Joseph L. Goldstein
Joseph L. Goldstein
Joseph Leonard Goldstein|
April 18, 1940
Kingstree, South Carolina
|Institutions||University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center|
Joseph Leonard Goldstein (born April 18, 1940) is an American biochemist. He received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1985, along with fellow University of Texas researcher, Michael Brown, for their studies regarding cholesterol. They discovered that human cells have low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors that remove cholesterol from the blood and that when LDL receptors are not present in sufficient numbers, individuals develop hypercholesterolemia and become at risk for cholesterol related diseases, notably coronary heart disease. Their studies led to the development of statin drugs.
Life and career
Goldstein was born in Kingstree, South Carolina, the son of Fannie (Alpert) and Isadore E. Goldstein, who owned a clothing store. Goldstein received his BSci from Washington and Lee University in 1962, and his MD from Texas University's Southwestern Medical School in 1966. Upon completion of his residency, Goldstein moved to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, where he worked in biochemical genetics. In 1972, Goldstein relocated back to the Southwestern Medical Center, accepting a post as the head of the Division of Medical Genetics.
At the Southwestern Medical Center Goldstein collaborated extensively with Michael Brown, a fellow researcher at the center who had also worked at the NIH. From 1973 to 1985, Goldstein and Brown together published over one hundred major papers. They are both listed in Thomson Reuters’ index of highly cited authors. Frequently mentioned as a candidate for nationally prominent positions in scientific administration, Goldstein, like his colleague Michael Brown, chose to continue hands-on research.
In 1993, their postdoctoral trainees, Wang Xiaodong and Michael Briggs, purified the Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors. Since 1993, Goldstein, Brown, and their colleagues have described the unexpectedly complex machinery that proteolytically releases the SREBPs from membranes, thus allowing their migration to the nucleus where they activate all the genes involved in the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids. The machinery for generating active SREBPs is tightly regulated by a negative feedback mechanism, which explains how cells maintain the necessary levels of fats and cholesterol in the face of varying environmental circumstances.
Goldstein is Chair, Molecular Genetics at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Together, Goldstein and Brown lead a research team that typically includes a dozen doctoral and postdoctoral trainees. They have trained over 145 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, and five of their former postdoctoral fellows (Thomas C. Südhof, Wang Xiaodong, Helen H. Hobbs, David W. Russell, and Monty Krieger) have been elected to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Former postdoctoral fellow Thomas Südhof received the 2013 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology and Helen H. Hobbs received the 2015 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences.
In 1988 Goldstein received a National Medal of Science in the field of molecular genetics, and in 2003 Goldstein and Brown won the Albany Medical Center Prize in Medicine and Biomedical Research in recognition for their further work in understanding cholesterol and also the discovery of an insulin-sensitive regulator, which potentially could be used to develop treatments for diabetes mellitus. Goldstein is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences  and the Institute of Medicine and he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1991.
Goldstein was appointed as Chairman of the Albert Lasker Medical Research Awards jury in 1995, and was a recipient of the award ten years earlier. Since 2000, Goldstein has authored a series of essays on the deep relationship between art and science that appear in the annual Nature Medicine supplement that accompanies the Lasker Awards.
Among his professional activities, Goldstein is a member of the Board of Trustees of The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and of The Rockefeller University, where he was elected as a Life Trustee in 2015. He also serves as Chairman of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the Broad Institute, and is a member of the Board of Directors of Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. He previously served on The Board of Scientific Governors of the Scripps Research Institute, a nonprofit institute that conducts biomedical research.
Joseph L. Goldstein has been awarded the following:
- 2011 – Stadtman Distinguished Scientist Award, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
- 2007 – Builders of Science Award, Research!America
- 2005 – Woodrow Wilson Awards for Public Service
- 2005 – Herbert Tabor Award, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
- 2003 – Albany Medical Center Prize in Medicine and Biomedical Research
- 2002 – Kober Medal, Association of American Physicians
- 1999 – Warren Alpert Foundation Prize, Harvard Medical School
- 1991 – Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS)
- 1988 – U.S. National Medal of Science
- 1985 – Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- 1985 – Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research
- 1985 – William Allan Award, American Society of Human Genetics
- 1984 – Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize, Columbia University
- 1981 – Gairdner Foundation International Award
- 1980 – Elected member of the National Academy of Sciences
- 1979 – Richard Lounsbery Award, U.S. National Academy of Sciences
- 1978 – Passano Award, Johns Hopkins University
- 1976 – Pfizer Award in Enzyme Chemistry, American Chemical Society
- Brown MS, Goldstein JL (June 2012). "Reflections – Scientific side trips: six excursions from the beaten path". J. Biol. Chem. 287 (27): 22418–22435. doi:10.1074/jbc.X112.381681. PMC . PMID 22584575.
