Joseph Eichler

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Joseph Eichler
Joseph Eichler, 1958.jpg
Joseph Eichler in 1958
Born(1900-06-25)June 25, 1900
DiedJuly 1, 1974(1974-07-01) (aged 74)
NationalityAmerican
CitizenshipUnited States
Alma materNew York University
OccupationReal estate developer
SpouseLillian Moncharsh
Children2

Joseph Leopold Eichler (June 25, 1900 – July 1, 1974) was a 20th-century post-war American real estate developer known for developing distinctive residential subdivisions of Mid-century modern style tract housing in California. He was one of the influential advocates of bringing modern architecture from custom residences and large corporate buildings to general public availability. His company and developments remain in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area and Greater Los Angeles.[1]

Biography[edit]

Joseph Leopold Eichler was born on June 25, 1900 in New York City, and raised in The Bronx.[2][3] His father was Austrian and his mother was German, and he was raised traditional Jewish.[3] Eichler attended New York University (NYU) and earned a business degree.[3]

In 1925, the Eichler family moved to the San Francisco Bay Area, in order to work in the family wholesale butter and egg business Nye and Nisson, Inc, which closed by the mid-1940s.[3] In 1943, Eichler rented the Sidney Bazett House in Hillsborough, California, a Usonian-style home built by Frank Lloyd Wright.[2][3] Living in the Bazett home inspired Eichler to become a residential real estate developer of Modernist homes.[4]

Eichler Homes[edit]

Foster Residence, Granada Hills

Between 1949 and 1966, Joseph Eichler's company, Eichler Homes, built over 11,000[3] homes in nine communities in Northern California and homes in three communities in Southern California. Later, other firms worked with Eichler's company to build similar houses. Together, they all came to be known as Eichlers. During this period, Eichler became one of the nation's most influential builders of modern homes.[citation needed] The largest contiguous Eichler Homes development is "The Highlands" in San Mateo, built between 1956 and 1964.[5]

Joseph Eichler was a social visionary who commissioned designs primarily for middle-class Americans. One of his stated aims was to construct inclusive and diverse planned communities, ideally featuring integrated parks and community centers. Eichler established a non-discrimination policy and offered homes for sale to anyone of any religion or race. In 1958, he resigned from the National Association of Home Builders when they refused to support a non-discrimination policy.[6]

Design[edit]

According to his son,[7] Eichler was inspired by a short period of time when the family lived in a Frank Lloyd Wright–designed home in Hillsborough.[8] Eichler was attracted to the style and decided to try to produce similar designs. Joseph Eichler used well-known architects to design both the site plans and the homes themselves. He hired the respected architect and Wright disciple of sorts[9] Robert Anshen of Anshen & Allen to design the initial Eichlers, and the first prototypes were built in 1949.[10] In later years, Eichler built homes that were designed by other architects including by the San Francisco firm Claude Oakland & Associates and the Los Angeles firms of Jones & Emmons, A. Quincy Jones, and Raphael Soriano.

Eichler homes are examples of Modernist architecture that has come to be known as "California Modern", and typically feature glass walls, post-and-beam construction, and open floorplans in a style indebted to Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe. Eichler home exteriors featured flat and/or low-sloping A-framed roofs, vertical 2-inch pattern wood siding, and spartan facades with clean geometric lines. One of Eichler's signature concepts was to "bring the outside in", achieved via skylights and floor-to-ceiling windows with glass transoms looking out on protected and private outdoor rooms, patios, atriums, gardens, and swimming pools. Also of note is that most Eichler homes feature few, if any, front-facing (i.e., street-facing) windows; instead house fronts have either small, ceiling-level windows or small, rectangular windows with frosted glass. Many other architectural designs have large windows on all front-facing rooms.

The interiors had numerous unorthodox and innovative features for the time period including: exposed post-and-beam construction; tongue and groove decking for the ceilings following the roofline; concrete slab floors with integral radiant heating; lauan (Philippine mahogany) paneling; sliding doors for rooms, closets, and cabinets; and typically a second bathroom located in the master bedroom. Later models introduced the distinctive Eichler entry atriums, an open-air, enclosed entrance foyer designed to further advance the concept of integrating outdoor and indoor spaces.

