Joseph Moore Dixon
|7th Governor of Montana|
January 3, 1921 – January 4, 1925
|Lieutenant||Nelson Story Jr.|
|Preceded by||Sam V. Stewart|
|Succeeded by||John E. Erickson|
|United States Senator|
March 4, 1907 – March 3, 1913
|Preceded by||William A. Clark|
|Succeeded by||Thomas J. Walsh|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Montana's At-large district
March 4, 1903 – March 3, 1907
|Preceded by||Caldwell Edwards|
|Succeeded by||Charles N. Pray|
|Member of the Montana House of Representatives|
|Born||July 31, 1867|
Snow Camp, North Carolina
|Died||May 22, 1934 (aged 66)|
|Resting place||Missoula Cemetery|
Joseph Moore Dixon (July 31, 1867 – May 22, 1934) was an American Republican politician from Montana. He served as a Representative, Senator, and the seventh Governor of Montana. A businessman and a modernizer of Quaker heritage, Dixon was a leader of the Progressive Movement in Montana and nationally. He was the nation chairman for Theodore Roosevelt running for the presidency as the candidate of the Progressive Party in 1912.
His term as governor, 1921–1925, was unsuccessful, as severe economic hardship limited the opportunities for action by the state government, and his great enemy the Anaconda Copper company mobilized its resources to defeat reform.
Dixon was born in Snow Camp, North Carolina to a Quaker family, the son of Flora Adaline (Murchison) and Hugh W. Dixon. His father operated a farm and a small factory. Dixon attended Quaker colleges, Earlham College in Indiana and Guilford College in North Carolina, graduating in 1889. He excelled at history, debate and oratory. Dixon moved to the frontier town of Missoula, Montana in 1891, where he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1892. Although he left the Quaker faith, he never abandoned Quaker ideals.
Dixon served as assistant prosecuting attorney of Missoula County from 1893 to 1895 and prosecuting attorney from 1895 to 1897. In 1900, he served in the Montana House of Representatives. He married Caroline M. Worden, daughter of prominent Missoula businessman Francis Lyman Worden, in 1896. They had seven children: Virginia, Florence, Dorothy, Betty, Mary Joe, Peggy, and Frank. Frank died shortly after birth. Dixon grew wealthy through his law practice and his investments in real estate; to further his political ambitions in 1900 he bought a Missoula newspaper, the Missoulian.
Dixon took advantage of the internal dissension among rival factions of the Democratic party to rise rapidly in politics. In 1902 and 1904 he won congressional races, and in 1907 the Montana legislature chose him for a U.S. Senate seat. He became an ardent admirer of President Theodore Roosevelt, and joined the progressive wing of the party, fighting the conservatives. He unsuccessfully ran for reelection in 1912, but that year, he was the campaign manager for Roosevelt and chaired the National Progressive Convention that nominated Roosevelt on the third-party Progressive Party ("Bull Moose") ticket as the GOP split between progressives and stand-patters. Democrat Woodrow Wilson won in a landslide.
Out of office, Dixon returned to Montana to look after his newspaper properties, and to battle the Amalgamated Copper Company, the behemoth that dominated both political parties through its corrupt spending. He returned to the Republican Party. He finally sold his newspapers, and they were taken over by Amalgamated. In 1920, Dixon ran for Governor of Montana, and, following farmer unrest that weakened the copper company, Dixon was carried by the national Republican landslide into office as governor, defeating Democratic nominee Burton K. Wheeler comfortably. Although Dixon had many reform proposals, he was unable to enact them because of the severe economic depression in the state, and the systematic opposition of Anaconda Copper. He was defeated for reelection in 1924 by John E. Erickson and for the Senate in 1928, losing to his one-time foe, Wheeler, in the general election.
In 1929 he was appointed First Assistant Secretary of the Interior, and served in that position until 1933. In 1930, he was involved with a project to develop water power on the Flathead Indian Reservation, and with it, a complex network of water rights for the Reservation.
- Patterson, Daniel W. (1990). Arts in Earnest: North Carolina Folklife. ISBN 9780822310211.
- "Guide to the Joseph M. Dixon Papers". The University of Montana. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- "Dixon, Joseph Moore (1867-1934". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- "Guide to the Joseph M. Dixon Papers 1772-1944". The University of Montana-Missoula. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- "Sen. Joseph Dixon". govtrack.us. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- "Joseph M. Dixon". Montana Historical Society. Archived from the original on 20 August 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- Tribune Staff. "125 Montana Newsmakers: Joseph M. Dixon". Great Falls Tribune. Retrieved August 23, 2011.
- "Montana Governor Joseph Moore Dixon". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Lawrence Kestenbaum (July 22, 2013). "Dixon, Joseph Moore (1867-1934)". Political Graveyard. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
- Karlin, Jules A. Joseph M. Dixon of Montana (2 vol. U of Montana Publications in History, 1974)
- Karlin, Jules A. "Dixon, Joseph Moore"; American National Biography Online Feb. 2000
- United States Congress. "Joseph M. Dixon (id: D000372)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
- National Governors Association
- Montana Historical Society
- The Political Graveyard
- Joseph M. Dixon Papers (University of Montana Archives)
- Charles L. Cowell Papers (University of Montana Archives)