José Ramos-Horta

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

José Ramos-Horta
Official portrait, 2022
4th and 7th President of East Timor
Assumed office
20 May 2022
Prime MinisterTaur Matan Ruak
Xanana Gusmão
Preceded byFrancisco Guterres
In office
17 April 2008 – 20 May 2012
Prime MinisterXanana Gusmão
Preceded byFernando de Araújo (acting)
Succeeded byTaur Matan Ruak
In office
20 May 2007 – 11 February 2008
Prime MinisterEstanislau da Silva
Xanana Gusmão
Preceded byXanana Gusmão
Succeeded byVicente Guterres (acting)
3rd Prime Minister of East Timor
In office
26 June 2006 – 19 May 2007
PresidentXanana Gusmão
Preceded byMari Alkatiri
Succeeded byEstanislau da Silva
Personal details
José Manuel Ramos-Horta

(1949-12-26) 26 December 1949 (age 74)
Dili, Portuguese Timor
(now East Timor)
Political partyCNRT (2022–present)
Other political
Fretilin (until 1988)
Independent (1988–2022)
SpouseAna Pessoa (divorced)
Alma materAntioch University
The Hague Academy of International Law
International Institute of Human Rights
Columbia University

José Manuel Ramos-Horta GCL GColIH (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈzɛ ˈʁɐ̃muz ˈɔɾtɐ]; born 26 December 1949)[1][2] is an East Timorese politician. He has been the president of East Timor since 2022, having previously also held the position from 20 May 2007 to 20 May 2012. Previously he was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2002 to 2006 and Prime Minister from 2006 to 2007. He was a co-recipient of the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize, along with Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, for working "towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor".

As a founder and former member of Fretilin, Ramos-Horta served as the exiled spokesman for the East Timorese resistance during the Indonesian occupation of East Timor (1975–1999). While he continued to work with Fretilin, he resigned from the party in 1988, becoming an independent politician.[3]

After East Timor achieved independence in 2002, Ramos-Horta was appointed as the country's first foreign minister. He served in this position until his resignation on 25 June 2006, amidst political turmoil. On 26 June 2006, following the resignation of Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri, Ramos-Horta was appointed as acting Prime Minister by President Xanana Gusmão. Two weeks later, on 10 July 2006, he was sworn in as the second Prime Minister of East Timor. He was elected as President in 2007. On 11 February 2008, he was shot during an assassination attempt.

After leaving office as President in 2012, Ramos-Horta was appointed as the United Nations' Special Representative and Head of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS) on 2 January 2013. He was re-elected to the presidency in 2022.

Early history and family[edit]

Ramos-Horta was born in 1949 in Dili, capital of East Timor. He is of Mestiço ethnicity,[4] born to Portuguese father and Portuguese-Timorese mother. Both father (Francisco Horta) and maternal grandfather (Arsénio José Filipe) were deported to Timor by Portuguese authorities. He was educated in a Catholic mission in the small village of Soibada, later chosen by Fretilin as its headquarters after the Indonesian invasion. Of his eleven brothers and sisters, four were killed by the Indonesian military.

Ramos-Horta studied public international law at The Hague Academy of International Law in 1983 and at Antioch University in Yellow Springs, Ohio, where he completed an Individualized Master of Arts degree in Peace Studies with the major area of study being Public International Law and International Relations, awarded in December 1984.[5] He was trained in human rights law at the International Institute of Human Rights in Strasbourg in 1983. He completed post-graduate courses in American foreign policy at Columbia University in 1983.[6][7] He is a Senior Associate Member of the University of Oxford's St Antony's College since 1987 and speaks five languages fluently: Portuguese, English, French, Spanish, and the most commonly spoken East Timorese language, Tetum.[8]

Ramos-Horta is divorced from Ana Pessoa Pinto, East Timor's Minister for State and Internal Administration, with whom he has a son, Loro Horta, who was born in exile in Mozambique.[9]

Political career[edit]

Ramos-Horta in 1976

Ramos-Horta was actively involved in the development of political awareness in Portuguese Timor, which caused him to be exiled for two years in 1970–1971 to Portuguese East Africa. His grandfather, before him, had also been exiled, from Portugal to the Azores Islands, then Cape Verde, Portuguese Guinea and finally to Portuguese Timor.