- Brown MS, Goldstein JL (May 2011). "Richard G.W. Anderson (1940–2011) and the birth of receptor-mediated endocytosis". J. Cell Biol. 193 (4): 601–603. doi:10.1083/jcb.201104136. PMC . PMID 21576388.
- Goldstein JL, Brown MS (April 2009). "History of Discovery: The LDL Receptor". Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 29 (4): 431–438. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA.108.179564. PMC . PMID 19299327.
- Brown MS, Goldstein JL (April 2009). "Cholesterol feedback: from Schoenheimer's bottle to Scap's MELADL". J. Lipid Res. 50 (Supplement): S15–S27. doi:10.1194/jlr.R800054-JLR200. PMC . PMID 18974038.
- Brown MS, Goldstein JL (October 2004). "A tribute to Akira Endo, discoverer of a "penicillin" for cholesterol". Arterioscler. Supplements. 5 (3): 13–16. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosissup.2004.08.007.
- Brown MS, Goldstein JL (April 1986). "A receptor-mediated pathway for cholesterol homeostasis". Science. 232 (4746): 34–47. doi:10.1126/science.3513311. PMID 3513311.
- Brown MS, Goldstein JL (March 1974). "Familial hypercholesterolemia: defective binding of lipoproteins to cultured fibroblasts associated with impaired regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 71 (3): 788–792. doi:10.1073/pnas.71.3.788. PMC . PMID 4362634.
- Goldstein JL, Brown MS (October 1973). "Familial hypercholesterolemia: identification of a defect in the regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity associated with overproduction of cholesterol". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 70 (10): 2804–2808. doi:10.1073/pnas.70.10.2804. PMC . PMID 4355366.
Essays on "The Art of Science"
Since 2000, Goldstein has authored a series of essays considering science as a creative pursuit, and explores the links between the art and science. The essays appear in the journal Nature Medicine, and coincide with the annual announcement of the Lasker Awards, with which Goldstein is affiliated in the capacity of jury chairman.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (September 2017). "Artists Create Puzzles, Scientists Solve Them". Cell. 171 (1): 5–9. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2017.08.022. PMID 28888326.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (September 2016). "The Rule of Three for Prizes in Science and the Bold Triptychs of Francis Bacon". Cell. 167 (1): 5–8. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.040. PMID 27634320.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (September 2015). "A Well-Hung Horse: Sired by Knowledge and Imagination". Cell. 162 (6): 1179–1182. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.08.039. PMID 26359973.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2014). "Balzac's Unknown Masterpiece: spotting the next big thing in art and science". Nature Medicine. 20 (10): 1106–1111. doi:10.1038/nm.3676. PMID 25295945.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2013). "Juxtapositions in Trafalgar Square: tip-offs to creativity in art and science". Nature Medicine. 19 (10): 1222–1226. doi:10.1038/nm.3329. PMID 24100991.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2012). "Paradigm shifts in science: insights from the arts". Nature Medicine. 18 (10): 1473–1477. doi:10.1038/nm.2923. PMID 23042355.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2011). "The card players of Caravaggio, Cézanne and Mark Twain: tips for getting lucky in high-stakes research". Nature Medicine. 17 (10): 1201–1205. doi:10.1038/nm.2465.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2010). "How to win a Lasker? Take a close look at Bathers and Bulls". Nature Medicine. 16 (10): 1091–1096. doi:10.1038/nm1010-1091. PMID 20930751.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2009). "Lasker Awards and papal portraiture: turning fields upside down". Nature Medicine. 15 (10): 1137–1140. doi:10.1038/nm1009-1137. PMID 19812573.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2008). "Exuberant unpredictability: sine qua non for priceless and prizeworthy biomedical research". Nature Medicine. 14 (10): 1029–1032. doi:10.1038/nm1008-1029. PMID 18841142.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2007). "Creation and revelation: two different routes to advancement in the biomedical sciences". Nature Medicine. 13 (10): 1151–1154. doi:10.1038/nm1642. PMID 17917663.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2006). "Venture science: climbing the ladder to telomerase, cognitive therapy and in situ hybridization". Nature Medicine. 12 (10): 1129–1132. doi:10.1038/nm1006-1129. PMID 17024207.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2005). "60 years of winged victories for biomedical research". Nature Medicine. 11 (10): 1023–1025. doi:10.1038/nm1005-1023. PMID 16211026.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2004). "Towering science: an ounce of creativity is worth a ton of impact". Nature Medicine. 10 (10): 1015–1017. doi:10.1038/nm1004-1015. PMID 15459692.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2003). "It's a grand year for celebrating science". Nature Medicine. 9 (10): 1237–1238. doi:10.1038/nm937. PMID 14520362.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2002). "Synergy and symbiosis à la Matisse-Picasso". Nature Medicine. 8 (10): 1053–1054. doi:10.1038/nm768. PMID 12357230.
