Journal of Clinical Investigation

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Journal of Clinical Investigation  
Journal of Clinical Investigation sample cover image (August 2015).jpg
Abbreviated title (ISO 4)
J. Clin. Invest.
Discipline Biomedicine
Language English
Edited by Howard A. Rockman
Publication details
Publication history
Frequency Monthly; articles published weekly online
ISSN 0021-9738 (print)
1558-8238 (web)
LCCN 27010044
OCLC no. 01445593

The Journal of Clinical Investigation (JCI) is a peer-reviewed biomedical research journal published by the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI).

Evaluation and peer review of research[edit]

The JCI receives submissions from authors worldwide. Unlike at most commercial journals, an Editorial Board made up of scientists actively engaged in scientific discovery rigorously evaluates each submitted article for scientific merit to determine its suitability for the JCI. Submitted manuscripts are sent out for external peer review if the board member with specific expertise in the subject area handling the manuscript believes it represents a substantial conceptual advance and is appropriate for the broad readership of the JCI. The JCI strives for timely and thoughtful decisions on manuscripts that incorporate the recommendations from peer review and the discussion at a weekly Editorial Board meeting.


Research articles focus on the mechanisms of disease, with an emphasis on basic research, early-stage clinical studies in humans, and new research tools and techniques. The JCI also publishes scientific reviews in edited series or as stand-alone articles, commentaries on research, editorials, and feature items. Multimedia content on the journal's website provides in-depth perspectives on article content and other information of interest to JCI readers. A companion to the journal, JCI This Month, launched in January 2013, summarizes and highlights the content of each month's issue.

Current Editorial Board[edit]

The Editorial Board comprises scientists associated with an academic medical center, which changes every five years, allowing for new editorial perspectives and areas of expertise. Since 2012, the journal has been headed by Editor in Chief Dr. Howard A. Rockman and an Editorial Board of peer scientists at Duke University Medical Center, the University of North Carolina, Duke-NUS, and the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute.

Influential research[edit]

The top-cited JCI articles as of July 2015, according to Scopus

Title Year published No. of citations
"Culture of Human Endothelial Cells Derived from Umbilical Veins. IDENTIFICATION BY MORPHOLOGIC AND IMMUNOLOGIC CRITERIA". Journal of Clinical Investigation 52: 2745–2756. doi:10.1172/JCI107470.  1973 4551
"Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue". Journal of Clinical Investigation 112: 1796–1808. doi:10.1172/JCI19246.  2003 3875
"Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance". Journal of Clinical Investigation 112: 1821–1830. doi:10.1172/JCI19451.  2003 2837
"An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels.". Journal of Clinical Investigation 86: 1343–1346. doi:10.1172/JCI114844.  1990 2736
"Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action". Journal of Clinical Investigation 108: 1167–1174. doi:10.1172/JCI13505.  2001 2327
"Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance.". Journal of Clinical Investigation 95: 2409–2415. doi:10.1172/JCI117936.  1995 2099
"Angiotensin II-mediated hypertension in the rat increases vascular superoxide production via membrane NADH/NADPH oxidase activation. Contribution to alterations of vasomotor tone.". Journal of Clinical Investigation 97: 1916–1923. doi:10.1172/JCI118623.  1996 1802
"Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome". Journal of Clinical Investigation 114: 1752–1761. doi:10.1172/JCI200421625.  2004 1800
"Increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases and matrix degrading activity in vulnerable regions of human atherosclerotic plaques.". Journal of Clinical Investigation 94: 2493–2503. doi:10.1172/JCI117619.  1994 1768
"Macrophages that have ingested apoptotic cells in vitro inhibit proinflammatory cytokine production through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms involving TGF-beta, PGE2, and PAF.". Journal of Clinical Investigation 101: 890–898. doi:10.1172/JCI1112.  1998 1766

Business model[edit]

The JCI is a nonprofit publication of the ASCI, with a publishing office in Ann Arbor, Michigan. All JCI research articles are freely available online upon publication. Revenue derives from submission fees, which support maintenance of an Editorial Board; article processing charges to authors for published articles; and subscription fees, which apply in the case of most non-research articles.

Open access[edit]

The JCI has made its research articles freely available to all readers since the journal established its online version in 1996. Although authors of research articles must transfer copyright to the journal prior to publication, the JCI allows liberal noncommercial reuse of article information. Authors may deposit their published articles in academic and other repositories. Authors may use and distribute their articles and the information contained therein following the fair-use doctrine of U.S. copyright law. For those research articles authored by employees of the U.S. government, no copyright applies, and these articles are considered to be in the public domain.