A moderate in the emerging Timorese nationalist leadership, Ramos-Horta was appointed Foreign Minister in the "Democratic Republic of East Timor" government proclaimed by the pro-independence parties in November 1975. When appointed minister, Ramos-Horta was only 25 years old. Three days before the Indonesian troops invaded, Ramos-Horta left East Timor to plead the Timorese case before the UN.

Ramos-Horta arrived in New York to address the UN Security Council and urge them to take action in the face of the Indonesian occupation during which an estimated 102,000 East Timorese would die.[10] Ramos-Horta was the Permanent Representative of Fretilin to the UN for the next ten years. His friends at that time mentioned that he arrived in the United States with a total of $25 in his pocket. His financial situation was often precarious during that period. He survived partly by the grace of Americans who admired his politics and his determination. Furthermore, he was obliged to travel worldwide to explain his party's position.

In 1993, the Rafto Prize was awarded to the people of East Timor. Foreign-minister-in-exile Ramos-Horta represented his nation at the prize ceremony. In May 1994, Philippine President Fidel Ramos (no relation), bowing to pressure from Jakarta, tried to ban an international conference on East Timor in Manila and blacklisted Ramos-Horta, with the Thai government following suit later that year by declaring him persona non grata.[11]

In December 1996, Ramos-Horta shared the Nobel Peace Prize with fellow Timorese Bishop Ximenes Belo. The Nobel Committee chose to honour the two laureates for their "sustained efforts to hinder the oppression of a small people", hoping that "this award will spur efforts to find a diplomatic solution to the conflict of East Timor based on the people's right to self-determination". The Committee considered Ramos-Horta "the leading international spokesman for East Timor's cause since 1975".[12]

Ramos-Horta played a leading role in negotiating the institutional foundations for independence. He led the Timorese delegation at an important joint workshop with UNTAET on 1 March 2000 to tease out a new strategy, and identify institutional needs. The outcome was an agreed blueprint for a joint administration with executive powers, including leaders of the National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (CNRT). Further details were worked out in a conference in May 2000. The Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General in East Timor, Sérgio Vieira de Mello, presented the new blueprint to a donor conference in Lisbon,[13] on 22 June 2000, and to the UN Security Council on 27 June 2000.[14] On 12 July 2000, the NCC adopted a regulation establishing a Transitional Cabinet composed of four East Timorese and four UNTAET representatives.[15] The revamped joint administration successfully laid the institutional foundations for independence, and on 27 September 2002, East Timor joined the United Nations. Ramos-Horta was its first Foreign Minister.

Premiership (2006–2007)[edit]

On 3 June 2006, Ramos-Horta added the post of Interim Minister of Defense to his portfolio as Foreign Minister, in the wake of the resignations of the previous minister.[16] He resigned as both Foreign and Defence Minister on 25 June 2006, announcing, "I do not wish to be associated with the present government or with any government involving Alkatiri."[17] Prime Minister Alkatiri had been under pressure to resign his position in place of President Xanana Gusmão, but in a 25 June meeting, leaders of the Fretilin party agreed to keep Alkatiri as Prime Minister; Ramos-Horta resigned immediately following this decision.[18] Foreign Minister of Australia Alexander Downer expressed his personal disappointment at Ramos-Horta's resignation.[19] Following Alkatiri's resignation on 26 June, Ramos-Horta withdrew his resignation to contest the prime ministership and served in the position on a temporary basis until a successor to Alkatiri was named.[20] On 8 July 2006, Ramos-Horta himself was appointed Prime Minister by President Gusmão.[21] He was sworn in on 10 July.

