Jump to content

Joseph Zen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Joseph Zen Ze-kiun

Bishop Emeritus of Hong Kong
Cardinal Zen in his episcopal attire
ChurchCatholic Church
SeeHong Kong
Installed23 September 2002
Term ended15 April 2009
PredecessorJohn Baptist Wu
SuccessorJohn Tong
Other post(s)Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria Madre del Redentore a Tor Bella Monaca (2006–present)
Ordination11 February 1961
by Maurilio Fossati
Consecration9 December 1996
by John Baptist Wu
Created cardinal24 March 2006
by Pope Benedict XVI
Personal details
Born (1932-01-13) 13 January 1932 (age 92)
DenominationRoman Catholicism
Previous post(s)Coadjutor Bishop of Hong Kong (1996–2002)
MottoIpsi Cura Est
(English: "For he cares about you")[1]
Coat of armsJoseph Zen Ze-kiun's coat of arms
Ordination history of
Joseph Zen
Priestly ordination
Ordained byMaurilio Fossati (Turin)
Date11 February 1961
PlaceTurin, Italy
Episcopal consecration
Principal consecratorJohn Baptist Wu (Hong Kong)
Co-consecratorsPeter Shirayanagi (Tokyo)
Charles Asa Schleck (Adj. Sec. Sacr. Cong. Prop. Fide)
Date9 December 1996
PlaceCathedral of the Immaculate Conception, British Hong Kong
Elevated byPope Benedict XVI
Date24 March 2006
Episcopal succession
Bishops consecrated by Joseph Zen as principal consecrator
Luciano Capelli21 October 2007
Styles of
Joseph Zen
Reference styleHis Eminence
Spoken styleYour Eminence
Informal styleCardinal
SeeHong Kong (Emeritus)
Joseph Zen
Traditional Chinese陳日君
Simplified Chinese陈日君

Joseph Zen Ze-kiun, SDB (Wu Chinese pronunciation: [zəɲ zəʔ tɕyəɲ], born 13 January 1932) is a retired Chinese cardinal of the Catholic Church who served as Bishop of Hong Kong from 2002 to 2009. He was made a cardinal by Pope Benedict XVI in 2006 and has been outspoken on issues regarding human rights, political freedom, and religious liberty.

Zen's strong ties with the pro-democracy camp often attract criticism from the pro-Beijing camp and the government of the People's Republic of China.[3] He retired on 15 April 2009, but remains a strong pro-democracy influence in Hong Kong. On 11 May 2022 he was arrested by the National Security Police and later that day released on bail.[4]

Early life and career[edit]

Joseph Zen was born in Shanghai to Catholic parents, Vincent Zen and Margaret Tseu. He studied in a church school during the Second Sino-Japanese War, but was sent to an abbey after his father suffered a stroke.

Zen fled to Hong Kong from Shanghai to escape Communist rule at the end of the Chinese Civil War. After entering the Salesians at the Hong Kong novitiate in 1948,[5] he was ordained to the priesthood on 11 February 1961[6] by Cardinal Maurilio Fossati. Zen obtained a licentiate in theology (1961) and a doctorate in philosophy (1964) from the Salesian Pontifical University in Rome. After 1973, he taught in the Holy Spirit Seminary College of Hong Kong – 1976 to 1978 of Macao Salesian School (Instituto Salesiano) as principal. In 1978 he became the Provincial Superior of Salesians (which includes mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan), then resigned in 1983. He was a lecturer in the seminaries in China, centres of studies acknowledged by the Communist party, between 1989 and 1996. He was appointed the coadjutor Bishop of Hong Kong in 1996 by Pope John Paul II.[5][6]


Bishop Joseph Zen prayed with Catholics before the protest against Hong Kong Basic Law Article 23 legislation

On 18 September 2005, he told Hong Kong newspaper Apple Daily reporters that he was willing to retire in January 2007.[7] He also said that he wanted to be a teacher in either mainland China or in Africa, as there was a shortage of teachers in Africa. Democratic Party ex-chairman Martin Lee, also a Roman Catholic, stated that because Zen was still healthy for his age, the Pope may request him to stay in his position. Legislative Council member Audrey Eu praised Zen for being braver than other religious leaders in Hong Kong in sharing his political views and also because "he carried out his ideas of fairness, equitableness, and philanthropy via actual efforts". On the other hand, some conservatives inside the church speculated that the strained relationship between Beijing and the Holy See will become more relaxed if Zen retires. Nonetheless, Zen wrote a letter to the Pope on 13 January 2006 and stated that he did want to retire from his position, though not because of his age. On 15 April 2009, Pope Benedict accepted Cardinal Zen's resignation and John Tong Hon became the bishop of the diocese.[8]

From 22 October 2011 for three days Cardinal Zen went on hunger strike which was undertaken as an act of protest against losing a long-standing legal battle with the Hong Kong government over how aided schools should be run.[9] He later wrote about his experiences in an open letter.[10]


Coat of Arms of Cardinal Zen. The motto is Ipsi cura est is from 1 Peter 5:7. In English it says: "He cares about you."

