Josiah Henson in 1877
June 15, 1789|
Charles County, Maryland, United States
|Died||May 5, 1883
Dresden, Ontario, Canada
|Other names||Uncle Tom|
|Occupation||author, abolitionist, minister, colonizer, soldier, army officer|
Josiah Henson (June 15, 1789 – May 5, 1883) was an author, abolitionist, and minister. Born into slavery, in Port Tobacco, Charles County, Maryland, he escaped to Upper Canada (now Ontario) in 1830, and founded a settlement and laborer's school for other fugitive slaves at Dawn, near Dresden, in Kent County, Upper Canada, of British Canada. Henson's autobiography, The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself (1849), is believed to have inspired the title character of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). Following the success of Stowe's novel, Henson issued an expanded version of his memoir in 1858, Truth Stranger Than Fiction. Father Henson's Story of His Own Life (published Boston: John P. Jewett & Company, 1858). Interest in his life continued, and nearly two decades later, his life story was updated and published as Uncle Tom's Story of His Life: An Autobiography of the Rev. Josiah Henson (1876).
- 1 Early life and slavery
- 2 Free life in British Canada
- 3 Slavery policy in Canada
- 4 Later life
- 5 Death
- 6 Works
- 7 Miscellaneous
- 8 Historic sites
- 9 Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Early life and slavery
Josiah Henson was born on a farm near Port Tobacco, Charles County, Maryland. When he was a boy, his father was punished for standing up to a slave owner, for which he received one hundred lashes. In addition, his right ear was nailed to the whipping post and then cut off. His father was later sold to someone in Alabama. Following his family's master's death, young Josiah was separated from his mother, brothers, and sisters. His mother pleaded with her new owner, Isaac Riley, and Riley agreed to buy back Henson so she could at least have her youngest child with her, on condition he would work in the fields. Riley would not regret his decision, for Henson rose in his owners' esteem, and was eventually entrusted as the supervisor of his master's farm, located in Montgomery County, Maryland (in what is now North Bethesda). In 1825, Mr. Riley fell onto economic hardship and was sued by a brother in law. Desperate, he begged Henson, with tears in his eyes, to promise to help him. Duty bound, Henson agreed. Mr. Riley then told him that he needed to take his eighteen slaves, to his brother, in Kentucky, by foot. They arrived in Daviess County, Kentucky, in the middle of April 1825 at the plantation of Mr. Amos Riley. In September 1828, Henson returned to Maryland in an attempt to buy his freedom from Issac Riley. He tried to buy his freedom by giving his master $350, which he had saved up, and a note promising a further $100. Originally, Henson only needed to pay the extra $100 by note. Mr. Riley however, added an extra zero to the paper and changed the fee to $1000. Cheated of his money, Henson returned to Kentucky and then escaped to Kent County, Upper Canada, in 1830, after learning he might be sold again.
Free life in British Canada
Josiah Henson's settlement offered former slaves, who had escaped from the U.S., a chance to start a new life in Upper Canada, free from the brutalities of American slavery. He founded a settlement and laborer's school for other fugitive slaves at Dawn, British Upper Canada. Henson crossed into Upper Canada via the Niagara River with his wife Nancy and their four children, never to return to the United States.
Slavery policy in Canada
Upper Canada had become a refuge for slaves from the United States after 1793, when Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe passed "An Act to prevent further introduction of Slaves, and to limit the Term of Contracts for Servitude within this Province". The legislation did not immediately end slavery in the colony, but it did prevent the importation of slaves, meaning that any U.S. slave who set foot in what would eventually become Ontario was free. By the time Henson arrived, others had already made Upper Canada home, including Black Loyalists, from the American Revolution, and refugees from the War of 1812. In 1833, slavery was outlawed, in the British Empire. At this time, the Canadians were still a part of colonial British Canada.
Josiah Henson first worked farms near Fort Erie, then Waterloo, moving with friends to Colchester, by 1834, to set up a Black settlement, on rented land. Through contacts and financial assistance there, he was able to purchase 200 acres (0.81 km2) in Dawn Township, in next-door Kent County, to realize his vision of a self-sufficient community. The Dawn Settlement eventually prospered, reaching a population of 500 at its height, and exporting black walnut lumber to the United States and Britain. Henson purchased an additional 200 acres (0.81 km2) next to the Settlement, where his family lived. Henson also became an active Methodist preacher, and spoke as an abolitionist on routes between Tennessee and Ontario. He also served in the Canadian Army, as a military officer, having led a Black militia unit, in the Canadian Rebellion of 1837. Though many residents of the Dawn Settlement returned to the United States after slavery was abolished there, Henson and his wife continued to live in Dawn for the rest of their lives.