Before his appointment as Prime Minister, Ramos-Horta was considered a possible candidate to succeed Kofi Annan as United Nations Secretary-General.[22] He dropped out of the race in order to serve as East Timor's Prime Minister, but he has indicated that he might run for the UN position at some time in the future: "I can wait five years if I am really interested in the job in 2012. I would be interested in that."[23]

Ramos-Horta with Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, 2008

First election to presidency (2007)[edit]

In an interview with Al Jazeera broadcast on 22 February 2007, Ramos-Horta said that he would run for president in the April 2007 election.[24] On 25 February 2007, Ramos-Horta formally announced his candidacy. He received the support of Gusmão, who was not running for re-election.[25] In an interview with Global South Development Magazine, Ramos-Horta revealed that Mahatma Gandhi was his greatest hero.[26]

In the first round of the election, held on 9 April, Ramos-Horta took second place with 21.81% of the vote; he and Fretilin candidate Francisco Guterres, who took first place, then participated in the second round of the election in May.[27] The full results of the runoff elections were made public by East Timor's National Electoral Committee spokeswoman, Maria Angelina Sarmento, on 11 May, and Ramos-Horta won with 69.18% of the vote.[28]

He was inaugurated as President of East Timor in a ceremony at the parliament house in Dili on 20 May 2007.[29] He had resigned as Prime Minister the day before and was succeeded by Estanislau da Silva.

Assassination attempt[edit]

On 11 February 2008, Ramos-Horta was shot in an assassination attempt. In the gun skirmish, one of his guards was wounded, and two rebel soldiers, including rebel leader Alfredo Reinado, were killed.[30][31] Ramos-Horta was treated at an Australian Defence Force hospital in Dili operated by Aspen Medical,[32] before being transferred to the Royal Darwin Hospital in Australia on board an Aspen Medical air ambulance for further treatment.[33] Doctors thought that he had been shot two or three times with the most serious injury being to his right lung.[34] His condition was listed as critical but stable.[35] He was placed in an induced coma on full life support,[36] and regained consciousness on 21 February.[37] A message from Ramos-Horta, still recovering in Darwin, was broadcast on 12 March. In this message, he thanked his supporters and Australia and said that he had "been very well looked after". A spokesman said that his condition was improving and that he had started taking short daily walks for exercise.[38]

Ramos-Horta was released from the Royal Darwin Hospital on 19 March, although he said that he would stay in Australia for physical therapy for "a few more weeks". He also said on this occasion that he had remained conscious following the shooting and "remember[ed] every detail", describing how he was taken for treatment.[39] On 17 April, he returned to Dili from Darwin. He gave a press conference at the airport in which he urged the remaining rebels in the mountains to surrender.[40]

2012 bid for presidency[edit]

During the first round of the presidential elections of 2012, held on 17 March, Ramos-Horta, who was eligible for a second and final term as president, took third place with 19.43% of the vote behind the presidential candidates Francisco Guterres with 27.28% and Taur Matan Ruak 24.17% of the vote. He admitted defeat,[41] and his term as president ended on 19 May, with the inauguration of Taur Matan Ruak as his successor.[42][43]

Second election to presidency (2022)[edit]

Ramos-Horta came out of retirement as he stated that incumbent president Francisco “Lu-Olo” Guterres had violated the constitution.[44] He stated that if he won the presidential election, he would dissolve parliament and call for new elections.[44][45] His campaign was supported by Xanana Gusmão, who was dubbed the "Kingmaker of Timor Leste".[44][46] Ramos-Horta ran on a platform of poverty reduction, increasing healthcare services for mothers and children, as well as increasing job creation.[46] He also stated that he wanted to try and improve communication across the governing political parties for the purposes of increasing stability.[46] In addition, he stated his intention on working with the government to address supply chain issues from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and war in Ukraine.[47] The runoff was between Ramos-Horta, and the incumbent Francisco Guterres. In the runoff Ramos-Horta received 62.10% of the vote and defeated Guterres in a landslide, who received 37.90% percent of the vote.[48] Speaking to supporters in a rally, Ramos-Horta proclaimed: "I have received this mandate from our people, from the nation in an overwhelming demonstration of our people's commitment to democracy."[49] He added he had not spoken to Guterres personally after the win but had received an invitation from Guterres' office to discuss a handover of power following the election.[47][49]