Eichler homes were airy and modern in comparison to most of the mass-produced, middle-class, postwar homes built in the 1950s. At first, potential home buyers, many of whom were war-weary ex-servicemen and women seeking convention rather than innovation, were resistant to the innovative homes.

Projects[edit]

The Northern California Eichler Homes are predominantly in San Francisco, Marin County, Sacramento, the East Bay towns of Walnut Creek, Castro Valley, Concord, Oakland, and the San Francisco Peninsula towns of San Mateo, Redwood City, Palo Alto, Sunnyvale, Mountain View and San Jose. The Southern California Eichler Homes developments are in Thousand Oaks, Granada Hills, Orange and Palm Springs.

Eichler Homes neighborhoods[edit]

Northern California[edit]

Marin County[edit]
Sacramento County[edit]
  • South Land Park - Around 140 Eichler homes were originally planned in South Land Park Hills. 60 were finished and approximately 55 remain.
San Mateo County[edit]
Santa Clara County[edit]
  • Monta Loma NeighborhoodMountain View, California[15] with 200 Eichler homes from 1954 in a tract, this is also a location with other mid-century home builders, Mackay Homes and Mardell Homes.[16]
  • Stanford UniversityStanford, California, about 100 homes on Stanford land north of Page Mill Road and east of Junipero Serra Blvd.
  • Palo Alto has more Eichler homes than any other city.[17] Midtown – South Palo Alto, California, with many Eichler Homes, features a Swim and Tennis Club called "Eichler" on Louis Road just south of Greer Road. In south Palo Alto lies Greenmeadow, a tract planned and designed by Jones and Emmons, with landscaping by Thomas Church, recognized by the National Register of Historic Places,[18] which created the Eichler Tract Community Association and Aquatic Facility called "Greenmeadow".
  • Sereno Foothills, Monte Sereno, California with 16 Eichler homes. Eight were built in 1969 and 8 built in 1970.[19] This small tract was completed by J.L. Eichler and Associates (successor firm to Eichler Homes).
  • Bell Meadows – Mountain View, California, 48 Eichler homes built from 1972–1973, near Trophy Drive[16]
  • Sunnymount Gardens – Sunnyvale, California, the first Eichlers built in 1949–1950.[20]
  • Fairgrove Tract – Cupertino, California has 229 homes built in 1960–1961
  • Fairwood, Fairbrae, and Fairbrae addition – Sunnyvale, California have 400+ homes built between 1958–1961
  • Fairglen Tract in the Willow Glen neighborhood – San Jose, California
  • Morepark Neighborhood (currently called Rose Glen / Sherman Oaks) Willow GlenSan Jose, California
  • Clay Drive – Los Altos, California
  • Pomeroy West – Santa Clara, California, with 138 Eichler homes in a condo community.[21]
  • Pomeroy Green – Santa Clara, California, with 78 attached two story Eichler townhomes in a cooperative community.[21]
Alameda County[edit]
  • Sequoyah Hills – Oakland, California, built between 1965–1966, there are fewer than 50 homes in Oakland Hills.
  • Greenridge – Castro Valley, California, built along a ridge in the hills of Castro Valley, there are around 200 homes built by Joseph Eichler in the early to mid 1960s. Designed by Claude Oakland and Jones & Emmons, these homes feature a variety of floor plans from flat-top roofs to steeply pitched A-frames. Most of the homes feature the signature Eichler atrium along with floor-to-ceiling walls of glass and exposed post and beams. Most Greenridge homes have views with some having views of the east bay city lights and the bay.[22]
Contra Costa County[edit]
Other Northern California counties[edit]

Southern California[edit]

Other projects[edit]

Joseph Eichler also built semi-custom designs for individual clients by commission.[26] There are also three Eichlers built as the first houses of an aborted tract in the mid-1960s in Chestnut Ridge, New York.[27] As a result of soaring land prices in the mid-1960s urban redevelopment projects became popular, and Eichler began building low- and high-rise projects in San Francisco's Western Addition and Visitacion Valley, San Francisco districts, a luxury high-rise, the Summit (a.k.a. the Eichler Summit) on Russian Hill and row houses on Diamond Heights. He also developed the suburban and trendsetting co-op communities Pomeroy Green and Pomeroy West in Santa Clara. These large projects began to overextend the company, and by the mid-1960s, Eichler Homes was in financial distress. The company filed for bankruptcy in 1967.

