José Bengoa Cabello (31 January 1936) is a Chilean historian and anthropologist. He is known in Chile for his study of Mapuche history and society. After the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, José Bengoa was dismissed from his work at the University of Chile by the Pinochet regime. In 2013 he won the Altazor Award for the best essay with his work Mapuche. Procesos, política y culturas en el Chile del Bicentenario (Mapuches. Processes, politics and cultures in the Bicentenarian Chile).