The United States Department of State congratulated Ramos-Horta on his election as Timor-Leste’s next president and looked forward to strengthen the partnership between the United States and Timor-Leste. In a statement, they praised the election, stating; "We commend Timorese authorities, including the Technical Secretariat for Electoral Administration and the National Elections Commission, for administering a free, fair, and transparent election and the hundreds of thousands of Timorese voters who cast their ballots peacefully. Timor-Leste’s election serves as an inspiration for democracy in Southeast Asia, the Indo-Pacific region, and the world. This achievement represents another milestone in Timor-Leste’s tremendous work to build and strengthen its robust, vibrant democracy over its nearly 20-year history as an independent nation."[50] His victory was also congratulated by the President of Portugal Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa giving "the warmest congratulations on the election as president of the Republic of Timor-Leste".[44]

Ramos-Horta was sworn in as president of East Timor in a peaceful transfer of power on 20 May 2022; the 20th independence anniversary of East Timor.[51]

Other activities[edit]

Ramos-Horta with United States President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama

Following the 2012 Guinea-Bissau coup d'état, he offered to mediate the conflict. He also served as the UN special envoy to the country.[52]

He is the author of the book Words of Hope in Troubled Times.[53]

Ramos-Horta has served as Chairman of the Advisory Board for, a web site for peace and human rights, since 2000. In 2001 he gathered the post 9/11 statements of 28 Nobel Peace Prize Laureates on the web site,[54] and has spearheaded other peace initiatives with his fellow Nobel Laureates.

Ramos-Horta supported the U.S. invasion and occupation of Iraq and condemned the anti-American tone of its detractors as "hypocritical".[55] In the 1990s he had supported the cause of Kurdish people in Iraq.[56]

In May 2009 Ramos-Horta stated that he would ask the International Criminal Court to investigate the ruling junta of Myanmar if they continue to detain fellow Nobel Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi.[57] However, by August 2010, he had softened his views on Myanmar, warmly receiving the Myanmar Foreign Minister Nyan Win, and said that he wanted to improve relations and seek strong commercial ties with Myanmar.[58]

In 2006, Ramos-Horta pledged his support for the International Simultaneous Policy (SIMPOL) which seeks to end the usual deadlock in tackling global issues.[59]

On 5 August 2009, he attended the funeral of the former President of the Philippines Corazon Aquino. He was the only foreign head of state to attend.[60] On 30 June 2010, he attended the inauguration of Benigno S. Aquino III, the 15th President of the Philippines. He was, again, the only head of state who attended the inauguration and the first dignitary to arrive in the Philippines for the inauguration.[citation needed]

Ramos-Horta is a Member of the Global Leadership Foundation, an organization which works to support democratic leadership, prevent and resolve conflict through mediation and promote good governance in the form of democratic institutions, open markets, human rights and the rule of law. It does so by making available, discreetly and in confidence, the experience of former leaders to today's national leaders. It is a not-for-profit organization composed of former heads of government, senior governmental and international organization officials who work closely with Heads of Government on governance-related issues of concern to them.

In August 2017, ten Nobel Peace Prize laureates, including Ramos-Horta, urged Saudi Arabia to stop the executions of 14 young people for participating in the 2011–12 Saudi Arabian protests.[61]

He is also a television presenter of Horta Show in Radio-Televisão Timor Leste.

In 2021 Ramos-Horta joined the judging committee for the Zayed Award for Human Fraternity, an annual award instituted "to promote human fraternity values around the world and to fulfill the aspirations of the Document on Human Fraternity, co-signed by His Holiness Pope Francis and His Eminence the Grand Imam of Al-Azhar Professor Ahmed Al-Tayeb in 2019". The first meeting of the committee was held in the Vatican with Pope Francis on 6 October, 2021.[62]


Nobel Prize[edit]

The Roman Catholic bishop Ximenes Belo of East Timor and Ramos-Horta were jointly awarded the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts.

Other awards[edit]


Film depictions[edit]