Personal life[edit]

He married Lilian Moncharsh (1902–1982), the daughter of Polish Jewish emigres.[28] Together they had two sons, Edward "Ned" Philip (1930–2014) and Richard Lionel Eichler (1928–1998).[29][30]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ghert-Zand, Renee (March 2, 2012). "How 'Eichlers' Brought Design to Suburbia". Jewish Daily Forward. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Joseph L. Eichler (1900–1974)". USModernist. Modernist Archive, Inc. Retrieved March 31, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ a b c d e f Adamson, Paul (2002). Eichler: Modernism rebuilds the American Dream (first ed.). Gibbs Smith. pp. 22, 44–45. ISBN 1-58685-184-5.
  4. ^ Architectural Guidebook to San Francisco and the Bay Area, 2007, Susan Cerny, Gibbs Smith, 143.
  5. ^ "The Highlands". eichlerhometour.org. Archived from the original on September 7, 2017. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
  6. ^ Gale, Roy (June 28, 1958). "Jim Crow Real Estate Men Hit by Calif. Court" (PDF). The Militant Newspaper. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
  7. ^ O'DELL, LYNN (October 23, 1993). "Eichler Influenced by Wright: After Living in a House Designed by the Architect, Eichler Set Out to Build His Own and Never Quit". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  8. ^ "The Bazett House - Hillsborough". Eichler Network. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  9. ^ O'DELL, LYNN (October 23, 1993). "Eichler Influenced by Wright : After Living in a House Designed by the Architect, Eichler Set Out to Build His Own and Never Quit". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  10. ^ "Joe Eichler Profile". Eichler Network. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  11. ^ "Work in Progress: 19th Avenue - San Mateo". Eichler Network. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  12. ^ a b "Foster City Eichlers". Peninsula Eichlers. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  13. ^ "Foster City Eichler Neighborhoods".
  14. ^ "Eichler Subdivisions: Eichler's Early Years: 1951-'52". Eichler Network. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  15. ^ "Steve Jobs called Mountain View home as a child". Mountain View Voice Newspaper. Retrieved December 27, 2015.
  16. ^ a b "where to look in Mountain View". JohnFyten.com. December 14, 2013. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  17. ^ "Palo Alto Eichler Homes | South Bay Eichlers". www.eichlerforsale.com. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  18. ^ "National Register of Historic Places — Eichler Home's Greenmeadow (Units I and II) development". National Park Service. June 16, 2005. Retrieved August 19, 2018.
  19. ^ https://www.sccgov.org/sites/dpd/DocsForms/Documents/Surveyor/MRecordMap/Book250_299/255M47.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  20. ^ Arbunich, Marty. "Eichler's Early Years: 1949-'50 The First Subdivisions". Eichler Network. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  21. ^ a b Weinstein, Dave (July 24, 2018). "Historic Strategy Fails at Pomeroy Green". EichlerNetwork. Retrieved March 31, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  22. ^ Joseph Eichler | Progressive builder of Joseph Eichler Homes | Architect
  23. ^ "Free lecture on Eichler homes in Thousand Oaks set". Ventura County Star. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  24. ^ "The First New Eichler Home in 40 Years is Almost Finished". Curbed. January 20, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
  25. ^ "Reborn Eichler". Palm Springs Life. May 1, 2015. Retrieved March 7, 2016.
  26. ^ "Custom Built Eichler For Sale in Hillsborough CA". August 19, 2014.
  27. ^ Cohen, Michelle (March 13, 2017). "Modern-Spotting: The Lost Eichlers of Rockland County, NY". 6sqft. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  28. ^ Adamson, Paul and Marty Arbunich Eichler: Modernism Rebuilds the American Dream edited by Marty Arbunich, Ernest Braun | 2002 | p. 44
  29. ^ Sheyner, Gennady. "Planned home brings angst to Eichler block in Palo Alto". PaloAltoOnline.com. Retrieved January 27, 2016.
  30. ^ "Ned Eichler, son of innovative housing developer, dead at 83". Mercury News. April 15, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2016.

Sources[edit]