José María Morelos
|José María Morelos|
September 30, 1765|
City of Valladolid (now Morelia, Michoacán)
|Died||December 22, 1815
San Cristóbal Ecatepec, State of México
|Years of service||1810-1815|
José María Teclo Morelos y Pavón xoˈse maˈɾi.a ˈteklo moˈɾelos i paˈβon (help·info) (September 30, 1765, City of Valladolid, now Morelia, Michoacán – December 22, 1815, San Cristóbal Ecatepec, State of México) was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811. He was later captured by the Spanish colonial authorities and executed for treason in 1815.
Morelos was born in Valladolid, since renamed "Morelia" in his honor, to a humble family of African, indigenous, and Spanish descent. His father was José Manuel Morelos y Robles, a carpenter originally from Zindurio, a predominantly indigenous village a few kilometers west of Valladolid. His mother was Juana María Guadalupe Pérez Pavón, originally from San Juan Bautista de Apaseo, also near Valladolid. Valladolid was the seat of a bishop and of the government of the colonial Intendency of Valladolid. It was known as the "Garden of the Viceroyalty of New Spain" because of its prosperity.
Through his paternal line, Morelos was related to his comrade Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. Both insurgents shared a common ancestor, Diego Ruiz de Cortés, who was a descendant of the conquistador Hernán Cortés. Hidalgo was the descendant of Ruiz de Cortés through his mother, Ana María Gallaga.
Insurrection against Spain
About 6:00 a.m. on September 16, 1810, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, the former leader of the College of San Nicolás, then the parish priest of Dolores, Guanajuato (since renamed Dolores Hidalgo in his honor), hastily ordered the church bells to be rung, and gathered his congregation. Flanked by Ignacio Allende and Juan Aldama, Hidalgo addressed the people in front of his church, encouraging them to take up arms, with the Cry of Independence (El Grito de Dolores, now celebrated every year on September 15 at 11:00 p.m.) that called for armed revolt after the Spanish colonial authorities had discovered the Conspiracy of Querétaro, a clandestine movement seeking Mexican independence. Like Allende and Aldama, Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez, popularly known as La Corregidora, was one of the famous initial supporters of the revolt. Thus Miguel Hidalgo and his followers rose in open rebellion against the Spanish colonial authorities launching the Mexican War of Independence.
There on September 28, the rebels captured the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in battle, killing more than 700 Spaniards who had taken shelter there. Among the dead was the intendent of Guanajuato, Juan Antonio Riaño, an old friend of Hidalgo y Costilla.
The Mexican revolutionary army was excommunicated by the bishop of Michoacán, Manuel Abad y Queipo, another former friend of Hidalgo y Costilla. Hidalgo y Costilla and his army marched on to Valladolid, where the locals feared that the slaughter of Guanajuato would be repeated, prompting many people to abandon the region, particularly the rich and middle class society. However, Valladolid was taken peacefully on October 17, 1810.
In Tacámbaro Hidalgo y Costilla was proclaimed general, and Allende captain general. Hidalgo y Costilla ordered a rest for his troops in Indaparapeo, where a few minutes before their departure, Morelos, who had read about his excommunication and his triumphs, found him. Still serving as the parish priest of Cuarácuaro, Hidalgo y Costilla asked Morelos to join the army. Morelos was promoted as colonel of the revolution army, ordering him to raise troops in the south and capture Acapulco, to disrupt the commerce and trade with the Philippine Islands.
Morelos soon showed himself to be a talented strategist, and became one of the greatest revolutionary military commanders of the war. In his first nine months, he won 22 victories, annihilating the armies of three Spanish royalist leaders and dominating almost all of what is now the state of Guerrero. In December, he captured Acapulco for the first time, except for the fortress of San Diego. Spanish reinforcements forced him to raise the siege in January. By quick marches, he was able to capture most of the Spanish possessions on the Pacific coast of what are now Michoacán and Guerrero. On May 24, 1811 he occupied Chilpancingo and on May 26 he took Tixtla.
