|First appearance||Saludos Amigos (1942)|
|Created by||The Walt Disney Company|
|Voiced by||José Oliveira (original)|
Rob Paulsen (1999-2020)
Eric Bauza (Legend of the Three Caballeros)
Bernardo De Paula (DuckTales)
|Significant other||Maria Vaz (Only in the comics)|
|Relatives||Zico and Zeca (nephews)|
José "Zé" Carioca (/ /, Portuguese: [ʒuˈzɛ kɐˈɾjɔkɐ, - kɐɾiˈɔkɐ]) is a cartoon anthropomorphic parrot created by the Walt Disney Company. José was introduced in the 1942 movie Saludos Amigos as a friend of Donald Duck, described by Time as "a dapper Brazilian parrot, who is as superior to Donald Duck as the Duck was to Mickey Mouse". He returned in the 1944 film The Three Caballeros along with Donald and a Mexican rooster named Panchito Pistoles. José is from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (thus the name "Carioca", which is a term used for a person born in Rio de Janeiro).
In addition to Saludos Amigos and The Three Caballeros (the Latin American film pair), José appeared with Donald and the Aracuan Bird in the "Blame It on the Samba" segment of the 1948 anthology feature Melody Time.
He also appeared in the segment "Two Happy Amigos" in a 1960 episode of the anthology television series Walt Disney Presents. Much later, he was seen in the Disney Channel series Mickey Mouse Works and House of Mouse, as well as in two episodes of Mickey and the Roadster Racers alongside Panchito ("Mickey's Perfecto Day!" and "Super-Charged: Daisy's Grande Goal"). He also made a brief cameo in the 1988 motion picture Who Framed Roger Rabbit.
In the Mickey Mouse short "O Futebol Clássico", José is seen as the announcer of a Brazilian soccer game. He later appears with Donald and Panchito in "¡Feliz Cumpleaños!" as performers at Mickey's birthday and in "Carnaval" as a performer in the parade.
Carioca starred in the main role of Legend of the Three Caballeros, alongside Panchito Pistoles and Donald Duck, which was released on the Disney Life app. He is voiced by Eric Bauza in this version. He also appeared in the 2017 DuckTales series, voiced by Bernardo de Paula.
In the early 1940s, the Sunday-only Silly Symphony comic strip featured José Carioca, in a series running from Oct 11, 1942 to October 1, 1944. This was replaced by a Panchito strip, which ran for another year.
José is quite popular in Brazil, appearing alongside Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck in the local Disney comics. In Brazil, he's known as Zé Carioca ("Zé" being a familiar form for Portuguese name "José", in much the same way "Joe" is a familiar form for the English name "Joseph"). Between 1961 and 2018, he had his Brazilian comic books, in which he is portrayed as living with his friends Nestor (an anthropomorphic vulture) and Pedro (Portuguese: Pedrão, an anthropomorphic dog), along with other characters: his nephews Zico and Zeca (also parrots), his girlfriend Maria Vaz (Portuguese: Rosinha Vaz, another anthropomorphic parrot), daughter of rich entrepreneur Rocha Vaz; and his rival Zé Galo (no English name as of 2010; an anthropomorphic rooster). Local production ended in 2001, but was restarted in 2012. José now has a pet, Old Tom, an alligator originated from the 1960s Studio Program duck stories. In September 2020, the character will again be published by Culturama in the comic book Aventuras Disney.
Comics featuring Joe Carioca, as he is called in the Netherlands, appear occasionally in the Dutch Donald Duck magazine. In these short stories, José occupies his time assuming false identities to impress girls (who usually see through him, leaving him brokenhearted), and wangling free dinners in expensive restaurants, a habit that often gets him into trouble.
In the Brazilian comics, Zé is also part of his neighborhood soccer team (or acts as a referee) and has a superheroic secret identity, Morcego Verde (Green Bat, a Batman spoof), although he is easily and often recognized, even by his neighbors.
In recent years, José Carioca has been used alongside Panchito and Donald in two comics by American artist Don Rosa, The Three Caballeros Ride Again (2000) and The Magnificent Seven (Minus 4) Caballeros (2005). The creation of a Brazilian animated character during the Second World War was part of a strategy called "Good Neighbor Policy" headed by the United States government to improve relations and gather support amongst its neighbor countries.
In April 2007, Disney re-introduced José Carioca (along with the third Caballero, Panchito) in the newly revamped ride at Epcot's Mexico Pavilion with entirely new animation and a new storyline. It has been dubbed "The Gran Fiesta Tour". After being reunited, The Three Caballeros are set to play a show in Mexico City. But Donald goes missing. José and Panchito must search throughout Mexico for Donald as he takes in various sights around Mexico. The character was previously voiced by Rob Paulsen, although in June 2020 Paulsen announced that, as a Caucasian voice actor, he will no longer play characters of color, including the Brazilian José.
José can also be seen in the Hong Kong Disneyland version of It's a Small World, which opened on April 28, 2008, as well as the Disneyland (in California) version of It's a Small World, installed during major refurbishments between January and November 2008.
José and Panchito's costumes were extinct at the Disneyland Resort by 2011, but were re-Imagineered for Mickey's Soundsational Parade in May 2011. They now appear with Donald Duck and dancers with a float where Donald is trying to hit a Piñata. José and Panchito also regularly appear in the Walt Disney World Magic Kingdom parade, "Move It! Shake It! MousekeDance It! Street Party," which debuted in 2014 and continues through 2020.
- "DuckTales introduces the Three Caballeros at Comic-Con". Entertainment Weekly. July 20, 2017. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
- "The New Pictures". TIME. 25 January 1943. Retrieved 2009-06-08.
- Grant, John (1998). Encylopedia of Walt Disney's Animated Characters (2nd ed.). Hyperion. pp. 205–206. ISBN 978-0786863365.
- Disney Made A ‘Three Caballeros’ TV Series, But Most People Can’t See It
- Holtz, Allan (2012). American Newspaper Comics: An Encyclopedic Reference Guide. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press. p. 400. ISBN 9780472117567.
- Becattini, Alberto (2016). Disney Comics: The Whole Story. Theme Park Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-1683900177.
- Line, A. TARDE On. "Zé Carioca ganha novas histórias para comemorar 70 anos". Portal A TARDE (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-08-07.
- "Abril confirma, em comunicado a assinantes, o fim dos quadrinhos Disney na editora". UNIVERSO HQ (in Portuguese). 2018-06-08. Retrieved 2020-08-07.
- "Zé Carioca volta a ter HQs produzidas no Brasil". UNIVERSO HQ (in Portuguese). 2020-07-29. Retrieved 2020-08-07.
- "The Three Caballeros return… in Orlando". Cartoon Brew. 2007-04-09. Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
- Eakin, Marah (June 30, 2020). "Voice actor Rob Paulsen says he won't play a character of color again". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
- Legend of the Three Caballeros, retrieved 2019-11-27