The 2000 documentary The Diplomat, directed by Tom Zubrycki, follows Ramos-Horta in the period from 1998 to his return to East Timor in 2000.[67][68] Ramos-Horta is played by Oscar Isaac in the 2009 film Balibo.[69] The film tells the story of the Balibo Five and the events preceding the Indonesian occupation of East Timor.[70]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1996 - José Ramos-Horta Facts". Archived from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  2. ^ "José Ramos-Horta President East Timor club madrid member peace nobel". Club de Madrid (in Spanish). 22 June 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  3. ^ Lindsay Murdoch (10 July 2006). "Ramos Horta vows to rebuild Timor". The Age. Melbourne. Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. Retrieved 27 September 2006.
  4. ^ Dr. José Ramos-Horta Archived 14 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Nighthawk, Jasper (Fall 2021). "A Champion for Peace". The Antioch Alumni Magazine. Archived from the original on 11 April 2022. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  6. ^ "José Manuel Ramos-Horta". Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  7. ^ Mitworld Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "Jose Ramos-Horta: A reluctant politician". Archived from the original on 4 September 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  9. ^ YaleGlobal Online Archived 2 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor cited a lower range of 102,800 conflict-related deaths in the period 1974–1999, namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 'excess' deaths from hunger and illness. ( Benetech Human Rights Data Analysis Group (9 February 2006). "The Profile of Human Rights Violations in Timor-Leste, 1974–1999". A Report to the Commission on Reception, Truth and Reconciliation of Timor-Leste. Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG). Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2008.
  11. ^ "Asia Times: Asean's commitment to East Timor faces tough test". Archived from the original on 29 September 2000. Retrieved 22 March 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  12. ^ The Norwegian Nobel Committee (2006). The Nobel Peace Prize 1996 Archived 20 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 26 June 2006.
  13. ^ "New structure of NCC proposed". 21 June 2000. Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  14. ^ "SC/6882 : Security Council briefed by Sergio Vieira de Mello, Special representative for East Timor". 27 June 2000. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  15. ^ "?". Archived from the original on 19 April 2008.
  16. ^ Seattle Times (3 June 2003). Nobel laureate takes security posts Archived 11 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ Australian Associated Press (2006). Timor's foreign minister resigns Archived 13 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 25 June 2006.
  18. ^ Associated Press (2006). Alkatiri to remain as PM Archived 14 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 25 June 2006.
  19. ^ AM (2006). Downer disappointed by Horta resignation Archived 27 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 26 June 2006.
  20. ^ Reuters (2006). Jose Ramos-Horta to be East Timor prime minister Archived 18 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 8 July 2006.
  21. ^ Associated Press (2006). Ramos-Horta named E Timor's new PM Archived 14 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 8 July 2006.
  22. ^ (2006). Spec growing on Ramos-Horta Archived 16 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 27 September 2006.
  23. ^ The Courier Mail (2006). Ramos Horta 'on PM shortlist' Archived 20 June 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 27 September 2006.
  24. ^ "East Timor PM to run for president" Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Al Jazeera, 22 February 2007.
  25. ^ "Nobel laureate Jose Ramos-Horta to run for president in East Timor" Archived 6 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 24 February 2007.
  26. ^ "We resisted the temptation of violence"- Ramos-Horta Archived 15 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, GSDM 14 February 2015.
  27. ^ "Two set to square off for presidency" Archived 15 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine, AAP (, 18 April 2007.
  28. ^ "Guterres congratulates Horta as new president of Timor-Leste" Archived 7 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Xinhua (People's Daily Online), 11 May 2007.
  29. ^ "Ramos-Horta sworn in as E Timor president"[permanent dead link], 20 May 2007.
  30. ^ Jolliffe, Jill (12 February 2008). "Ramos-Horta shot twice". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 11 August 2023.
  31. ^ "Ramos Horta wounded, Reinado dead in Timor attack". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 11 February 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
  32. ^ "Aspen Medical honoured in Timor-Leste - Australian Defence Magazine". Retrieved 18 March 2024.
  33. ^ Ellery, David (6 July 2012). "Making the world healthier". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 18 March 2024.
  34. ^ Australian troops arrive in East Timor Archived 13 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine. AP, 12 February 2008.
  35. ^ "Ramos-Horta on way to Darwin". Archived from the original on 15 February 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
  36. ^ "East Timor leader 'in induced coma'". BBC News. London. 11 February 2008. Archived from the original on 14 September 2018. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
