Journal of Clinical Investigation
Abbreviated title (ISO 4)
|J. Clin. Invest.|
|Edited by||Howard A. Rockman|
American Society for Clinical Investigation (United States)
|Frequency||Monthly; articles published weekly online|
Evaluation and peer review of research
The JCI receives submissions from authors worldwide. Unlike at most commercial journals, an Editorial Board made up of scientists actively engaged in scientific discovery rigorously evaluates each submitted article for scientific merit to determine its suitability for the JCI. Submitted manuscripts are sent out for external peer review if the board member with specific expertise in the subject area handling the manuscript believes it represents a substantial conceptual advance and is appropriate for the broad readership of the JCI. The JCI strives for timely and thoughtful decisions on manuscripts that incorporate the recommendations from peer review and the discussion at a weekly Editorial Board meeting.
Research articles focus on the mechanisms of disease, with an emphasis on basic research, early-stage clinical studies in humans, and new research tools and techniques. The JCI also publishes scientific reviews in edited series or as stand-alone articles, commentaries on research, editorials, and feature items. Multimedia content on the journal's website provides in-depth perspectives on article content and other information of interest to JCI readers. A companion to the journal, JCI This Month, launched in January 2013, summarizes and highlights the content of each month's issue.
Current Editorial Board
The Editorial Board comprises scientists associated with an academic medical center, which changes every five years, allowing for new editorial perspectives and areas of expertise. Since 2012, the journal has been headed by Editor in Chief Dr. Howard A. Rockman and an Editorial Board of peer scientists at Duke University Medical Center, the University of North Carolina, Duke-NUS, and the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute.
The top-cited JCI articles as of July 2015, according to Scopus
|Title||Year published||No. of citations|
|"THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ULTRACENTRIFUGALLY SEPARATED LIPOPROTEINS IN HUMAN SERUM". Journal of Clinical Investigation 34: 1345–1353. doi:10.1172/JCI103182.||1955||4627|
|"Culture of Human Endothelial Cells Derived from Umbilical Veins. IDENTIFICATION BY MORPHOLOGIC AND IMMUNOLOGIC CRITERIA". Journal of Clinical Investigation 52: 2745–2756. doi:10.1172/JCI107470.||1973||4551|
|"Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue". Journal of Clinical Investigation 112: 1796–1808. doi:10.1172/JCI19246.||2003||3875|
|"Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance". Journal of Clinical Investigation 112: 1821–1830. doi:10.1172/JCI19451.||2003||2837|
|"An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels.". Journal of Clinical Investigation 86: 1343–1346. doi:10.1172/JCI114844.||1990||2736|
|"Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action". Journal of Clinical Investigation 108: 1167–1174. doi:10.1172/JCI13505.||2001||2327|
|"Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance.". Journal of Clinical Investigation 95: 2409–2415. doi:10.1172/JCI117936.||1995||2099|
|"Angiotensin II-mediated hypertension in the rat increases vascular superoxide production via membrane NADH/NADPH oxidase activation. Contribution to alterations of vasomotor tone.". Journal of Clinical Investigation 97: 1916–1923. doi:10.1172/JCI118623.||1996||1802|
|"Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome". Journal of Clinical Investigation 114: 1752–1761. doi:10.1172/JCI200421625.||2004||1800|
|"Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases and matrix degrading activity in vulnerable regions of human atherosclerotic plaques.". Journal of Clinical Investigation 94: 2493–2503. doi:10.1172/JCI117619.||1994||1768|
|"Macrophages that have ingested apoptotic cells in vitro inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involving TGF-beta, PGE2, and PAF.". Journal of Clinical Investigation 101: 890–898. doi:10.1172/JCI1112.||1998||1766|
The JCI is a nonprofit publication of the ASCI, with a publishing office in Ann Arbor, Michigan. All JCI research articles are freely available online upon publication. Revenue derives from submission fees, which support maintenance of an Editorial Board; article processing charges to authors for published articles; and subscription fees, which apply in the case of most non-research articles.
The JCI has made its research articles freely available to all readers since the journal established its online version in 1996. Although authors of research articles must transfer copyright to the journal prior to publication, the JCI allows liberal noncommercial reuse of article information. Authors may deposit their published articles in academic and other repositories. Authors may use and distribute their articles and the information contained therein following the fair-use doctrine of U.S. copyright law. For those research articles authored by employees of the U.S. government, no copyright applies, and these articles are considered to be in the public domain.
