the original on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  4. ^ http://tnews.com.pe/vizcarra-hace-entrega-de-terrenos-en-jorge-chavez-y-asegura-anunciadas-inversiones/
  5. ^ https://rpp.pe/economia/economia/aeropuerto-jorge-chavez-cuando-podras-disfrutar-de-la-ampliacion-del-aeropuerto-jorge-chavez-noticia-1158957
  6. ^ https://gestion.pe/economia/ampliacion-jorge-chavez-permitira-transito-40-millones-pasajeros-2030-nndc-248041
  7. ^ Lima Airport: Best Airport in South America 2010 Archived 2010-12-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ El Comercio (4 June 2015). "Jorge Chávez es el Aeropuerto Líder en Sudamérica 2010, según "The Wall Street Journal"". EL COMERCIO. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  9. ^ "Airline Rating and Reviews – Airport Rating and Reviews – Seat Reviews". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  10. ^ World Travel Awards 2012 Archived 2012-04-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ "Aeropuerto Jorge Chávez fue elegido el mejor de Sudamérica por cuarta vez". Perú.com. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  12. ^ "Airport Lounge Access Worldwide – Priority Pass". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  13. ^ "VIP Club". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  14. ^ "Priority Pass Lounge of the Year 2010 – Recent News of Interest – Priority Pass". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  15. ^ El Comercio (4 June 2015). "La sala vip del aeropuerto Jorge Chávez fue elegida la mejor del mundo por viajeros". EL COMERCIO. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  16. ^ El Comercio (4 June 2015). "Conozca la sala vip del aeropuerto Jorge Chávez, la mejor del mundo". EL COMERCIO. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  17. ^ Atsa Airlines. "Descubriendo juntos el Perú". www.atsaairlines.com.
  18. ^ 2018, UBM (UK) Ltd. "Avianca expands US routes in August 2018". Routesonline.
  19. ^ C.A., Avior Airlines,. "Avior Airlines, C.A. - Noticias". www.aviorair.com (in Spanish).
  20. ^ 2018, UBM (UK) Ltd. "British Airways removes Lima NW17 schedule". Routesonline.
  21. ^ http://tnews.com.pe/latam-volara-directo-entre-lima-y-montego-bay-a-partir-del-1-de-julio/
  22. ^ http://tnews.com.pe/latam-airlines-peru-iniciara-vuelos-directos-lima-cali-en-enero-del-2019/
  23. ^ http://tnews.com.pe/latam-volara-directo-entre-lima-y-montego-bay-a-partir-del-1-de-julio/
  24. ^ http://tnews.com.pe/viva-air-volara-a-talara-a-partir-del-18-de-noviembre-y-a-jaen-desde-el-13-de-diciembre/
  25. ^ http://tnews.com.pe/viva-air-volara-a-talara-a-partir-del-18-de-noviembre-y-a-jaen-desde-el-13-de-diciembre/
  26. ^ Statistics. "CORPAC S.A." www.corpac.gob.pe.
  27. ^ "https://www.mtc.gob.pe/transportes/aeronautica_civil/estadistica/pasajeros.html"
  28. ^ Harro Ranter (27 November 1962). "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 707-441 PP-VJB Lima-Callao International Airport (LIM)". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  29. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Back course". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928-1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 217–222. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2.
  30. ^ Harro Ranter (8 May 1964). "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas C-54A-DO (DC-4) T-47 Lima International Airport (LIM)". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  31. ^ America (1989). Terrorist Group Profiles. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 9781568068640.
  32. ^ Thomas, Andrew R. (2008). Aviation Security Management [3 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313346538.
  33. ^ Harro Ranter (8 December 1987). "ASN Aircraft accident Fokker F-27 Friendship 400M AE-560 Lima-Jorge Chavez International Airport (LIM)". Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  34. ^ Harro Ranter (10 March 1989). "ASN Aircraft accident IRMA/Britten-Norman BN-2A Islander OB-T-1271 Lima". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  35. ^ Organization/20308.pdf. "Documents" (PDF). www.state.gov.
  36. ^ Mickolus, Edward F.; Simmons, Susan L. (1997). Terrorism, 1992-1995: A Chronology of Events and a Selectively Annotated Bibliography. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313304682.
  37. ^ Shining Path Rebels Flaunt. "Their Power With Strike In Peru". tribunedigital-sunsentinel.
  38. ^ Peruvian rebels bomb Coca-Cola plant,. "Kill mayoral candidates; shots fired at American Airlines jet)". UPI.
  39. ^ Organization/19813.pdf. "Documents" (PDF). www.state.gov.
  40. ^ ibid; p.11
  41. ^ Harro Ranter (15 April 1995). "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev 134A-3 OB-1553 Lima-J Chavez International Airport (LIM)". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  42. ^ Harro Ranter (2 October 1996). "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 757-23A N52AW Lima, Peru". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  43. ^ "INAC". Retrieved 4 June 2015.

External links[edit]

Media related to Jorge Chávez International Airport at Wikimedia Commons