On 22 February 2006, the Vatican announced that Zen would be elevated to the College of Cardinals by Pope Benedict XVI in the consistory on 24 March 2006. Zen, who was created Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria Madre del Redentore a Tor Bella Monaca, saw his elevation as indication of how much the Pope values the Church in China. He was named a member of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments.

Bishop Zen's elevation was welcomed by Catholics in Hong Kong as it was seen as a recognition of the bishop's stance on social justice and as an honour for the church in Hong Kong. Vicar General Dominic Chan Chi-ming said that it would be an honour to have a cardinal to once again head the diocese. Rev. Louis Ha Ke-loon said it shows that the Pope feels that Bishop Zen should speak out. Democrat legislator Martin Lee added that it was good news because no matter whether he is a bishop or a cardinal, as a religious leader Zen speaks as moral voice of the people.

At the time of his elevation, Zen was the only Chinese cardinal eligible to participate in papal conclaves. His elevation can be seen as giving hope to the underground Catholic Church in China.

Cardinal Zen offered a Pontifical High Mass in the Tridentine Rite in May 2006, for which he was thanked by traditionalist Catholics around the world.

Pope Benedict XVI named Cardinal Zen to write the meditations for the Stations of the Cross led by the Pope at the Roman Colisseum on Good Friday, 21 March 2008.

In August 2023,Cardinal Brandmüller, along with Cardinals Burke, Íñiguez, Sarah, and Zen, submitted another list of five dubia to Pope Francis related to the upcoming Synod on Synodality. The Dubia questioned the necessity of the upcoming synod, asked whether the blessing of same-sex unions was theologically admissible, and questioned the Pope's claim that "forgiveness is a human right".[11]

Cardinal Zen criticized some of Pope Francis’ responses to five dubia, saying that the Pope's guidance on the blessing of same-sex unions is “pastorally untenable.”[12]

Relations with the People's Republic of China[edit]

In October 2011, Zen said that he had received HK$20 million from Hong Kong tycoon Jimmy Lai since 2005, which went to helping the underground Church and the poor on the mainland.[13]

In 2014 Cardinal Zen Ze-kiun asked Pope Francis not to visit China, saying the pontiff would be “manipulated”. In an interview he told the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera: “I would tell him now, ‘Don’t come, you would be manipulated'. The few courageous [Catholics] could not meet [the Pope], and the Communist Party would show him the illegitimate bishops, including the three excommunicated ones.” The comments came as ties between the Vatican and China improved in the early days of the pontificate of Francis, with the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs congratulating Francis on his election.[14] Cardinal Zen said he did not see signs of dialogue happening between the Catholic Church and China. “Even if under these conditions Beijing was to extend a hand, it would be a trick under these circumstances,” he said. “Our poor bishops are slaves, the Communist Party denies them respect, tries to take away their dignity.”[14]

In September 2014 as part of the 2014 Hong Kong protests, Cardinal Zen addressed the protesters saying "It's high time we really showed that we want to be free and not to be slaves. We must unite together". During his speech protesters were fired on with tear gas and he asked them to disperse.[15]

In a 2018 interview, Cardinal Zen, on Sino-Holy See relations, said “Pope Francis does not know the real Communist Party in China, but Parolin should know. He was there [in the Secretariat of State] so many years, so he must know. He may be happy to encourage the pope to be optimistic about the negotiations … but that’s dangerous. Pope Francis needs someone to calm him down from his enthusiasm.” Zen added that “It seems the Secretary of State wants to have a solution anyway. He is so optimistic. That’s dangerous. I told the pope that he [Parolin] has a poisoned mind. He is very sweet, but I have no trust in this person. He believes in diplomacy, not in our faith.”[16][17]

In 2019, Zen responded to Cardinal Filoni's weeklong trip to Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Macau. Cardinal Filoni said that the provisional agreement between Beijing and the Holy See signed in 2018 “will be a very good thing for the Church in the future, and also for China.” Zen suggested that “One wonders: from which planet did our leaders in Rome descend?” Zen, the emeritus bishop of Hong Kong, responded on his blog on 5 March. Zen added that “The incredible thing is the invitation to trust the government! Is information on recent oppression measures missing from our superiors in the Vatican?”[18] Zen later expressed a desire to tell Pope Francis that the pontiff's actions were "encouraging a schism" by "legitimizing the schismatic church in China."[19]