In 1996, when the journal established its online version, Ajit Varki (then Editor) wrote, "The vexing issue of the day is how to appropriately charge users for this electronic access. The nonprofit nature of the JCI allows consideration of a truly novel solution — not to charge anyone at all! It remains to be seen whether this will be fiscally feasible." A 2003 JCI editorial provides an update on the fiscal landscape: "The JCI has been able to turn technology to its advantage: in 1999, it became a self-published journal, and for several years it has used web-based technology to conduct peer review and other aspects of its business, resulting in greater efficiency at lower cost. Most importantly, it has been shifting from a reliance on print-subscription revenue to author charges."
The JCI was an early participant in PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. government repository of open-access articles that began service in 2000. The JCI began participation in PMC in 2003 with the deposit of the JCI's entire publication history in scanned form where no native digital material existed and in full digital form otherwise (1996 and after). All JCI content was available in PMC without any delay until 2009, when JCI instituted a calendar-year embargo at PMC on most non-research articles. In 2014, the JCI instituted a 3-month embargo at PMC on all research articles; however, all research articles remain freely available at the time of publication at the JCI's own website.
The JCI was established by the ASCI in 1924 to serve as the major U.S. venue for research on disease and clinical medicine. A publication of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the journal initially received financial backing from the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now known as Rockefeller University). The journal then turned to a model based on individual and university clinic subscriptions. At a time of financial struggles during the Great Depression, the Chemical Foundation ran the JCI (1931–1940). Page charges were instituted in 1965 to offset publication costs. Rockefeller University Press published the journal from 1967 until 1999. Since that time, the ASCI has self-published the JCI. In 1996, when the JCI launched its online version, it became one of the first major scientific journals to make its content available barrier-free online.
Several articles focus on the history of the journal:
- Brainard, ER (1959). J Clin Invest 38 (10 pt 1–2): 1865–1872. Missing or empty
- Bondy, PK (1959). "History of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1924–1959. I. Scientific contents". J Clin Invest 38 (10 pt 1–2): 1873–1877. doi:10.1172/JCI103963.
- Savla, U (2004). "Reflecting on 80 years of excellence". J Clin Invest 114 (8): 1006–1016. doi:10.1172/JCI23290.
- Howell, JD (2009). "A history of the American Society for Clinical Investigation". J Clin Invest 119 (4): 682–697. doi:10.1172/JCI39091.
Editors of the Journal of Clinical Investigation
|G. Canby Robinson||1924–1927||Vanderbilt University|
|J. Harold Austin||1928–1934||University of Pennsylvania|
|Randolph West||1935–1940||Presbyterian Hospital (New York)|
|James L. Gamble||1941–1946||Harvard University|
|Eugene B. Ferris||1947–1951||Cincinnati General Hospital|
|Stanley E. Bradley||1952–1956||Columbia University|
|Philip K. Bondy||1957–1961||Yale University|
|Arnold S. Relman||1962–1966||Harvard University|
|Paul A. Marks||1967–1970||Columbia University|
|DeWitt S. Goodman||1971–1972||Columbia University|
|Jean D. Wilson||1972–1977||University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center|
|Philip W. Majerus||1977–1981||Washington University|
|Stuart Kornfeld||1981–1982||Washington University|
|Thomas P. Stossel||1982–1985||Harvard University|
|Joseph Avruch||1986–1987||Harvard University|
|Bruce F. Scharschmidt||1987–1992||University of California–San Francisco|
|Ajit P. Varki||1992–1996||University of California–San Diego|
|Paul A. Insel||1996–1997||University of California–San Diego|
|Martin F. Kagnoff||1996–1997||University of California–San Diego|
|Stephen J. Weiss||1997–2002||University of Michigan|
|Andrew R. Marks||2002–2007||Columbia University|
|Laurence A. Turka||2007–2012||University of Pennsylvania|
|Howard A. Rockman||2012–present||Duke University|
- Varki, A (1996). "The times they are still a'changing: keeping up with the times". J Clin Invest 97 (1): 1–1. doi:10.1172/JCI118375.
- Hawley, JB (2003). "The JCIs commitment to excellence — and free access". J Clin Invest 112 (7): 968–969. doi:10.1172/JCI20030.
- Howell, JD (2009). "A history of the American Society for Clinical Investigation". J Clin Invest 119 (4): 694. doi:10.1172/JCI39091.