Josvainiai is a small town in Kėdainiai district, central Lithuania. It is located on the Šušvė River 10 km southwest from Kėdainiai. In the town there is a Catholic church, secondary school, post office and public library.
Jews first settled in Josvainiai in the 17th Century, by 1897, 534 Jews lived in the town, constituting 40% of the total population. There was a synagogue and a Jewish school. Most Jews were expelled during World War I. During their absence, a large part of the town burned down. After the War, some returned. Before the Holocaust, the Jewish population was 270, about 70 families. They lived around the market place and the nearby streets. 282 Jews were murdered in a mass execution: 86 men, 110 women, and 86 children.