During the 2019–2020 Hong Kong protests, Zen criticized Pope Francis after he was quoted as saying that he loved China and would like to visit and condemned his lack of stance against China.[20]

On May 11, 2022, Hong Kong police arrested Zen and four others who helped run the disbanded 612 Humanitarian Relief Fund for protesters, all on the charge of "collusion with foreign forces". The others who were arrested were senior barrister Margaret Ng, activist and pop singer Denise Ho, former lawmaker Cyd Ho, and former academic Hui Po-keung. Zen was held and questioned in Chai Wan police station close to his church residence.[21] Zen was released on bail and had his passport confiscated after interrogation.[22] After his initial arrest, the Holy See press office stated that they were concerned and following the situation closely.[23] Karine Jean-Pierre called upon the PRC to immediately release Zen and the others arrested, and former U.S. Congressman Dan Lipinski attacked the Chinese government over the move. American bishops Thomas Joseph Tobin and Joseph Strickland both called for prayers for Zen's release.[24] In the U.K., British minister James Cleverly called the arrests unacceptable in a statement given before Parliament.[25] Vatican's Secretary of State Pietro Parolin said the arrest of Zen should not be read as disavowal of Sino-Vatican agreement.[26]


Zen at the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 2018

Advocacy for democracy[edit]

After he succeeded as Bishop of Hong Kong on 23 September 2002, he led the Diocese in voicing reservations about the proposed anti-subversion laws, required under Article 23 of the Basic Law.[citation needed] He was worried that these laws, if enacted without a thorough consultation process including a white paper, could easily lead to future violations of basic civil rights.[citation needed]

On 1 July 2003, he took part in a prayer gathering at Victoria Park before the 1 July March began. Many Christians, including Catholics and those of other denominations, attended the demonstration.[citation needed]

Cardinal Zen attended the 4 June 2006 Prayer gathering in memory of the victims of the 1989 massacre. He asked the Chinese government to let the Chinese people freely discuss the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests.[27] In September 2023 he also attended the trial of pro-democracy media tycoon and founder of influential tabloid Apple Daily Jimmy Lai.[28]

Education reform controversies[edit]

On 5 June 2005, Zen announced that if the Legislative Council passed a proposal to support the schools to create incorporated management committees on 8 July 2005, he would appeal against the decision to the court.[citation needed] The Education (Amendment) Bill 2002, once enacted, would likely play down the role of the Church in running Catholic schools and in promoting Catholic education.[citation needed] However, after the Government gave up some argued points in the motion, the Diocese decided to support the motion, though the Diocese later announced plans to prosecute the Government on 28 September 2005.[citation needed]

After two teachers committed suicide in early January 2006, Zen said that these acts must be due to the educational reforms and he asked the government to halt new reforms. Then Permanent Secretary for Education and Manpower Fanny Law rejected causal connections, but provoked furor among teachers and the public when she questioned why only two teachers committed suicide because of the reforms.[29] She apologised for her "inappropriate" remarks on 10 January.[30]

Tridentine Mass[edit]

In 2021, Zen criticized Pope Francis's motu proprio Traditionis custodes, stating that "Many tendentious generalizations in the documents [of the motu proprio] have hurt the hearts of many good people more than expected." He added that he believed that many people who had been hurt by the restrictions "have never given the smallest reason to be suspected of not accepting the liturgical reform of the [Second Vatican Council]."[31]

WTO affairs[edit]

On 18 December 2005, Zen visited protesters at the 2005 WTO Ministerial Conference and tried to visit the detained South Korean Catholics, including two priests and a nun.[citation needed] He criticised the Hong Kong police for their treatment of the protesters.[32] About one month later, several unions in Hong Kong Police Force decided to write a letter to the Pope to complain about Zen's speech.[citation needed] Zen replied that some policemen were "sycophantic to the senior officers inside the police force".[citation needed]


  • Way of the Cross with Pope Benedict XVI (2009)
  • L'agnello e il dragone: Dialoghi su Cina e Cristianesimo (2016)[33] - "The lamb and the dragon: Dialogues on China and Christianity"
  • 為了熙雍,我決不緘默 (2018) - "For Zion, I will not remain silent"[34]
  • For Love of My People I Will Not Remain Silent: On the Situation of the Church in China (2019). San Francisco: Ignatius Press. ISBN 978-1621643142
  • Cardinal Zen's Lenten Reflections (2024). Bedford, NH: Sophia Institute Press. ISBN 979-8889110767

