Josephology

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Saint Joseph and the Christ Child by Guido Reni, c. 1640.

Josephology is the theological study of Saint Joseph, the husband of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Records of devotions to Joseph go back to the year 800 and Doctors of the Church since Saint Thomas Aquinas have written on the subject.[1] With the growth of Mariology, the theological study of Joseph also grew and in the 1950s specific centers for it were formed.[2] The modern study of the theology concerning Joseph is one of the newest theological disciplines.[3]

History and background[edit]

Early period[edit]

Saint Jerome's Against Helvidius (ca. 383) paved the way for aspects of future Josephite devotion with his assertion that Joseph was always a virgin.[4] The earliest record of a formal devotional following for Saint Joseph in the Western Church is in the abridged Martyrology of Rheinau in Northern France, which dates to the year 800. References to Joseph as nutritor Domini ("educator/guardian of the Lord") from the 9th to the 14th centuries continued to increase as Mariology developed,[5] and by the 12th century, along with greater devotion to Mary, the writings of the Benedictine monks began to foster a following for Joseph and they inserted his name in their liturgical calendars and their martyrology.[6][7]

In the 13th century, the Dominican Doctor of the Church Thomas Aquinas discussed the necessity of the presence of Saint Joseph in the plan of the Incarnation for if Mary had not been married, her fellow Jews would have stoned her to death and that a young Jesus needed the care and protection of a human father.[8] The Josephology of Aquinas often proceeded with the juxtaposition of Joseph and Mary.[9]

In the 15th century, major steps were taken by Saint Bernardine of Siena, Pierre d'Ailly, and Jean Gerson, the chancellor of the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris.[10] Gerson wrote a lengthy treatise in French titled Consideration sur Saint Joseph and a 120-verse poem in Latin about Saint Joseph. In 1416 to 1418, Gerson preached sermons on Saint Joseph at the Council of Constance in which he borrowed heavily from Marian themes.[11]

16th–19th centuries[edit]

The growth of the following of Joseph is manifested with the earliest church dedicated to him in Rome, San Giuseppe dei Falegnami (St. Joseph of the Carpenters), constructed in 1540 in the Forum Romanum, above the prison that by tradition had held Saint Peter and Saint Paul.[12] The spread of his following is then shown by the publication of the first Litany of St. Joseph in Rome in 1597 and the introduction of the Cord of St. Joseph in Antwerp in 1657. These were then followed by the Chaplet of St. Joseph in 1850, and the Scapular of St. Joseph of the Capuchins which was approved in 1880.[13] The formal veneration of the Holy Family began in the 17th century by Mgr François de Laval.

From the 16th century onwards, a number of Catholic saints prayed to Saint Joseph, invoked his help and protection and encouraged others to do so. In Introduction to the Devout Life St. Francis de Sales included Joseph along with the Virgin Mary as saints to be invoked during prayers following an examination of conscience.[14] Saint Teresa of Avila attributed her recovery of health to Joseph and recommended him as an advocate.[15] In her biography The Story of a Soul, Saint Thérèse of Lisieux stated that for a period of time, she prayed every day to "Saint Joseph, Father and Protector of Virgins..." and felt safe from danger as a result.[16] The three saints mentioned in this paragraph were all Doctors of the Church.

In 1870, Pope Pius IX proclaimed Saint Joseph "Patron of the Universal Church". Joseph is also the unofficially patron of fighting communism. In 1889, Pope Leo XIII issued the encyclical Quamquam pluries in which he urged Catholics to pray to Joseph as patron of the Church. This was in view of challenges facing the Church, such as the growing depravity of morals in the young generation. He prescribed that every October, a prayer to Saint Joseph be added to the Rosary, with attached indulgences.

Modern development[edit]

With the growth of Mariology, the theological study of Joseph also began to grow to discuss his role in the Economy of Salvation. Three centers for Josephology were formed in the 1950s, the first in Valladolid Spain, the second at Saint Joseph's Oratory in Montreal, and the third in the theologate of Viterbo, Italy.[17]

During the centenary of Quamquam pluries in 1989, Pope John Paul II delivered the Apostolic exhortation Redemptoris custos ("Guardian of the Redeemer"). This exhortation is part of the "redemption documents" issued by the pope, and refers to the Marian encyclical Redemptoris Mater.[18] It discusses the importance of Saint Joseph in the Holy Family, and presents the pope's view of Saint Joseph's role in the plan of redemption.[19] John Paul II positions Saint Joseph as breaking the old vice of paternal familial domination, and suggests him as the model of a loving father.[20][21]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Discovering Saint Joseph by Andrew Doze 1991 ISBN 0-85439-383-8
  • Josephology and its advancement since the time of Pius IX by Jean Edward Furey, 1961 St. Bonaventure University Press

References[edit]

  1. ^ For an analysis of the Josephology of Aquinas see: A Thomistic Josephology by James J Davis 1967, University of Montreal, ASIN B0007K3PL4
  2. ^ P. de Letter, "The Theology of Saint Joseph", The Clergy Monthly, March 1955, Online at JSTOR
  3. ^ Sunday Catholic Magazine October 4, 2009
  4. ^ Jerome Contra Patres
  5. ^ The liturgy and time by Irénée Henri Dalmais, Aimé Georges Martimort, Pierre Jounel 1985 ISBN 0-8146-1366-7 page 143
  6. ^ Holy people of the world: a cross-cultural encyclopedia, Volume 3 by Phyllis G. Jestice 2004 ISBN 1-57607-355-6 page 446
  7. ^ Bernard of Clairvaux and the shape of monastic thought by M. B. Pranger 1997 ISBN 90-04-10055-5 page 244
  8. ^ The childhood of Christ by Thomas Aquinas, Roland Potter, 2006 ISBN 0-521-02960-0 pages 110-120
  9. ^ Aquinas on doctrine by Thomas Gerard Weinandy, John Yocum 2004 ISBN 0-567-08411-6 page 248
  10. ^ The liturgy and time by Irénée Henri Dalmais, Aimé Georges Martimort, Pierre Jounel 1985 ISBN 0-8146-1366-7 page 143
  11. ^ Medieval mothering by John Carmi Parsons, Bonnie Wheeler 1999 ISBN 0-8153-3665-9 page 107
  12. ^ The Roman Forum by David Watkin 2009 ISBN 0-674-03341-8 page 128
  13. ^ Ann Ball, 2003, Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X page 520
  14. ^ Introduction to the Devout Life by St. Francis de Sales ISBN 0-7661-0074-X Kessinger Press 1942 page 297
  15. ^ The interior castle by Saint Teresa of Avila, Paulist Press 1979, ISBN 0-8091-2254-5 page 2
  16. ^ The Story of a Soul by Therese De Lisieux Bibliolife 2008 0554261588 page 94
  17. ^ P. de Letter, "The Theology of Saint Joseph", The Clergy Monthly, March 1955, Online at JSTOR
  18. ^ Foundations of the Christian way of life by Jacob Prasad 2001 ISBN 88-7653-146-7 page 404
  19. ^ Vatican website: Redemptoris Custos
  20. ^ Cradle of redeeming love: the theology of the Christmas mystery by John Saward 2002 ISBN 0-89870-886-9 page 230
  21. ^ Divine likeness: toward a Trinitarian anthropology of the family by Marc Ouellet ISBN 0-8028-2833-7 page 102