In 1996, when the journal established its online version, Ajit Varki (then Editor) wrote, "The vexing issue of the day is how to appropriately charge users for this electronic access. The nonprofit nature of the JCI allows consideration of a truly novel solution — not to charge anyone at all! It remains to be seen whether this will be fiscally feasible."[1] A 2003 JCI editorial provides an update on the fiscal landscape: "The JCI has been able to turn technology to its advantage: in 1999, it became a self-published journal, and for several years it has used web-based technology to conduct peer review and other aspects of its business, resulting in greater efficiency at lower cost. Most importantly, it has been shifting from a reliance on print-subscription revenue to author charges."[2]

The JCI was an early participant in PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. government repository of open-access articles that began service in 2000. The JCI began participation in PMC in 2003 with the deposit of the JCI's entire publication history in scanned form where no native digital material existed and in full digital form otherwise (1996 and after). All JCI content was available in PMC without any delay until 2009, when JCI instituted a calendar-year embargo at PMC on most non-research articles. In 2014, the JCI instituted a 3-month embargo at PMC on all research articles; however, all research articles remain freely available at the time of publication at the JCI's own website.


The JCI was established by the ASCI in 1924 to serve as the major U.S. venue for research on disease and clinical medicine. A publication of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the journal initially received financial backing from the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now known as Rockefeller University). The journal then turned to a model based on individual and university clinic subscriptions. At a time of financial struggles during the Great Depression, the Chemical Foundation ran the JCI (1931–1940). Page charges were instituted in 1965 to offset publication costs. Rockefeller University Press published the journal from 1967 until 1999. Since that time, the ASCI has self-published the JCI. In 1996, when the JCI launched its online version, it became one of the first major scientific journals to make its content available barrier-free online.[3]

Several articles focus on the history of the journal:

  • Brainard, ER (1959). J Clin Invest 38 (10 pt 1–2): 1865–1872.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Bondy, PK (1959). "History of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, 1924–1959. I. Scientific contents". J Clin Invest 38 (10 pt 1–2): 1873–1877. doi:10.1172/JCI103963. 
  • Savla, U (2004). "Reflecting on 80 years of excellence". J Clin Invest 114 (8): 1006–1016. doi:10.1172/JCI23290. 
  • Howell, JD (2009). "A history of the American Society for Clinical Investigation". J Clin Invest 119 (4): 682–697. doi:10.1172/JCI39091. 

Editors of the Journal of Clinical Investigation

Name Tenure Affiliation
G. Canby Robinson 1924–1927 Vanderbilt University
J. Harold Austin 1928–1934 University of Pennsylvania
Randolph West 1935–1940 Presbyterian Hospital (New York)
James L. Gamble 1941–1946 Harvard University
Eugene B. Ferris 1947–1951 Cincinnati General Hospital
Stanley E. Bradley 1952–1956 Columbia University
Philip K. Bondy 1957–1961 Yale University
Arnold S. Relman 1962–1966 Harvard University
Paul A. Marks 1967–1970 Columbia University
DeWitt S. Goodman 1971–1972 Columbia University
Jean D. Wilson 1972–1977 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Philip W. Majerus 1977–1981 Washington University
Stuart Kornfeld 1981–1982 Washington University
Thomas P. Stossel 1982–1985 Harvard University
Joseph Avruch 1986–1987 Harvard University
Bruce F. Scharschmidt 1987–1992 University of California–San Francisco
Ajit P. Varki 1992–1996 University of California–San Diego
Paul A. Insel 1996–1997 University of California–San Diego
Martin F. Kagnoff 1996–1997 University of California–San Diego
Stephen J. Weiss 1997–2002 University of Michigan
Andrew R. Marks 2002–2007 Columbia University
Laurence A. Turka 2007–2012 University of Pennsylvania
Howard A. Rockman 2012–present Duke University


  1. ^ Varki, A (1996). "The times they are still a'changing: keeping up with the times". J Clin Invest 97 (1): 1–1. doi:10.1172/JCI118375. 
  2. ^ Hawley, JB (2003). "The JCIs commitment to excellence — and free access". J Clin Invest 112 (7): 968–969. doi:10.1172/JCI20030. 
  3. ^ Howell, JD (2009). "A history of the American Society for Clinical Investigation". J Clin Invest 119 (4): 694. doi:10.1172/JCI39091. 

External links[edit]