José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez
Life and career
He was born in Ozumba in 1737. He studied in the Colegio de San Ildefonso in Mexico City, graduating as a bachelor in theology in 1756. A priest from the age of 20, he was also a corresponding member of the French and Spanish academies of science, and one of the earliest trustworthy observers of Mexican meteorology. He attained a high reputation as a zoologist and botanist, and his researches led the way for modern exploration of Mexican antiquities. He published the Gaceta de Literatura, and an essay titled La limite des niéges perpetuelles en Volcan Popocatepetl.
The natural sciences, physics, astronomy and mathematics were for him subjects that deserved great attention. He conducted several scientific experiments, and wrote numerous articles that were published in science journals.
Inaugurated in 1768, his Diario literario de Méjico [Literary Newspaper of Mexico] was suspended after only three months. He later created, in 1788, the Gaceta de Literatura [Newspaper of Literature], that was published until 1795 (115 issues). This periodical inspired many of his countrymen to follow his example. His account of Xochicalco was the first published description of these interesting ruins.
More than thirty treatises on various subjects are due to his pen. Among other works, he wrote Observaciones meteorológicas [Weather observations] (1769), Observación del paso de Venus por el disco del Sol [Observation of the passage of Venus by the disc of the Sun] (1770), Modelo y descripción de los hornos de Almadén [Model and description of the furnaces of Almadén], notes, additions and maps for the Historia Antigua de México [Ancient History of Mexico], written by Francisco Javier Clavijero, and a Mapa de la América del Norte [Map of North America].
Astronomy, physics, meteorology, antiquities, and metallurgy, were among the topics on which he wrote, but he also devoted serious attention to certain industries. Thus the growing of silk in Mexico was the subject of several of his papers. He wrote a dissertation on the use of ammonia in combating mephitic gases in abandoned mines, and also prepared maps of New Spain (Mexico). In 1772, he published work that showed that the well-known psychedelic effects of pipiltzintzintli were due to natural causes and not the work of the devil (Memoria del uso que hacen los indios de los pipiltzintzintlis; México, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). He was frequently opposed, even reviled, at home, but the French Academy of Sciences made him a corresponding member, and the viceroys of Mexico and the archbishops entrusted him with sundry scientific missions.
In his honor, the Sociedad Científica Antonio Alzate [Antonio Alzate Scientific Society] was created in 1884. In 1935, this society became the National Academy of Sciences. A dam and reservoir are named in his honor in the State of Mexico, north of Toluca. Plant genus Alzatea is named after him 
- "José Antonio Alzate". Hombres ilustres del Estado de Mexico. URL accessed 2006-09-28. (in Spanish)
- J. Benedict Warren, "An Introductory Survey of Secular Writings in the European Tradition on Colonial Middle America, 1503-1818, item 97, "José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez, (1737-96)" in Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. 13. Guide to Ethnohistorical Sources, Howard F. Cline, volume editor. Austin: University of Texas Press 1973, p.90.
- "Jose Antonio de Alzate and Ramirez Archived 2006-01-17 at the Wayback Machine.". Biblioteca Virtual Ignacio Larramendi: Colección de Polígrafos Hispanoamericanos. Fundación Ignacio Larramendi. URL accessed 2006-09-27. (in Spanish)
- Rose, Hugh James (1857). "Alzate, Antonio". A New General Biographical Dictionary. London: B. Fellowes et al.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
- Brad Richard Huber, Alan R. Sandstrom. Mesoamerican Healers. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-73456-5. p 62.
- "Opportunities and Challenges for Sustainable Urban Water Management in Mexico City Archived 2006-09-02 at the Wayback Machine.. LEAD Case Study. URL accessed 2006-09-28.
- Ruiz Lopez H, Pavon JA (1794) Florae Peruvianae et Chilensis Prodromus. Madrid: Imprenta de Sancha
- Beltrán, Enrique, "Alzate y Ramírez, José Antonio" Dictionary of Scientific Biography volume 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1970. ISBN 0-684-10114-9
- Codding, Mitchell A., “Perfecting the geography of New Spain: Alzate and the Cartographic legacy of Sigüenza y Góngora,” Colonial Latin American Review, vol 2, 1994, pp. 185–219.
- Warren, J. Benedict, "An Introductory Survey of Secular Writings in the European Tradition on Colonial Middle America, 1503-1818, item 97, "José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez, (1737-96)" in Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. 13. Guide to Ethnohistorical Sources, Howard F. Cline, volume editor. Austin: University of Texas Press 1973, p. 90.
- Alzate, Jose Antonio de, Memorias y Ensayos. Mexico: Universidad Autonoma de Mexico 1985.