In his second campaign, Morelos divided his army into three groups. The most important engagement of this campaign was at Cuautla. On Christmas Eve 1811 the townspeople welcomed Morelos to the town. The next year his forces were besieged by the Spanish army under general Félix María Calleja del Rey. On May 2, 1812, after 58 days, Morelos broke through the siege, and started his third campaign.
Major victories on this third campaign were at Citlala on June 8, 1812, Tehuacán on August 10, 1812, Orizaba, Oaxaca and Acapulco. Morelos arrived at Orizaba with 10,000 soldiers on October 28, 1812. The city was defended by 600 Spanish soldiers. Negotiation led to a surrender without bloodshed. He entered Oaxaca in triumph on November 25, 1812. Acapulco fell on April 12, 1813, forcing the Spanish army to take refuge in Fort Of San Diego
The Congress of Chilpancingo
|Spanish Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
In 1813, Morelos called the National Constituent Congress of Chilpancingo, composed of representatives of the provinces under his control, to consider a political and social program which he outlined in a document entitled "Sentimientos de la Nación" (Sentiments of the Nation). The Congress called itself the Congress of Anáhuac, referring poetically to the ancient Aztecs.
On September 14, 1813, the Congress, with Morelos present, endorsed the "Sentiments of the Nation". This document declared Mexican independence from Spain, established the Roman Catholic religion and created the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government. It declared respect for property and confiscated the productions of the Spanish colonial government. It abolished slavery and racial social distinctions in favor of the title "American" for all native-born individuals. Torture, monopolies and the system of tributes were also abolished. Morelos was offered the title "Generalissimo" with the style of address "Your Highness", but he refused these and asked to be called "Siervo de la Nación" (Servant of the Nation). On November 6, 1813 the Congress declared independence.
After several military defeats, the Congress organized a meeting in Apatzingán, and on October 22 promulgated the "Decreto Constitucional para la Libertad de la América Mexicana" (1814 Constitution of Mexico Constitutional Decree for the Liberty of Mexican America). This established a weak executive and a powerful legislature, the opposite of what Morelos had called for. He nevertheless conceded that it was the best he could hope for under the circumstances.
Capture and execution
Shortly thereafter, Morelos began his fourth military campaign, a series of disasters beginning at Valladolid in late 1813. While escorting the new insurgent Congress in November 1815, he was defeated in Tezmalaca. He was taken prisoner and brought to Mexico City in chains. He was tried and sentenced to death for treason. Morelos was executed by firing squad on December 22, 1815 in San Cristóbal Ecatepec, north of Mexico City in order that his execution not provoke a dangerous public reaction. He was later judged to be reconciled to the church, lifting his excommunication, as he was seen praying on his way to his execution. After his death, his lieutenant, Vicente Guerrero, continued the war for independence.
Morelos is considered a national hero of Mexico. In his honor, the state of Morelos and city of Morelia are named after him. Morelos' legacy has been portrayed on the 50 peso note since 1997; 1 peso coins during the 1940s, 1970s and 1980s. The Estadio Morelos in Morelia, Puerto Morelos in the state of Quintana Roo, the Morelos Station in Mexico's City Metro System, Ecatepec the city in Mexico State where he was executed and the Morelos Satellite from the Communications company Satmex are also named after him.
- Dates and other biographical information in this article are drawn from Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography 1887-89.
- "Sitio del Bicentenario de independencia de Mexico, biografia de Morelos.". Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- Castro, Jesús. "Con sangre sacerdotal heredó Hidalgo la sotana". vanguardia.com.mx. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- Gustavo Watson Marron, director of the historical archive of the archdiocese, cited in El Universal, 31 August 2009
- Wilbert H. Timmons, "Morelos: Priest, Soldier, Statesman of Mexico", revised edition, 1970
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to José María Morelos.|
- Wallace L. McKeehan, "José María Morelos Man of God, Warrior & Patriot"
- "Mexico Builds Her Own Statue Of Liberty" Popular Science Monthly, February 1936