Joseph Antonio Emidy
Joseph Antonio Emidy
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Joseph Antonio Emidy (1775 – 23 April 1835) was a Guinean-born British musician who was enslaved by Portuguese traders in his early life. He was later freed and resided in Portugal before being impressed into the Royal Navy. He was eventually discharged near Cornwall and later became a notable and celebrated violinist and composer in the region, passing away in 1835.
Born in Guinea, Emidy was sold into slavery as a child to Portuguese traders who took him to Brazil and later to Portugal. In Portugal, he became a virtuoso violinist in the Lisbon Opera. He was press-ganged by sailors under Admiral Sir Edward Pellew during the Napoleonic Wars and spent the next four years serving as a ship's fiddler.
In 1799, Emidy was discharged in Falmouth, Cornwall. In Falmouth, he earned his living as a violinist and a teacher. He became the leader of the Truro Philharmonic Orchestra, and went on to become one of the most celebrated and influential musical figures in early 19th-century Cornwall. He composed many works, including concertos and a symphony, but no known copies survive.
Transcript of his gravestone reads:
HERE LIE DEPOSITED The mortal remains of Mr Jos:h Antonia Emidy Who departed this life, On the 23:rd of April 1835 AGED 60 YEARS
And sacred to whose memory This tribute of affection is erected By his surviving family.
He was native of PORTUGAL Which country he quit about forty years since and pursuing the Musical Profession, resided in Cornwall until the close of his earthly career.
Devoted to thy soul-inspiring strains, Sweet Music! Thee he hail'd his chief delight And with fond zeal that shunn'd nor toil nor pain His talent sear'd, and genius mark'd its flight In harmony he liv'd, in peace with all Took his departure from this world of woe, And here his rest, till the last Trumpet's call, Shall 'wake mankind to joys that endless flow.
On 24 March 2007, during a service at Kenwyn Church to mark the 200th anniversary of the parliamentary abolition of the slave trade throughout the British Empire, the life of Emidy was featured and some typical pieces of music from his time were played in tribute.
- Ignatius Sancho a black English composer (1729 - 1780)
- George Bridgetower (1778 - 1860) a black Polish born composer who died in London in 1860
- Samuel Coleridge-Taylor another black English composer (1875-1912)
- Boyle, Laura (2013). "Admiral Edward Pellew: The true history of this most novel Captain - Jane Austen Centre". janeausten.co.uk. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Cornwall, musicians, history Archived 11 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine (British Association for Local History).
- Costello, Ray (2012). Black Salt: Seafarers of African Descent on British Ships. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 9781846318184. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Historic England. "Joseph Emidy Headstone and Footstone at the Kenwyn Parish Church (1392417)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
- Kent, Alan (2013). "The Tin Violin 2012 | Bish Bash Bosh Productions". bishbashboshproductions.co.uk. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Miles Davis (21 June 2015). "Joseph Emidy: From slave fiddler to classical violinist". BBC News Online. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- He is mentioned at length (pp. 163–172) in the autobiography of James Silk Buckingham (MP for Sheffield), which was published in 1855.
- [-?-] "My Hero Joseph Emidy", BBC History magazine, October 2001
- Richard McGrady, Music and Musicians in Early Nineteenth Century Cornwall: the world of Joseph Emidy - slave, violinist and composer. Exeter: Exeter University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-85989-359-6
- Richard McGrady, "Emidy, Joseph Antonio (c.1770–1835)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; accessed 11 October 2007.
- Official homepage
- Trail marks abolition anniversary (BBC News Story)
- The Emidy Violin Concerto A Project from Jon Rose. Accessed June 2008