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Coat of Arms and Motto". Roman Catholic Diocese of Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 July 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Association for Conversation of Hong Kong Indigenous Languages Online Dictionary for Hong Kong Hakka and Hong Kong Punti (Weitou dialect)
  3. ^ Scimia, Emanuele (29 January 2020). "The Vatican Stays Away from the Hong Kong Crisis Due to Fears of Beijing's Retaliation". Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  4. ^ "Hong Kong police arrest retired Catholic cardinal on national security charges, release him on bail". 11 May 2022.
  5. ^ a b Allen, Elise Ann (19 September 2022). "Trial set back but set to go ahead for Hong Kong's Cardinal Joseph Zen". Archived from the original on 19 September 2022.
  6. ^ a b "Zen Ze-kiun Card. Joseph, S.D.B." Holy See Press Office. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017.
  7. ^ 香港主教陳日君獲任命為樞機主教 (in Chinese). BBC News. 22 February 2006.
  8. ^ [1][dead link]
  9. ^ Gheddo, Piero (22 October 2011). "Card. Zen ends hunger strike for freedom of Hong Kong Catholic schools". Asianews.it.
  10. ^ Gheddo, Piero (25 October 2011). "Card. Zen: My struggle and that of Hong Kong for Catholic schools". Asianews.it.
  11. ^ "Cardinals Send 'Dubia' to Pope Francis Ahead of Synod on Synodality". NCR. 2 October 2023. Retrieved 4 October 2023.
  12. ^ Cardinal Zen Calls Pope Francis’ ‘Dubia’ Response on Same-Sex Blessings ‘Pastorally Untenable’
  13. ^ Gheddo, Piero (20 October 2011). "I received millions and spent them for the Church and the poor, Card Zen says". Asianews.it.
  14. ^ a b "Hong Kong's Cardinal Joseph Zen asks Pope Francis not to visit China". South China Morning Post. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  15. ^ "Cardinal Zen addresses pro-democracy activists in Hong Kong". The Tablet. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  16. ^ "Cardinal says pope's top diplomat has 'poisoned mind' on China". Crux. 16 October 2017. Archived from the original on 31 August 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  17. ^ "cardinal". Crux. Retrieved 13 February 2018.[permanent dead link]
  18. ^ "Cardinal Zen: 'One wonders from which planet did our leaders in Rome descend?'". 9 March 2019.
  19. ^ Haggerty, Nicholas (3 December 2019). "Interview: Cardinal Joseph Zen". New Bloom.
  20. ^ "Hong Kong's Catholics defy Vatican over protests". Financial Times. 5 December 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  21. ^ Pomfret, James; Pang, Jessie (11 May 2022). "Hong Kong police arrest Catholic cardinal on national security charge". Reuters. Retrieved 11 May 2022.
  22. ^ "Ninety-year-old Cardinal Zen released on bail after being arrested on national security charges". The Standard. 12 May 2022. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  23. ^ Brockhaus, Hannah (11 May 2022). "Vatican following news of Cardinal Zen's arrest 'with concern'". Catholic News Agency.
  24. ^ Bukuras, Joe (11 May 2022). "Cardinal Zen arrest: A roundup of reactions". Catholic News Agency.
  25. ^ Nichholls, Henry (12 May 2022). "UK government says arrest of Catholic cardinal in Hong Kong is unacceptable". Reuters.
  26. ^ "Parolin expresses closeness to Cardinal Zen and desire to dialogue with China". Vatican News. 13 May 2022.
  27. ^ 陳日君 : 不能讓六四不了了之 (in Chinese). RTHK. 4 June 2006. Archived from the original on 31 May 2008.
  28. ^ Hui, Frances [@frances_hui] (18 December 2023). "The 91-year-old Cardinal Zen attended #JimmyLai's trial today. What a symbol of true strength and fearlessness in the face of oppression. #FreeJimmyLai" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  29. ^ Winnie Chong (10 January 2006). "Work pressure pushing teachers over the edge". The Standard. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2008.
  30. ^ Winnie Chong (11 January 2006). "Education chief sorry over suicide remarks". The Standard. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2008.
  31. ^ Brockhaus, Hannah (21 July 2021). "Cardinal Zen reacts to restrictions on Traditional Latin Masses". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  32. ^ "... And They Call It Democracy". ohmynews.com. 21 December 2005. Archived from the original on 24 June 2008.
  33. ^ "L'AGNELLO E IL DRAGONE. Dialoghi su Cina e Cristianesimo di Cardinal Joseph Zen e Aurelio Porfiri". Chorabooks. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2018.
  34. ^ "為了熙雍,我決不緘默". 平安抵岸全靠祂 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 5 November 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2018.

External links[edit]

Catholic Church titles
Title last held by
Lorenzo Bianchi
Coadjutor Bishop of Hong Kong
Title next held by
John Tong Hon
Preceded by Bishop of Hong Kong
Succeeded by
Preceded by Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria Madre del Redentore a Tor Bella Monaca