Joseph L. Armstrong
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Joseph L. Armstrong was a professor at Duke University (at the time, called "Trinity College") best known for reforming Duke's curriculum in the late nineteenth century, changing it to a German research university model with the help of John Franklin Crowell. Armstrong did his undergraduate work at Johns Hopkins University and graduate work at the University of Leipzig.
- William E. King (1 January 1997). If Gargoyles Could Talk: Sketches of Duke University. Carolina Academic Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-89089-814-7.