- Joseph L. Goldstein (October 2001). "Knockout mice and test-tube babies". Nature Medicine. 7 (10): 1079–1080. doi:10.1038/nm1001-1079.
- Joseph L. Goldstein – Biographical. Nobelprize.org (1940-04-18). Retrieved on 2013-10-08.
- "Professor Joseph L Goldstein ForMemRS". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-11-04.
- Badge, Peter (2007) "Joseph Goldstein". Nobel Faces. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9783527406784. p 300.
- Encyclopedia of Global Health, Volume 1 by Luca Prono, edited by Yawei Zhang
- Raju, T. N. (2000). "The Nobel Chronicles". The Lancet. 355 (9201): 416. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)74047-2.
- The Cholesterol Wars: The Skeptics Vs. the Preponderance of Evidence By Daniel Steinberg
- "Highly Cited Researchers - The Most Influential Scientific Minds". highlycited.com. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- Culliton BJ. (1989 Sep 29). "Baltimore to succeed Lederberg?.". Science. Retrieved December 6, 2012. "Nobel laureate Joshua Lederberg (1958) is set to retire as president of Rockefeller University in January... Things might not have grown so tense had the man who apparently was at the top of the list said "Yes." But Nobel laureate Joseph Goldstein (1985), who is still very active in the laboratory at the University of Texas at Dallas, was not ready to give up his work on the molecular genetics of blood lipids."
- Journal of Clinical Investigation Interview Film Annex
- Wang X, Sato R, Brown MS, Hua X, Goldstein JL. (April 8, 1994). "SREBP-1, a membrane-bound transcription factor released by sterol-regulated proteolysis.". Cell. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
- Wang X, Briggs MR, Hua X, Yokoyama C, Goldstein JL, Brown MS. (June 5, 1993). "Nuclear protein that binds sterol regulatory element of low density lipoprotein receptor promoter. II. Purification and characterization.". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Retrieved November 29, 2012.
- Espenshade, Peter J. (2006). "SREBPs: sterolregulated transcription factors.". Journal of Cell Science. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- "Department of Molecular Genetics Overview.". Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- "Nobel Prize: Thomas C. Südhof - Facts.". Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- "Laureates". breakthroughprize.org. Breakthrough Prize. 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-18.
- "Breakthrough Prizes Give Top Scientists the Rock Star Treatment". The New York Times. 2015-11-08. Retrieved 2015-12-18.
- Encyclopædia Britannica Almanac 2008 p. 114
- UT Southwestern researchers receive top medicine prize Dallas Business Journal, Date: Wednesday, April 30, 2003
- Member Directory: Joseph L. Goldstein. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved on 2014-10-16.
- Directory: IOM Member - Joseph L. Goldstein, M.D.. Institute of Medicine. Retrieved on 2014-10-16.
- Goodman, Billy (October 16, 1995). "Lasker Laureates Make Up Impressive Biomedical Roster". The Scientist. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
- "1985 Winners: Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award Archived 2015-09-13 at the Wayback Machine.", Lasker Foundation. Retrieved October 25, 2012.
- ''Nature Medicine'' essays: The Art of Science. Laskerfoundation.org (2007-09-16). Retrieved on 2013-10-08.
- "Trustees". hhmi.org. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- The Rockefeller University Board of Trustees and Corporate Officers. Rockefeller.edu. Retrieved on 2013-10-08.
- Board of Scientific Counselors. Broad Institute. Retrieved on 2014-10-16.
- "Regeneron Board of Directors". regeneron.com. Regeneron. 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-18.
- The Scripps Research Institute Board of Governors. Scripps.edu (2013-10-04). Retrieved on 2013-10-08.
- Earl and Thressa Stadtman Distinguished Scientist Award The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
- University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Leaders to Receive Research!America Advocacy Award Research America, Date: March 21, 2007
- Recipients of the Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service Wilson Center
- Herbert Tabor Research Award The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
- The Albany Prize in Medicine and Biomedical Research 2003 Recipients Albany Medical College
- Presentation of the Kober Medal to Joseph L. Goldstein and Michael S. Brown The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Warren Alpert Foundation Award Recipients Archived 2012-04-10 at the Wayback Machine. Warren Alpert Foundation
- The President's National Medal of Science: Recipient Details National Science Foundation
- The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985 The Official Website of the Nobel Prize
- Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award 1985 Archived 2015-09-13 at the Wayback Machine. Lasker Foundation
- William Allan Award Past Recipients The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG)
- The Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize for Biology or Biochemistry Columbia University Medical Center
- Recipient of the Canada Gairdner International Award, 1981 Gairdner Foundation
- http://www.nasonline.org, National Academy of Sciences -. "Joseph Goldstein". www.nasonline.org. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- Richard Lounsbery Award National Academy of Sciences
- The Passano Awards 1945–2011 The Passano Foundation
- The Pfizer Award ACS Division of Biological Chemistry
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