Josiah Henson died, at the age of 93, in Dresden, Ontario, on May 5, 1883.
The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself (1849)
Truth Stranger Than Fiction. Father Henson's Story of His Own Life (1858)
Uncle Tom's Story of His Life: An Autobiography of the Rev. Josiah Henson (1876)
Josiah Henson is the first black man to be featured on a Canadian stamp. He was also recognized by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada in 1999 as a National Historic Person. A federal plaque to him is located in the Henson family cemetery, next to Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site.
The Henson Cabin—Maryland
The actual cabin in which Josiah Henson and other slaves were housed no longer exists. The Riley family house, however, remains and is currently in a residential development in Rockville, Montgomery County, Maryland. After having remained in the hands of private owners for nearly two centuries, on January 6, 2006, the Montgomery Planning Board agreed to purchase the property and the acre of land on which it stands for $1,000,000. The house was opened to the public for one weekend in 2006. As of March 2009, the site has received an additional $50,000 from the Maryland state Board of Public Works for the planning and design phase of a multiyear restoration project. An additional $100,000 may come from the Federal government that would go towards restoration and planning. The site was planned to be opened permanently to the public in 2012, until then there were guided tours four times a year.
Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site
Located near Dresden, Ontario, in Canada, Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site includes the cabin that was home to Josiah Henson during much of his time in the area, from 1841 until his death in 1883. The five-acre complex includes Henson's cabin, an interpretive centre about Henson and the Dawn settlement, an exhibit gallery about the Underground Railroad, outbuildings, a 19th-century historic house, a cemetery and a gift shop.
Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin
- See National Underground Railroad to History's "Resistance to Slavery in Maryland," p. 129f.; http://www.nps.gov/subjects/ugrr/discover_history/upload/ResistanceMDRpt.pdf
- "Father Henson's Story of His Own Life". Retrieved February 8, 2008.
- The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself
- For an explanation of the legal meaning of this term, see Joseph Lee Jones et ux v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., 392 U.S. 409 (1968).
- Shin, Annys (October 3, 2010). "After buying historic home, Md. officials find it wasn't really Uncle Tom's Cabin". The Washington Post.
- Lenhart, Jennifer (June 15, 2006). "'Uncle Tom's Cabin' Will Open to Visitors". The Washington Post. p. DZ06.
- "Planning Board Approves Purchase of Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site" (PDF) (Press release). Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission, Montgomery County Planning Board. January 5, 2006.
- Lenhart, Jennifer (June 8, 2006). "Public to Glimpse 'Uncle Tom's Cabin'". The Washington Post. p. GZ03.
- Lenhart, Jennifer (June 25, 2006). "'Where We Were and Where We Have to Go'". The Washington Post. p. C06.
- Bradford Pearson, "Uncle Tom's Cabin could get government funds", The Olney Gazette, March 4, 2009
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Josiah Henson.|
|Wikisource has the text of a 1900 Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography article about Josiah Henson.|
- Uncle Tom's Story of His Life. An Autobiography of the Rev. Josiah Henson (Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe's "Uncle Tom"). From 1789 to 1876. With a Preface by Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, and an Introductory Note by George Sturge London: Christian Age Office, 1876.
- The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself. Boston: A. D. Phelps, 1849.
- Truth Stranger Than Fiction. Father Henson's Story of His Own Life. Boston: John P. Jewett, 1858.
- Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
- Josiah Henson commemorative stamp
- Digital History: Josiah Henson
- Josiah Henson
- Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site, near Dresden, Ontario
- National Historic Person plaque, and cemetery photo near Dresden, Ontario
- Henson, Josiah (1789-1883).The life of Josiah Henson, formerly a slave. London: Charles Gilpin; Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black; Dublin: James Bernard Gilpin, 1852. This freely downloadable PDF was accessed February 15, 2014.
- The Life of Josiah Henson From the Collections at the Library of Congress