  37. ^ "Ramos-Horta regains consciousness". ABC News. 21 February 2008. Archived from the original on 4 April 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
  38. ^ Ed Johnson, "East Timor's Ramos-Horta Thanks Supporters From Hospital Bed" Archived 22 April 2022 at the Wayback Machine,, 12 March 2008.
  39. ^ "Timorese president leaves Australian hospital after treatment following Feb. attack" Archived 3 January 2013 at, Associated Press (International Herald Tribune), 19 March 2008.
  40. ^ Lindsay Murdoch, "Emotional homecoming for Ramos Horta" Archived 20 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine,, 17 April 2008.
  41. ^ East Timor President Jose Ramos-Horta admits poll defeat Archived 13 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 19 March 2012
  42. ^ Kingsbury, Damien, "Timor election a key test of stability", Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Sydney Morning Herald, 17 April 2012.
  43. ^ Powles, Anna (27 April 2012). "Nationalism and nostalgia win in Timor Leste". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  44. ^ a b c d "Timor-Leste presidential election: José Ramos-Horta wins in landslide". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 20 April 2022. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  45. ^ "Ramos-Horta takes commanding lead in East Timor presidential vote". Al Jazeera. 20 April 2022. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  46. ^ a b c "Ramos-Horta declares victory in East Timor presidential election". Al Jazeera. 21 April 2022. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  47. ^ a b "Ramos-Horta declares victory in East Timor presidential election". Reuters. 21 April 2022. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  48. ^ "Ramos-Horta wins Timor-Leste presidential election". The Star. 20 April 2022. p. 1. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 20 April 2022.
  49. ^ a b Lamb, Kate (21 April 2022). "Ramos-Horta wins East Timor election". The Murray Valley Standard. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  50. ^ "Timor-Leste Presidential Election". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 22 April 2022.
  51. ^ "Nobel laureate sworn in as East Timor leader on independence anniversary". France 24. 19 May 2022. Archived from the original on 19 May 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  52. ^ "E Timor's Jose Ramos-Horta gets UN Guinea-Bissau role". BBC News. 1 January 2013. Archived from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  53. ^ Carvalho, Raquel (6 September 2018). "Chinese influence on rise in East Timor? 'Nonsense', says former president José Ramos-Horta". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018. However, Ramos-Horta – who is in Hong Kong to launch his book Words of Hope in Troubled Times – expects greater cooperation in the future.
  54. ^ "Cnn Live This Morning". CNN. 7 February 2001. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
  55. ^ U.S. Soldiers Are The Real Heroes In Iraq Archived 8 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Wall Street Journal 17 October 2005
  56. ^ Jose Ramos Horta, Nobel Peace Laureate, Speaks for Leyla Zana 28 May 1997 Archived 27 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ Arkar Moe (20 May 2009). "Is it Time to Take Than Shwe to International Criminal Court?". The Irrawaddy. Archived from the original on 6 June 2009.
  58. ^ "Timor Leste seeks 'strong' commercial ties with Myanmar". The Brunei Times. 21 August 2010. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2010.
  59. ^ About Archived 29 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine Simpol-UK (International Simultaneous Policy Organization)
  60. ^ "Thousands attend Aquino funeral". 5 August 2009. Archived from the original on 24 February 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018 – via
  61. ^ "Nobel laureates urge Saudi king to halt 14 executions Archived 10 October 2017 at Archive-It". National Post. 11 August 2017.
  62. ^ "José Ramos-Horta". Archived from the original on 19 March 2023. Retrieved 19 March 2023.
  63. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  64. ^ a b "CIDADÃOS ESTRANGEIROS AGRACIADOS COM ORDENS PORTUGUESAS – Página Oficial das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas". (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 3 March 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  65. ^ Governor-General of Australia Archived 7 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 28 January 2014
  66. ^ "Ramos-Horta to receive Order of Australia". 25 November 2013. Archived from the original on 23 March 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
  67. ^ "The Diplomat (2000)". IMDB. Archived from the original on 2 November 2004. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  68. ^ "A Place to Think: The Diplomat (2000)". ABC. Archived from the original on 6 January 2010. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  69. ^ "Balibo (2009)". IMDB. Archived from the original on 6 February 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  70. ^ Davies, Luke (August 2009). "Robert Connolly's 'Balibo'". The Monthly. Archived from the original on 10 August 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by Prime Minister of East Timor
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of East Timor
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of East Timor
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of East Timor
Party political offices
First CNRT nominee for President of East Timor
Most recent